Field Marshal
The insignia of a field marshal as worn on epaulettes
The Earl Roberts painted 1906 in the full dress uniform of a Field Marshal in the British Army
CountryUnited Kingdom
Service branchBritish Army
AbbreviationFM
Rank groupFlag officer
RankFive-star rank
NATO rank codeOF-10
Non-NATO rankO-11
Formation1736
Next higher ranknone
Next lower rankGeneral
Equivalent ranksAdmiral of the Fleet (RN)
Marshal of the Royal Air Force (RAF)

Field marshal (FM) has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736. A five-star rank with NATO code OF-10, it is equivalent to an Admiral of the Fleet in the Royal Navy or a Marshal of the Royal Air Force in the Royal Air Force (RAF). A Field Marshal's insignia consists of two crossed batons surrounded by yellow leaves below the Tudor Crown. Like Marshals of the Royal Air Force and Admirals of the Fleet, Field Marshals traditionally remain officers for life, though on half-pay when not in an appointment or retired.[1][2] The rank has been used sporadically throughout its history, and was vacant during parts of the 18th and 19th centuries (when all former holders of the rank were deceased). After the Second World War, it became standard practice to appoint the Chief of the Imperial General Staff (later renamed Chief of the General Staff) to the rank on his last day in the post. Army officers occupying the post of Chief of the Defence Staff, the professional head of all the British Armed Forces, were usually promoted to the rank upon their appointment.[3]

In total, 141 men have held the rank of field marshal. The majority led careers in the British Army or the colonial British Indian Army, rising through the ranks to eventually become a field marshal. Some members of the British Royal Family; most recently Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, and Charles III, were promoted to the rank after shorter periods of service. Three British monarchs; George V, Edward VIII, and George VI, assumed the rank on their accessions to the throne, while Edward VII and Charles III were already field marshals, and two British consorts; Albert, Prince Consort and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, were appointed by their respective queens. Other ceremonial appointments were made as diplomatic gestures. Twelve foreign monarchs held the honour, though three (Wilhelm II, German Emperor; Franz Joseph I, Emperor of Austria-Hungary; and Hirohito, Emperor of Japan) were stripped of it when their countries became enemies of Britain and its allies in the two world wars. Also awarded the rank were one Frenchman (Ferdinand Foch) and one Australian (Sir Thomas Blamey), honoured for their contributions to World War I and World War II respectively, and one South African statesman (Jan Smuts).[4]

A report commissioned by the Ministry of Defence in 1995 made a number of recommendations for financial savings in the armed forces' budget, one of which was the abolition of all five-star ranks. Part of the rationale was that these ranks were disproportionate to the size of the forces commanded by these officers, and that none of the United Kingdom's close allies, such as the United States (which reserves the rank of general of the army for officers who have commanded large armies in major wars), used such ranks. The recommendation was not taken up in full, but the practice of promoting service chiefs to five-star ranks was stopped, and the ranks are now reserved for special circumstances. Sir Peter Inge was, in 1994, the last active officer to be promoted to the rank. Inge relinquished the post of Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) in 1997, and his successor, Sir Charles Guthrie, was the first officer not to be promoted upon appointment as CDS, although he was promoted to the honorary rank of field marshal in June 2012.[5]

The most recent promotions to field marshal came in 2012, eighteen years after the moratorium on routine promotions to the rank, when Queen Elizabeth II promoted Prince Charles, her son and heir apparent, to the five-star ranks in all three services, in recognition of support provided for her in her capacity as Head of the British Armed Forces.[6] At the same time, Guthrie, who relinquished the post of CDS and retired from active service in 2001, was promoted to honorary field marshal.[7] In June 2014, former Chief of the Defence Staff Lord Walker of Aldringham was also promoted to honorary field marshal.[8]

Although the rank of field marshal is not used in the Royal Marines, the insignia is used on the uniform of the Captain General, the ceremonial head of the corps (equivalent to colonel-in-chief).[9]

Insignia of rank

Field Marshal's uniform and baton (pertaining to the late Sir John Stanier) on display in the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards Museum, Edinburgh Castle.

