Fudan University
复旦大学 (Chinese)
Former names
  • Fudan Public School (1905)
  • Fudan College
  • Private Fudan University (1917–1941)
  • National Fudan University (1941–1949)
Motto in English
Rich in knowledge and tenacious of purposes, inquiring with earnestness and reflecting with self-practice[2]
Established1905; 119 years ago (1905)
FounderMa Xiangbo
PresidentJin Li
Party SecretaryQiu Xin (裘新)
Academic staff
Administrative staff
220 Handan Rd., Yangpu District, Shanghai
Campus604 acres (244 ha)
AffiliationsC9, Universitas 21, AEARU, APRU, BRICS Universities League, Council on Business & Society, ASRMU, Washington University in St. Louis McDonnell International Scholars Academy[3]
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese复旦大学
Traditional Chinese復旦大學

Fudan University (复旦大学) is a public university in Shanghai, China. The university is affiliated with the Ministry of Education and is co-funded by the ministry and Shanghai municipal government. The university is part of Project 211, Project 985, and the Double First Class University Plan.

Fudan has five undergraduate colleges – Zhide (志德), Tengfei (腾飞), Keqing (克卿), Renzhong (任重), and Xide (希德). The university has four campuses in Shanghai – Handan (邯郸), Fenglin (枫林), Zhangjiang (张江), and Jiangwan (江湾) – which share the same central administration. It also has 17 affiliated hospitals. The university is a member of the C9 League.


Fudan University, then romanized as Fuh Tan, was founded as Fudan Public School in 1905, by Ma Xiangbo, SJ, who had resigned from Aurora University. The two Chinese characters Fu (, means "again") and Dan (, means "morning", "light" ), meaning both "(heavenly light shines) day after day" and "Aurora Revived", were chosen by Ma on the recommendation of Yu You-jen, from the Confucian Classic Shangshu Dazhuan (Chinese: 尙書大傳): "Itinerant as the twilight, sun glows and moon luminesces" (Chinese: 日月光華,旦復旦兮). The university motto "Scientia et studium, quaestio et cogitatio" comes from Analects Book 19.6 (Chinese: 博學而篤志,切問而近思), which means "rich in knowledge and tenacious of purposes, inquiring with earnestness and reflecting with self-practice".

In 1911, during the Xinhai Revolution, the college was occupied as headquarters of the Guangfu Army and closed down for almost one year.[4]

In 1917, Fudan Public School became a private university named the Private Fudan University, and also had a middle school and university-preparatory school. In 1929, Fudan reorganized its departments, expanding to include departments of journalism, municipals[clarification needed], law, and education.[4]

After the Japanese invasion of China in 1937, Fudan moved with the Kuomintang government to the inland city of Chongqing, the wartime Chinese capital. On December 25, 1941, the First Meeting of Fifth Conference of the Highest Executive Authority of the National Government of the Republic of China voted to change Fudan University (Chongqing) to a public university with Wu Nanxuan as its president. Fudan University then became National Fudan University. After the end of World War II, it moved back to Shanghai.[citation needed]

1949 - present

After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Fudan lost its "National" appellation and became Fudan University to reflect the fact that all universities under the new socialist state would be public. Fudan was the first university to be reorganized by the new government in 1952 and modeled on Soviet education. The original departments were changed, with arts and sciences departments from at least ten other universities in eastern China being added.[citation needed] Parts of Aurora University merged into Fudan in 1952.

In the late 1970s, after the Cultural Revolution, the university was converted to a modern, comprehensive[clarification needed] university.[citation needed]

Fudan University and Shanghai Medical University merged in 2000.[5]


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Xianghui Auditorium
Guanghua Twin Towers


Fudan University comprises 17 full-time schools, 69 departments, 73 bachelor's degree programs, 22 disciplines and 134 sub-disciplines authorized to confer PhD degrees, 201 master's degree programs, 6 professional degree programs, 7 key social science research centers of Ministry of Education P.R.C, 9 national basic science research and training institutes and 25 post-doctoral research stations. It has 40 national key disciplines granted by the Ministry of Education, nationally third. At present, it has 77 research institutes, 112 cross-disciplinary research institutes, and 5 national key laboratories. See a list of schools and departments at Fudan.

