Hailar
海拉尔区ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
Hulunbuir City Government
Hulunbuir City Government
Hailar in Hulunbuir
Hailar in Hulunbuir
Hailar is located in Inner Mongolia
Hailar
Hailar
Location in Inner Mongolia
Hailar is located in China
Hailar
Hailar
Hailar (China)
Coordinates (Hailar District government): 49°14′05″N 119°49′28″E / 49.2347°N 119.8245°E / 49.2347; 119.8245
CountryChina
Autonomous regionInner Mongolia
Prefecture-level cityHulunbuir
District seatZhengyang Subdistrict
Area
 • Total1,319.8 km2 (509.6 sq mi)
Elevation
614 m (2,014 ft)
Population
 (2020)[2]
 • Total365,012
 • Density280/km2 (720/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
021000
Area code0470
Websitewww.hailar.gov.cn
Hailar District
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese海拉爾區
Simplified Chinese海拉尔区
Mongolian name
Mongolian CyrillicХайлаар Дүүрэг
Mongolian scriptᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ

Hailar District, formerly a county-level city, is an urban district that serves as the seat of the prefecture-level city Hulunbuir in northeastern Inner Mongolia, China.[1] Hulunbuir, due to its massive size, is a city in administrative terms only, being mainly grassland and rural.

Long known as the "Pearl of the Grasslands", Hailar acts as a gateway between China and Russia. The district spans an area of 1,319.8 square kilometers,[1] and has an estimated population of 365,000 as of 2010.[2] The district serves as a regional center for commerce, trade, and transportation.

History

Hailar was founded as a Chinese fort in 1734, and during the administration of the Republic of China, it was the capital city of Xing'an Province. It was a center of agricultural production on the historical Chinese Eastern Railway. Once known as Hulun, Hailar today is a relatively small, but thriving modern industrial city of around 300,000, its population having soared from an estimated 20,000 in the mid-20th century.

After the Mukden Incident in 1931, Japan invaded China's northeastern provinces and established the puppet state of Manchukuo. Hailar Fortress, a huge underground Japanese fortress, was completed in 1937 by forced Chinese laborers. The Kwantung Army garrisoned in Manchukuo built the fortress complex as one of biggest Japanese fortifications in Manchukuo. Some of the fiercest fighting of the Soviet–Japanese War in August 1945 took place around Hailar. Prisoners of war and civilians were massacred by the Kwantung Army in August 1945 during the final month of World War II.[3][4] The World Anti-fascist War Hailar Memorial Park, a museum and war memorial, is built on the site of the Hailar Fortress, parts of the fortress tunnels are open for public viewing.[4]

Transportation

Hulunbeier Hailar Airport serves the city, with flights to Beijing and Shenyang amongst others. Hailar's railway station is the penultimate major station before Manzhouli, the port city that stands close to the Russian border. It is on the famous Western line of the Trans-Siberian express route and China National Highway 301. Trains to Harbin take about 12 hours, and 27 to Beijing. Hailar has a frequent series of buses that cover the town.

Geography

Hailar is located in close proximity to the Greater Xing'an Mountains, and has an elevation ranging from 603.0 to 776.6 m (1,978.3 to 2,547.9 ft).[1] Of the city's 1,319.8 square kilometers, 28 square kilometers (or 2.12%) of the district is urban.[1]

Administrative divisions

Hailar is divided into 7 subdistricts and 2 towns:[2][5]

Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Mongolian (Hudum Script) Mongolian (Cyrillic) Administrative division code
Subdistricts
Zhengyang Subdistrict 正阳街道 Zhèngyáng Jiēdào ᠵᠧᠩ ᠶᠠᠩ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠭᠤᠳᠤᠮᠵᠢ Жен ян зээл гудамж 150702001
Jiankang Subdistrict 健康街道 Jiànkāng Jiēdào ᠵᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠺᠠᠩ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠭᠤᠳᠤᠮᠵᠢ Жаан кан зээл гудамж 150702002
Kaoshan Subdistrict 靠山街道 Kàoshān Jiēdào ᠺᠣᠤ ᠱᠠᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠭᠤᠳᠤᠮᠵᠢ Коо шин зээл гудамж 150702003
Shengli Subdistrict 胜利街道 Shènglì Jiēdào ᠱᠧᠩ ᠯᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠭᠤᠳᠤᠮᠵᠢ Шен ли зээл гудамж 150702004
Hulun Subdistrict 呼伦街道 Hūlún Jiēdào ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠭᠤᠳᠤᠮᠵᠢ Гүүлэн зээл гудамж 150702005
Jianshe Subdistrict 建设街道 Jiànshè Jiēdào ᠵᠢᠶᠠᠨᠱᠧ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠭᠤᠳᠤᠮᠵᠢ Жаанше зээл гудамж 150702007
Dongshan Subdistrict 东山街道 Dōngshān Jiēdào ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠬᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠭᠤᠳᠤᠮᠵᠢ Зүүн уул даахь зээл гудамж 150702008
Towns
Hag Town 哈克镇 Hākè Zhèn ᠬᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ Хаг балгас 150702100
Fendou Town 奋斗镇 Fèndòu Zhèn ᠹᠧᠨᠳ᠋ᠧᠦ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ Фендуй балгас 150702101