The rank insignia of a field marshal in the British Army comprises two crossed batons in a wreath of laurel leaves, with a crown above.[10] In some other countries, historically under the sphere of British influence, an adapted version of the insignia is used for field marshals, often with the crown being replaced with an alternative cultural or national emblem. On appointment, British field marshals are awarded a gold-tipped baton which they may carry on formal occasions.

List of field marshals

A bronze cross pattée bearing the crown of Saint Edward surmounted by a lion with the inscription 'FOR VALOUR'. A crimson ribbon is attached.
Four field marshals were also recipients of the Victoria Cross, the UK's highest award for gallantry.

The vast majority of officers to hold the rank of field marshal were professional soldiers in the British Army, though eleven served as officers in the British Indian Army. At least fifty-seven field marshals were wounded in battle earlier in their careers, of whom 24 were wounded more than once, and eight had been prisoners of war. Fifteen future field marshals were present at the Battle of Vitoria, where the Duke of Wellington earned the rank, and ten others served under Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo. However, only thirty-eight held independent commands in the field, and just twelve served as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces (the pre-1904 professional head of the army) or Chief of the Imperial General Staff during a major war.[11]

Four field marshals; Sir Evelyn Wood, Sir George White, Earl Roberts, and Lord Gort, had previously received the Victoria Cross (VC), the United Kingdom's highest and most prestigious award for gallantry 'in the face of the enemy'. Wood, a famously injury-prone officer, was awarded the VC for two actions in 1858, in which he first attacked a group of rebels in India, and later rescued an informant from another group of rebels. White, a cavalry officer, led two charges on enemy guns in Afghanistan in 1879, while Gort, of the Grenadier Guards, commanded a series of attacks while severely wounded during the First World War in 1918. Roberts received his VC for actions during the Indian Mutiny.[12][13][14][15][16]

Wellington, 44 at the time of his promotion, was the youngest non-royal officer to earn the rank of field marshal. Charles Moore, 1st Marquess of Drogheda was the oldest, promoted at the age of 91, while a further twenty-three officers were promoted to field marshal in their eighties. Wellington was also the only field marshal to become Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.[17]

No officer whose career was spent in the British Army has ever reached the rank of field marshal without having served in the cavalry, infantry, Royal Armoured Corps, Royal Artillery, or Royal Engineers.[17] One non-British officer has been appointed field marshal in the British Army; Ferdinand Foch of France, in recognition of his contributions in the First World War, while one, Sir William Robertson, held every rank in the British Army, from private soldier to field marshal.[18]