Fudan University enrolls over 45,000, including full-time students and students in continuing education and online education. Additionally, there are approximately 7,000 international students, ranking sixth nationally.[6]

Fudan University has a high-level research faculty of over 2,600 full-time teachers and researchers, including 1,350 professors and associate professors, 47 academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, nearly 660 doctoral supervisors, 26 special professors and 2 lecture professors of "Cheungkong Scholars Program", 3 distinguished professors and 10 special professors of Fudan University, 6 principal scientists of Project 973 and 25 "Young Experts with Prominent Contributions to the Country".

Fudan University has 17 affiliated hospitals, such as Zhongshan Hospital and Huashan Hospital, integrating medical service, medicine education, and research.

Fudan is a member of Universitas 21, an international consortium of research-driven universities.

The Guanghua Twin Towers (Chinese: 光华楼) at the center of the Handan campus reach 140.5 meters, reportedly the highest buildings ever constructed in a university campus in Asia, and 2nd around the world.

The High School Affiliated to Fudan University, located on the Handan campus, is one of the most prestigious high schools in China.[citation needed]


Fudan University Library was formally established in 1922, previously known as the Reading Room of Wu Wu (1918). Today it comprises the Liberal Arts Library, the Science Library and the Medical Library, with a total floor of 29,000 square meters.

By the end of 2004, the Library's collection was composed of more than 4.4588 million copies and articles, including books, journals, bound volumes of newspapers, and audio-visual recordings. Of all these 400,000 are thread-bound books of Chinese classics (including 7,000 rare copies), 100,000 are books published during the reign of the Republic of China, and 1.392 million are foreign books. Additionally, there are 32,000 Chinese and foreign journals and periodicals. Every year 100,000 new books will be added to enlarge the collection. The library subscribes to around 7,000 printed journals.

The library has access to 24,000 full-text e-journals and over 150 CD and online databases. It has eight open stacks, two general reading rooms and 19 reading rooms with specialized functions, totaling 2,400 seats. The library is open for 112 hours weekly and serves more than 7,000 visiting readers daily.

The Fudan University Library is divided into the China Academic Humanities and Social Sciences Library (CAHSL), the National Foreign Textbook Center for East China (sponsored by the Ministry of Education), the Documentation and Information Center for Liberal Arts, and the Central Stacks for Foreign Books of Liberal Arts. Additionally, the library has the Shanghai Electronic Documents Searching Center for Graduates, the CD Searching Center shared by the universities in Northeast Shanghai, and the General Search Station for Updated Science and Technology Information Authorized by the Ministry of Education, the Search Station for Updated Science and Technology Information Authorized by the Shanghai Science and Technology Committee. The library edits and publishes two journals: China Index and Information Services of the Higher Education Institutions in Shanghai.

The library's integrated computer management system has been upgraded several times. In addition to general services, the Library provides services of international online information retrieval, various types of e-resources searching, interlibrary loans, document delivery service, online consultation, updated information search, user training, tape duplication, multimedia viewing, document duplication, and binding, etc. The courses of literature and information retrieval are designed for Library users of different levels.

Rankings and reputation

University rankings
Global – Overall
ARWU World[7]54 (2023)
QS World[8]31 (2022)
QS Employability[9]29 (2020)
THE World[10]44 (2024)
THE Reputation[11]39 (2022)
Regional – Overall
ARWU Asia[12]7 (2023)
QS Asia[13]6 (2021)
QS BRICS[14]3 (2019)
THE Emerging Economies[15]4 (2021)

General rankings

Fudan University is among the top 100 universities in the world, the top 10 in Asia and the top five in China according to some of the most-widely read university rankings in the world such as the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Rankings, and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.[16][17][18][19][20]