Climate

Hailar has a dry-winter humid continental climate (Köppen Dwb). Winters are long, very dry and severe, due to the semi−permanent Siberian High, while summers are short, though very warm, and rather wet, due to the East Asian monsoon. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −24.8 °C (−12.6 °F) in January to 20.4 °C (68.7 °F) in July, while the annual mean is −0.40 °C (31.3 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 55% in December to 69% in February, sunshine is abundant year-round, and the annual total is 2,719 hours. More than two-thirds of the annual rainfall occurs during the three summer months. The Mohe-Huma-Hailar triangle between northern Heilongjiang and Northeastern Inner Mongolia, which is almost equivalent to China's subarctic climate zone, suffers the most severe cold winter in China. Hailar's extreme temperatures ranges from −48.2 to 37.7 °C (−54.8 to 99.9 °F).[citation needed]

Climate data for Hailar District (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1909-present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −1.0
(30.2)
4.3
(39.7)
16.2
(61.2)
29.4
(84.9)
35.4
(95.7)
38.8
(101.8)
39.5
(103.1)
39.6
(103.3)
33.2
(91.8)
26.2
(79.2)
13.7
(56.7)
2.4
(36.3)
39.6
(103.3)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −19.8
(−3.6)
−13.7
(7.3)
−3.2
(26.2)
9.7
(49.5)
18.9
(66.0)
24.9
(76.8)
26.7
(80.1)
24.7
(76.5)
18.2
(64.8)
7.9
(46.2)
−6.2
(20.8)
−17.1
(1.2)
5.9
(42.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −25.0
(−13.0)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−9.6
(14.7)
3.2
(37.8)
12.0
(53.6)
18.4
(65.1)
20.9
(69.6)
18.6
(65.5)
11.4
(52.5)
1.3
(34.3)
−11.8
(10.8)
−22.0
(−7.6)
−0.2
(31.6)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −29.2
(−20.6)
−25.3
(−13.5)
−15.5
(4.1)
−2.9
(26.8)
4.9
(40.8)
11.8
(53.2)
15.4
(59.7)
13.1
(55.6)
5.5
(41.9)
−3.9
(25.0)
−16.3
(2.7)
−26.2
(−15.2)
−5.7
(21.7)
Record low °C (°F) −42.9
(−45.2)
−42.3
(−44.1)
−37.2
(−35.0)
−21.6
(−6.9)
−11.1
(12.0)
0.0
(32.0)
5.3
(41.5)
1.1
(34.0)
−7.9
(17.8)
−23.9
(−11.0)
−38.0
(−36.4)
−42.8
(−45.0)
−42.9
(−45.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3.9
(0.15)
3.6
(0.14)
5.9
(0.23)
13.8
(0.54)
24.9
(0.98)
53.3
(2.10)
96.5
(3.80)
78.6
(3.09)
35.7
(1.41)
16.8
(0.66)
6.7
(0.26)
6.9
(0.27)
346.6
(13.63)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 6.3 4.6 4.7 5.3 7.6 11.9 13.9 12.1 8.7 6.4 6.8 8.5 96.8
Average snowy days 8.8 6.7 7.0 5.4 1.1 0.1 0 0 0.6 5.2 9.5 11.6 56
Average relative humidity (%) 75 75 68 50 45 57 66 68 62 61 72 77 65
Mean monthly sunshine hours 154.5 191.8 250.7 244.0 264.5 269.1 260.1 248.1 223.0 197.3 156.5 131.5 2,591.1
Percent possible sunshine 57 66 67 59 56 56 54 56 60 60 58 52 58
Source: China Meteorological Administration[6][7][8]


Culture

Hailar is a multi-ethnic town, with notable Han, Mongolian, Hui, Daur, Evenki, Russian populations.[2] As such, signs are usually bilingual and Mongolian influence pervades in songs played on shop CD players, domes on buildings and the everyday speech of some locals.

Composer Vladimir Ussachevsky was born in Hailar, as well as leading news anchor Bai Yansong;[9] the folk metal band Nine Treasures also originated in Hailar.[10]

Sister city

Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b c d e 走进海拉尔 (in Chinese (China)). Hailar District People's Government. Archived from the original on 2019-10-20. Retrieved 2020-05-30.
  2. ^ a b c d 海拉尔区概况地图. XZQH.org. 2013-04-23. Retrieved 2020-05-31.
  3. ^ Zapotoczny, Walter (2017). Beyond Duty: The Reason Some Soldiers Commit Atrocities. Fonthill Media. p. 171.
  4. ^ a b Wang, Kaihao (August 8, 2013). "Tale as old as the grassland". China Daily.
  5. ^ 2022年统计用区划代码. National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 2022-07-28.
  6. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  7. ^ 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  8. ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
  9. ^ Song, Yuwu (2013). Biographical Dictionary of the People's Republic of China. McFarland. p. 15.
  10. ^ ago, Matt Nolan 3 years (2015-03-31). "Nine Treasures – Mongolian Nomadic Folk Metal". AudioPhix. Retrieved 2019-02-04.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ "Sister cities of Inner Mongolia". Archived from the original on 2013-05-14. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
  12. ^ "海拉尔区和成吉思市缔结友好城市". 呼伦贝尔市人民政府外事办公室. 自治区外事办. Retrieved 2018-10-19.