Field Marshals of the British Army
name and style[a] regiment[b] image born promotion date[19] died
George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney Royal Regiment of Foot George Douglas-Hamilton 1666 12 January 1736[20] 1737
John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll Earl of Argyll's Regiment of Foot John Campbell 1680 14 January 1736[21] 1743
Richard Boyle, 2nd Viscount Shannon Horse Guards Regiment Richard Boyle 1674 2 July 1739[22] 1740
François de La Rochefoucauld, Marquis de Montandre 1672 2 July 1739[23] 1739
John Dalrymple, 2nd Earl of Stair 26th (Cameronian) Regiment of Foot John Dalrymple 1673 18 March 1742[24] 1747
Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham 6th Regiment of Foot Richard Temple 1669 14 December 1742[25] 1749
George Wade Earl of Bath's Regiment George Wade 1673 14 December 1742[26] 1748
Sir Robert Rich, 4th Baronet Grenadier Guards (1st Foot Guards) 1685 28 November 1757[27] 1768
Richard Molesworth, 3rd Viscount Molesworth Royal Scots Richard Molesworth 1680 29 November 1757[28] 1758
John Ligonier, 1st Earl Ligonier 10th Regiment of Foot John Ligonier 1680 30 November 1757[29] 1770
James O'Hara, 2nd Baron Tyrawley 39th (Dorsetshire) Regiment of Foot 1690 1 June 1763[30] 1773
Henry Seymour Conway 5th Royal Irish Lancers Henry Seymour Conway 1721 12 October 1793[31] 1794
Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh 13th Regiment of Foot Prince William Henry 1743 12 October 1793[32] 1805
Sir George Howard 24th Regiment of Foot George Howard 1720 12 October 1793[33] 1796
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany Grenadier Guards Prince Frederick 1763 10 February 1795[34] 1827
John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll Royal Scots Fusiliers John Campbell 1723 30 July 1796[35] 1806
Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst Grenadier Guards Jeffery Amherst 1717 30 July 1796[36] 1797
John Griffin, 4th Baron Howard de Walden Scots Guards John Griffin 1719 30 July 1796[37] 1797
Studholme Hodgson Grenadier Guards Studholme Hodgson 1708 30 July 1796[38] 1798
George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend 7th Queen's Own Hussars George Townshend 1724 30 July 1796[39] 1807
Lord Frederick Cavendish Coldstream Guards 1729 30 July 1796[40] 1803
Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond Coldstream Guards Charles Lennox 1735 30 July 1796[41] 1806
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn Royal Fusiliers Prince Edward 1767 5 September 1805[42] 1820
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington 33rd Regiment of Foot Arthur Wellesley 1769 21 June 1813[43] 1852
Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale — (Royal Family;
afterwards King of Hanover)
Ernest Augustus I 1771 6 November 1813[44] 1851
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge Hanoverian Guards Prince Adolphus 1774 26 November 1813[45] 1850
Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh Scots Guards Prince William Frederick 1776 24 May 1816[46] 1834
Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha — (Royal Family;
afterwards King of the Belgians)
Leopold I 1790 24 May 1816[47] 1865
Charles Moore, 1st Marquess of Drogheda 12th Dragoons Charles Moore 1730 19 July 1821[48] 1821
William Harcourt, 3rd Earl Harcourt Grenadier Guards William Harcourt 1743 19 July 1821[20] 1830
Sir Alured Clarke 50th (Queen's Own) Regiment of Foot Alured Clarke 1745 22 July 1830[49] 1832
Sir Samuel Hulse Grenadier Guards Samuel Hulse 1747 or 1748 22 July 1830[50] 1837
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha — (Royal Family) Prince Albert 1819 8 February 1840[51] 1861
William II — (King of the Netherlands) William II 1792 28 July 1845[52] 1849
Sir George Nugent, 1st Baronet 39th (Dorsetshire) Regiment of Foot George Nugent 1757 9 November 1846[53] 1849
Thomas Grosvenor Grenadier Guards Thomas Grosvenor 1764 9 November 1846[54] 1851
Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey 80th Regiment of Foot (Staffordshire Volunteers) Henry Paget 1768 9 November 1846[55] 1854