The joint THE-QS World University Rankings 2005 ranked Fudan University 3rd in China, 11th in Asia and 72nd in the world.[21] In 2015, the U.S. News & World Report ranked Fudan University 96th in the world, 8th in Asia and 3rd in China.[22] It ranked 3rd in the QS BRICS University Rankings (2019).[23] As of 2021, the QS World University Rankings 2022 ranked Fudan at 31st in the world and 3rd in China after (Tsinghua and Peking) and it was 6th in the independent regional QS Asian University Rankings (2021).[24] Further, Academic Ranking of World Universities (2023) placed it 54th globally and 7th in Asia.[25]

Fudan University is regarded as one of the most reputable Chinese universities by the Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings where it ranked 39th globally and 7th in Asia.[26] Fudan University graduates were ranked 33rd worldwide in the QS Graduate Employability Rankings 2022 and 51st worldwide in the THE's Global University Employability Ranking 2022.[27]

Subject/Area rankings

QS World University Rankings by Broad Subject Areas 2023:

Broad Subject Area Fudan's world rank
Social Sciences & Management 44
Natural Sciences 53
Arts and Humanities 80
Life Sciences & Medicine 85
Engineering & Technology 93

THE subject rankings 2023:

Subject Fudan's world rank
Engineering & Technology 51
Physical Sciences 25
Clinical, Pre-clinical & Health 45
Social Sciences 126-150
Life Sciences 42
Arts & Humanities 101-125

GRAS (ARWU subject rankings) 2022:

Subject (only subjects ranked among top50 are listed) Fudan's world rank
Biomedical Engineering 4
Nanoscience & Nanotechnology 12
Material Science & Engineering 26
Chemistry 28
Energy Science & Engineering 32
Environmental Science & Engineering 41
Statistics 41
Hospitality & Tourism Management 50

Research output rankings

Regarding research output in natural science and life science, the Nature Index Annual Table 2023 ranked Fudan the No.9 university in the Asia Pacific region, and 13th in the world among the global universities.[28] The 2023 CWTS Leiden Ranking ranked Fudan 13th in the world based on their publications for the time period 2018–2021.[29]


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Popularity and selectivity

Fudan University's undergraduate program is extremely selective. Fudan has been placed consistently among the three most selective universities (with Tsinghua University and Peking University) in China for the last twenty years.[30][31][32][33] Fudan is one of the four universities (together with Tsinghua University, Peking University, and Shanghai Jiao Tong University) in China whose undergraduate programs are the hardest for students to get in: less than 0.2% of National College Entrance Examination ("Gaokao") takers can make it. (As a comparison, the five most selective Ivy League schools in 2012 let in three times the percentage (0.6%) of SAT-takers.)[34]

Undergraduate program

Graduation souvenir T-shirt, Class of 2005. Students from each department (or school) design their own souvenir T-shirts when they graduate.

Fudan has reconstructed its course system to suit education goals. A course scheme of general education, specialized education and basic education in arts and sciences has been implemented. Encompassing a complete and comprehensive range of disciplines, the courses of general education enable students to receive education in diverse fields. All of the 70-plus undergraduate majors of Fudan have been put into seven general categories so that students can benefit on a broader scale from the systematic discipline training. According to the Education Scheme for Arts and Sciences, course modules are determined by discipline systems and course suits, and credits by course modules. In this sense, Fudan provides students with more options for their college studies. In contrast with the traditional syllabus, the new module has appropriately decreased the gross credits and class hours. Along with minor programs and extracurricular academic activities, it contributes greatly to the intellectual development of undergraduate students, exposing them to a wider range of knowledge.

Graduate program

The Graduate School of Fudan University was established on 6 November 1984 and the Graduate School of Shanghai Medical University on 25 January 1985. Both were among the first 22 graduate schools after China's universities officially resumed enrolling graduate students. With the merger of Shanghai Medical University and Fudan University in April 2000, the two graduate schools were joined to be a new Graduate School of Fudan University. Therefore, a comprehensive graduate education structure is formed with disciplines in humanities, law, sciences, engineering, medicine, and management.

