Ministry for Civil Defence, Emergency Situations and Liquidation of Consequences of Natural Disasters
Министерство Российской Федерации по делам гражданской обороны, чрезвычайным ситуациям и ликвидации последствий стихийных бедствий
Ministry Emblem
Ministry Flag

Ministry headquarters in Moscow
Agency overview
FormedDecember 27, 1990 (1990-12-27)
Preceding agency
  • Russian Rescue Corps
JurisdictionPresident of Russia
HeadquartersTeatralny proyezd 3, Moscow
55°45′34″N 37°37′18″E / 55.75944°N 37.62167°E / 55.75944; 37.62167Coordinates: 55°45′34″N 37°37′18″E / 55.75944°N 37.62167°E / 55.75944; 37.62167
Minister responsible
  • Aleksandr Chupriyan, acting Minister for the Affairs of Civil Defence, Emergency Situations and Disaster Relief
Parent agencyGovernment of Russia
Child agencies
Websiteen.mchs.ru
Footnotes
  • The official anthem and marchpast is Sound about the Alarming Youth (Песня о тревожной молодости) by Alexandera Pakhmutova[1]
  • Civil Defence Day (День войск гражданской обороны) is celebrated on 4 October.[2]

The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergency Situations and Liquidation of Consequences of Natural Disasters (Russian: Министерство Российской Федерации по делам гражданской обороны, чрезвычайным ситуациям и ликвидации последствий стихийных бедствий), also known as the Ministry of Emergency Situations (Министерство по чрезвычайным ситуациям; abbr. MChS, МЧС России), or internationally as EMERCOM (derived from "Emergency Control Ministry"), is a Russian government agency overseeing the civil emergency services in Russia.

President Boris Yeltsin established EMERCOM on January 10, 1994, though the ministry can be traced back to December 27, 1990, when the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) established the Russian Rescue Corps and assigned it the mission of rapid response in the case of emergencies.[3]

History

The history of civil defence services in Russia traces to the years of Muscovy rule and the 1649 "Direction on Municipal rescue" decree of Tsar Alexis of Russia which officially raised the Moscow Municipal Fire Service, the first active fire department in Russia. When Peter the Great was Tsar, Saint Petersburg was given its own fire department modeled on Western practices of the time. By 1863 it was transformed, by orders of Tsar Alexander II of Russia, as the first ever professional fire service in Russia and Eastern Europe.

Starting in 1932 civil defense matters were performed by the Local Air Defense Units (Местная противовоздушная оборона PBO-C, Mestnaya protivovozdushnaya oborona PVO-S) under the nascent Soviet Air Defence Forces, which were transferred to the NKVD in 1940 (and served with distinction, together with the NKVD Fire Services Command founded in 1918, in the Great Patriotic War). In 1960 it was returned to the Ministry of Defence as a service branch of the Soviet Armed Forces (the Civil Defence Forces of the Ministry of Defense) and a directly reporting agency, while the MVD retained the firefighting service.

In the aftermath of the events of the 1988 Armenian earthquake and the Chernobyl disaster, on July 17, 1990 a directive decision of the Presidium of The Supreme Council of Russian Socialist Soviet Republic led to the formation of the Russian Rescue Corps (Российский корпус спасателей), which eventually was formed by the Soviet Government on December 27, 1990.[4] This date is marked as the official anniversary of the EMERCOM.

On April 17, 1991 the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Russia appointed Sergei Shoigu as Chairman of the State Committee for Extraordinary Situations (Государственный Комитет по чрезвычайным ситуациям, ГКЧС), which succeeded the RRC.[5][6]

On November 19, 1991 the State Committee was merged with the Headquarters for Civil Defense of the USSR (under the Ministry of Defense) to create the State Committee of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence Matters, Extraordinary Situations and the Liquidation of Natural Disasters (Государственный комитет по делам гражданской обороны, чрезвычайным ситуациям и ликвидации последствий стихийных бедствий при Президенте РСФСР) and was subordinated to the President of Russia.

On January 10, 1994 the State committee became part of the Government of Russia and the ministry was named The Ministry for the Affairs of Civil Defence, Emergency Situations and Disaster Relief, with Sergei Shoigu as a minister.

On January 1, 2002, The Russian State Fire Service, the national fire service, became part of the ministry with 278,000 firefighters, removed from Ministry of Internal Affairs control after 84 years.

On May 12, 2012, Vladimir Puchkov was appointed as the new minister, replacing Shoigu who was later appointed as Defense Minister after a brief stint as Governor of Moscow Oblast.[7]

On July 1, 2016, an EMERCOM firefighting Il-76 crashed after taking off from Irkutsk International airport while on its way to dump water as to help douse wildfires in Siberia.

Duties

According to an EMERCOM publication, the Ministry is an agency of federal executive power with the following tasks:

Ministers

Main article: Minister of Emergency Situations (Russia)

Sergey Shoigu

Sergey Shoygu was Minister from 1991 to 2012
Sergey Shoygu was Minister from 1991 to 2012

The first Minister in charge of EMERCOM was Sergei Shoigu. He was appointed by President Yeltsin in November 1991 as Chairman of the State Committee of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence Matters, Extraordinary Situations and the Liquidation of Natural Disasters. Shoigu was given the rank of Major General in October 1994, and his committee became a ministry in January 1994. President Yeltsin showed his faith in the importance of EMERCOM by designating Minister Shoigu a member of the Russian Security Council by Presidential Decree on February 1, 1994. In May 2012 he was appointed as Governor of Moscow Oblast and he resigned from his office.

Vladimir Puchkov

Vladimir Puchkov was the Deputy Minister of Emergencies. In May 2012 he was appointed as Minister firs government of Dmitry Medvedev. Six years later, when the new government was formed, he did not join the government.