International students

Starting from the 1950s, Fudan has enrolled international students – one of the first few institutions in China to do so. Since then, Fudan has accepted and trained over 10,000 foreign students from 100 countries and regions worldwide. The international student programs consist of degree programs and non-degree programs.[35]

Fudan University has an International Student's Dormitory at its Handan and Fenglin campuses.[36] These dormitories are reserved as living quarters for students from countries other than China studying in either degree or non-degree programs.


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Zibinyuan Building at Handan campus

Fudan has established a campus structure called "one-body-two-wings", where the body is Handan (邯鄲) campus and Jiangwan (江灣) campus, which are only 2 miles (3.2 km) apart, and the two wings are Fenglin (楓林) campus and Zhangjiang (张江, 張江) campus. All four campuses are in downtown Shanghai and share the same central administration.

Handan campus

Handan campus, the main campus of Fudan, is located in Yangpu District, Shanghai. It contains the majority of the schools and departments. Freshman undergraduates live on this campus. Handan campus consists of four sub-campuses, namely the headquarters campus, the south campus, the north campus, and the east campus.

Fenglin campus

Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, or Medical Center of Fudan University (former Shanghai Medical University) is at Fenglin campus, located in Xuhui District, Shanghai. In July 2014, the campus began a 2-year large-scale construction project. About 4000 students move out of the old campus for the construction and in July 2017 students came back to it.

Zhangjiang campus

Zhangjiang campus is located in Shanghai's Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Pudong District. It comprises the School of Microelectronics, the School of Computer science and technology, the School of Software, and the School of Pharmacy.

Jiangwan campus

Only 2 miles (3.2 km) apart from Handan campus, Jiangwan campus is a new campus of Fudan University. The School of Law has moved to Jiangwan, and other schools will follow, including the School of Life Science, the College of Foreign Language and Literature, and School of Social Development and Public Policy.

Student associations

There are four categories of student associations: Academic Societies, Practical Societies, Artistic Societies, and Physical Culture Societies. See also Student Associations at Fudan.[citation needed]

Notable alumni

Main article: List of Fudan University people

Since 1952, Fudan University has a total of 95 academicians alumni, second only to Peking University and Tsinghua University in China.[37] Fudan's notable alumni include Chen Yinke, Chen Wangdao, Chu Coching, Yan Fu, Yu Youren, Chen Zhili, and "China's Kissinger" Wang Huning.[38][39]


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Fudan is a member of the C9 League, Project 985, Project 211, and the Double First Class University identified by the Ministry of Education of China. It is also a member of Universitas 21, Washington University's McDonnell International Scholars Academy, and the Association of Pacific Rim Universities, BRICS Universities League, Association of East Asian Research Universities, and Council on Business & Society.

Fudan University is a member of the Consortium of Academic Stewards for The Scholar Ship. The university is also a member of China Center Austria and partner of the Austrian Business School SMBS.

In February 2008, Fudan University launched the Fudan University Education Development Foundation in New York. [40]

In 1995, Fudan established the Nordic Centre in Shanghai, a joint platform for research and education with 14 universities from Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. By 2012, the Nordic Centre Fudan has 27 member institutions in 5 Nordic countries.[41]

In 1996, Fudan School of Management started a joint Master of Management (later MBA) program with BI Norwegian Business School. The program, inaugurated by then Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland, is the longest continually operating international business school partnership in China.

In 2002, a joint venture was created between the Olin Business School (Washington University in St. Louis) and the School of Management at Fudan University. At the time, it was one of the first U.S.-Sino joint MBA programs in China. Eight years later, according to The Financial Times' 2010 rankings, the Washington University-Fudan University EMBA Program[42] was ranked as one of the top 20 international executive MBA programs worldwide. Also, in 2015, for the fifth consecutive year, it was hailed as the best program in the country.[43]

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In 2011, Fudan became part of the Tyndall Centre network, a research network centered on climate science and climate policy research. Fudan Tyndall Centre is funded with a 15-year commitment by the Chinese central government and the Shanghai City government. The UK launch of the Fudan Tyndall Centre alliance took place in Norwich in May 2011 when Professor Academician Yuliang Yang was awarded an honorary degree by the University of East Anglia[44]

In Germany, the Fudan University cooperates with the Goethe-University in Frankfurt/Main. Both cities are linked by a long-lasting partnership agreement.[45] The university also established partnerships with the Freie Universität Berlin, the University of Cologne, the University of Tübingen, the Hertie School[46] and the University of Konstanz.

Exchange programs

Fudan University has established exchange relationships with more than 200 universities and research institutions in about 30 countries and regions,[47] including all 10 campuses of the University of California, Harvard University, Yale University, University of Chicago, Columbia University, University of Rochester, Georgetown University, Oklahoma State University, Beloit College, Washington University in St. Louis, University of Toronto, Mount Allison University, University of British Columbia, University of Montreal, Queen's University, York University, University of Sydney, LUISS Guido Carli University, University of Adelaide, Rhodes University, K.U. Leuven, Bocconi University, Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli, Tokyo University, National University of Singapore, University of Salzburg, the University of Manchester, Durham University Business School, University of Edinburgh, the London School of Economics, King's College London, University of Mannheim, ESSEC Business School, University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, Hertie School, Sciences Po Paris and Sciences Po Lille, IE Business School, Trinity College Dublin, University College Dublin and the University of North Carolina and State University of New York systems.


In December 2019, Fudan University changed its constitution, removing the phrase "academic independence and freedom of thought" (學術獨立和思想自由) and including a "pledge to follow the Communist party's leadership" (學校堅持中國共產黨的領導), leading to protests among the students.[48][49] It also said that Fudan University had to "equip its teachers and employees" with "Xi Jinping Thought", leading to concerns about the diminishing academic freedom of Fudan.[50][51]

The Hungarian government made an agreement to open the first campus of Fudan University outside China in Budapest in 2024.[52] The expansion would cost 540 billion HUF, of which 450 billion would be paid by the Hungarian state from a Chinese loan. The construction would be mainly done by Chinese companies.[53] Education professionals and politicians denounced the investment, citing economics, higher education and national security concerns.[54]