Yevgeny Zinichev

Yevgeny Zinichev was Minister from 2018 to 2021
Yevgeny Zinichev was Minister from 2018 to 2021

Yevgeny Zinichev was appointed minister on May 18, 2018, in the second Medvedev government. Zinichev was not a career lifeguard and had served all his life in security agencies such as the KGB, the FSO and the FSB. Prior to appointment, Zinichev held the position of deputy director of the FSB. After the resignation of the Medvedev government in 2020, he retained his post in the new government of Mikhail Mishustin.

Yevgeny Zinichev tragically died on 8 September 2021, aged 55, during the filming of an interdepartmental exercise to protect the Arctic zone of Russia. According to the ministry, he fell off a cliff while trying to save the life of director and cameraman Aleksandr Melnik, who also died. His death was the first case in the history of post-Soviet Russia of the death of an incumbent federal minister.

Departments

Commissions and Boards

Small emblem
Small emblem

Working through the office of the Prime Minister, the Ministry can ask for private, Ministry of Defence or National Guard of Russia assistance. That is, the Ministry has international coordination power and the ability to tap local resources if required.

The Department of International Cooperation, to present an example of the activities of one of these departments and commissions, has already signed agreements on cooperation during disaster response and prevention with Germany, Italy, France, Switzerland, Poland, Belarus, Georgia, and Kazakhstan. Mutual assistance pacts are ready for signing with Mongolia, Latvia, Finland, Armenia, Moldova, Serbia and Estonia. An agreement also exists with the U.N. High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), and agreements are sought with the OSCE and NATO.

Internal organizations

To perform rapid response operations the following forces and equipment are available:

Ranks

Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
Ministry of Emergency Situations
Генера́л-полко́вник
Generál-polkóvnik
Генера́л-лейтена́нт
Generál-leytenánt
Генера́л-майо́р
Generál-mayór
Полко́вник
Polkóvnik
Подполко́вник
Podpolkóvnik
Майо́р
Majór
Kапита́н
Kapitán
Старший лейтена́нт
Stárshiy leytenánt
Лейтенант
Leytenant
Mла́дший лейтена́нт
Mládshiy leytenánt
Курсант
Kursant
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
Ministry of Emergency Situations
Ста́рший пра́порщик
Stárshiy práporshchik
Пра́порщик
Práporshchyk
Старшина́
Starshyná
Ста́рший сержа́нт
Stárshiy serzhánt
Сержа́нт
Serzhánt
Мла́дший сержа́нт
Mládshiy serzhánt
Рядово́й
Ryadovóy

Equipment

Aviation

Name Type Origin Photo
Ka-226 Light utility helicopter  Russia
Ka-32A Transport helicopter  Russia
Mi-26 Heavy lift cargo helicopter  Soviet Union
Mi-8 Transport helicopter  Soviet Union
Il-76TD Transport airplane  Soviet Union
An-3 Multipurpose aircraft  Ukraine  Russia
An-74P Transport airplane  Soviet Union
Be-200 Multirole amphibian  Russia
2 Antonov 148-100 (as of August 2017)[9] Passenger aircraft  Ukraine
2 Sukhoi Superjet 100-95LR (as of August 2017)[9] Passenger aircraft  Russia
Il-62 Passenger aircraft  Soviet Union
Yak-42D Passenger aircraft  Soviet Union

Cars

Name Type Origin Photo
GAZelle GAZ-2705  Russia
PPU48-03 (Kamaz-43118 chassis) Mobile control point  Russia
ASM-41-022 (base UAZ-3909) Rescue of general purpose  Russia
ASM-48-031 (Kamaz-43118 chassis) Rescue vehicle  Russia
Car for transportation department paramilitary mountain rescue units (Kamaz-4308 based)  Russia
Petrovich-204-60 All-terrain vehicle  Russia
ZiL-49061 Amphibious vehicle  Soviet Union

Boats

Name Type Origin Photo
Mars-700 Hovercraft  Russia
Mars-2000 Hovercraft  Russia
Khivus-6 Hovercraft  Russia
Mongoose (project 12150M) Airboat  Russia

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Александр Гамов (January 15, 2015). "Не думай, что все пропели, Что бури все отгремели..." Комсомольская правда. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
  2. ^ Описание истории Дня войск гражданской обороны на сайте МЧС России
  3. ^ "Russian Rescue Corps established. Russian Rescuer Day". Presidential Library. Presidential Library. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved May 13, 2016. [On] December 27, 1990 a decree by the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR № 606 "On the establishment of the Russian Rescue Corps as the RSFSR State Committee, as well as the formation of a unified state and social system of forecasting, prevention and emergency response" was adopted.
  4. ^ "Постановление Совмина РСФСР от 27.12.1990 N 606". www.libussr.ru. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  5. ^ "№51 (758) / Общество и наука / Спецпроект / Первый спасатель". www.itogi.ru. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  6. ^ "ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ КОМИССИЯ СОВЕТА МИНИСТРОВ СССР ПО ЧРЕЗВЫЧАЙНЫМ СИТУАЦИЯМ (ГКЧС СМ СССР)". www.mchs.gov.ru. Archived from the original on July 27, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  7. ^ В.А, Зиничев Евгений Николаевич (April 15, 2016), Русский: О совершенствовании деятельности территориальных органов и организаций МЧС России по предупреждению и ликвидации чрезвычайных ситуаций, обеспечению пожарной безопасности и безопасности людей на водных объектах на территориях местных пожарно-спасательных гарнизонов (PDF), retrieved August 21, 2019
  8. ^ "bmpd". livejournal.com. Archived from the original on December 24, 2012. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
  9. ^ a b "Global Airline Guide 2017 (Part Two)". Airliner World (November 2017): 30.