See also


  1. ^ 复旦标志. Fudan University. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  2. ^ "Fudan Vision. Motto Observance and Sincere Uprightness". Fudan University. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  3. ^ "Home".
  4. ^ a b "Chinese Revolution | Summary, Key Figures, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  5. ^ "The top 10 universities in Asia for students looking to land a job, learn from faculty with PhDs, and enroll in small classes". insider.com. 17 November 2022.
  6. ^ Chiu, Christine (27 January 2021). "Top 100 Most Popular Universities for International Students in China". ChinaAdmission.com. China Admissions. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  7. ^ "ARWU World University Rankings 2023 – Academic Ranking of World Universities 2023 – Top 500 universities – Shanghai Ranking – 2023". www.shanghairanking.com. Retrieved 15 August 2023.
  8. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2022". 1 June 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  9. ^ "QS Graduate Employability Rankings 2020". Top Universities. 27 November 2020.
  10. ^ "World University Rankings". 27 September 2023. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  11. ^ "THE Reputation World University Rankings 2022". 16 November 2022. Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  12. ^ "ARWU World University Rankings 2023 – Academic Ranking of World Universities 2023 – Top 500 universities – Shanghai Ranking – 2023". www.shanghairanking.com. Retrieved 15 August 2023.
  13. ^ "QS University Rankings: Asia 2021". Retrieved 27 November 2020.
  14. ^ QS University Rankings 2019
  15. ^ "THE Emerging University Rankings 2021". 3 March 2021.
  16. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2021".
  17. ^ "World University Rankings 2021". Times Higher Education. 25 August 2020.
  18. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy.
  19. ^ "QS Asia World University Rankings". Top Universities. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  20. ^ "Asia University Rankings". Times Higher Education (THE). 18 May 2021. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  21. ^ "Times Higher Education: WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS 2005". www.timeshighereducation.co.uk. 7 October 2005. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008.
  22. ^ "Top Universities in China | US News Best Global Universities". 5 March 2016. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
  23. ^ "QS University Rankings: BRICS 2019". Top Universities. 12 July 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  24. ^ "QS University Rankings 2021". Top Universities. 17 June 2020. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  25. ^ "ShanghaiRanking's Academic Ranking of World Universities". www.shanghairanking.com. Retrieved 15 August 2023.
  26. ^ "World Reputation Rankings". Times Higher Education (THE). 16 November 2022. Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  27. ^ "Graduate Employability Rankings 2017". Top Universities. Archived from the original on 2 October 2017.
  28. ^ "2023 tables: Institutions - academic | Annual tables | Nature Index". www.natureindex.com. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
  29. ^ Studies (CWTS), Centre for Science and Technology. "CWTS Leiden Ranking". CWTS Leiden Ranking. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
  30. ^ "2019年复旦生源质量全国前三".
  31. ^ "2010年复旦招生生源质量全国排名第三".
  32. ^ "【历史数据】2001年985和顶尖211录取分数线排行".
  33. ^ "【历史数据】2000年985和顶尖211录取分数线排行".
  34. ^ Staff Writers (13 August 2012). "15 Facts About China's Grueling College Entrance Exam -". Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  35. ^ "Fudan – International students office". Archived from the original on 16 March 2009. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  36. ^ "Introduction of Dormitory". Fudan University International Students Office. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
  37. ^ "百度安全验证".
  38. ^ "上海地方志:江南第一学府——复旦大学".
  39. ^ "吴邦国在庆祝复旦大学建校百年大会上的讲话".
  40. ^ Fudan University Education Development Foundation Archived 5 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ "Nordic Centre – Home". Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  42. ^ "Washington University-Fudan University EMBA" 复旦大学-华盛顿大学EMBA项目- Washington University in St.Louis & Fudan University – 复旦大学-华盛顿大学EMBA项目. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  43. ^ "Business school rankings from the Financial Times". Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  44. ^ "Press Release: Fudan hub of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research to address China's sustainability challenges". Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  45. ^ "Goethe-Universität – Partneruniversitäten". Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  46. ^ "Academic Exchanges MPP/MIA".
  47. ^ Fudan – University Level Exchange Agreement Archived 2 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ "Students protest at Shanghai's Fudan University". Asia Times. 19 December 2019. Retrieved 19 December 2019. A video circulating this week showed students at Shanghai's Fudan University singing the school song – which extols "academic independence and freedom of thought" – in an apparent protest.{...}Besides removing "freedom of thought", the ministry adds to the charter "arming the minds of teachers and students with Xi Jinping's new era of socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics". It also obliges faculty and students to adhere to "core socialist values" and build a "harmonious" campus environment – a code phrase for the elimination of anti-government sentiment.
  49. ^ 復旦大學章程刪除思想自由 學生唱校歌抗議要求學術獨立[影]. Central News Agency (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 18 December 2019. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  50. ^ "Freedom curbs raise academic collaboration uncertainty". University World News. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  51. ^ "Chinese Universities Are Enshrining Communist Party Control In Their Charters". NPR.org. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  52. ^ "2024-ben megnyílhat a sanghaji Fudan Egyetem budapesti campusa" (in Hungarian). Index.hu. 17 September 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  53. ^ Balogh Krisztina (6 April 2021). "Egyre közelebb a kínai sztáregyetem Budapesthez" (in Hungarian). Index.hu. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  54. ^ Bozzay Balázs (12 April 2021). "Kínai titkosügynökökről kérdezett Ungár a parlamentben, az államtitkár szerint büszkék lehetünk, hogy a Fudan minket választott" (in Hungarian). Telex.hu. Retrieved 15 June 2021.

31°17′56″N 121°29′57″E / 31.29889°N 121.49917°E / 31.29889; 121.49917 (Fudan University)