FitzRoy Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan 4th Light Dragoons FitzRoy Somerse 1788 5 November 1854[56] 1855
Stapleton Cotton, 1st Viscount Combermere 23rd Regiment of Foot Stapleton Cotton 1773 2 October 1855[57] 1865
John Byng, 1st Earl of Strafford 33rd Regiment of Foot Stapleton Cotton 1772 2 October 1855[58] 1860
Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount Hardinge Queen's Rangers Henry Hardinge 1785 2 October 1855[59] 1856
John Colborne, 1st Baron Seaton East Devonshire Regiment John Colborne 1779 1 April 1860[60] 1863
Sir Edward Blakeney 99th Regiment of Foot Edward Blakeney 1778 9 November 1862[61] 1868
Hugh Gough, 1st Viscount Gough Seaforth Highlanders Hugh Gough 1779 9 November 1862[62] 1869
Prince George, Duke of Cambridge 12th Royal Lancers Prince George 1819 9 November 1862[63] 1904
Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde 9th (East Norfolk) Regiment of Foot Colin Campbell 1792 9 November 1862[64] 1863
Sir Alexander Woodford 9th (East Norfolk) Regiment of Foot Alexander Woodford 1782 1 January 1868[65] 1870
Sir William Gomm 9th (East Norfolk) Regiment of Foot William Gomm 1784 1 January 1868[66] 1875
Sir Hew Ross Royal Artillery Hew Ross 1779 1 January 1868[67] 1868
Sir John Burgoyne Royal Engineers John Burgoyne 1782 1 January 1868[68] 1871
Sir George Pollock, 1st Baronet Bengal Artillery George Pollock 1786 24 May 1870[69] 1872
Sir John FitzGerald — (retired) 1785 29 May 1875[70] 1877
George Hay, 8th Marquess of Tweeddale Grenadier Guards George Hay 1787 29 May 1875[71] 1876
King Edward VII — (Royal Family) Edward VII 1841 29 May 1875[72] 1910
Sir William Rowan 52nd (Oxfordshire) Regiment of Foot William Rowan 1789 2 June 1877[73] 1879
Sir Charles Yorke 35th (Royal Sussex) Regiment of Foot Charles Yorke 1790 2 June 1877[74] 1880
Hugh Rose, 1st Baron Strathnairn 93rd (Sutherland Highlanders) Regiment of Foot Hugh Rose 1801 2 June 1877[75] 1885
Robert Napier, 1st Baron Napier of Magdala Bengal Engineer Group Robert Napier 1810 1 January 1883[76] 1890
Sir Patrick Grant 11th Bengal Native Infantry Patrick Grant 1804 24 June 1883[77] 1895
Sir John Michel 64th (2nd Staffordshire) Regiment of Foot John Michel 1804 27 March 1886[78] 1886
Sir Richard Dacres Royal Artillery Richard Dacres 1799 27 March 1886[79] 1886
Lord William Paulet 85th Regiment of Foot (Bucks Volunteers) William Paulet 1804 10 July 1886[80] 1893
George Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan 6th Regiment of Foot George Bingham 1800 21 June 1887[81] 1888
Sir Lintorn Simmons Royal Engineers Lintorn Simmons 1821 21 May 1890[82] 1903
Sir Frederick Haines 4th Regiment of Foot Frederick Haines 1818 21 May 1890[83] 1909
Sir Donald Stewart, 1st Baronet 9th Bengal Native Infantry Donald Stewart 1824 24 May 1894[84] 1900
Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley 12th Regiment of Foot Garnet Wolseley 1833 24 May 1894[85] 1913
Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, VC Bengal Artillery Frederick Roberts 1832 25 May 1895[86] 1914
Prince Edward of Saxe-Weimar 67th (South Hampshire) Regiment of Foot Prince Edward 1823 22 June 1897[87] 1902
Sir Neville Bowles Chamberlain 55th Bengal Native Infantry Neville Chamberlain 1820 25 April 1900[88] 1902
Wilhelm II, German Emperor — (German Emperor; King of Prussia) Wilhelm II 1859 27 January 1901[89] 1941
Sir Henry Norman 1st Bengal Native Infantry Henry Norman 1826 26 June 1902[90] 1904
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Royal Engineers Prince Arthur 1850 26 June 1902[91] 1942
Sir Evelyn Wood, VC 13th Light Dragoons Evelyn Wood 1838 8 April 1903[92] 1919
Sir George White, VC 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot George White 1835 8 April 1903[93] 1912
Franz Joseph I of Austria — (Emperor of Austria; King of Hungary) Franz Joseph I 1830 1 September 1903[94] 1916
Francis Grenfell, 1st Baron Grenfell King's Royal Rifle Corps Francis Grenfell 1841 11 April 1908[95] 1925
Sir Charles Brownlow 51st Sikhs (Frontier Force) Charles Brownlow 1831 20 June 1908[96] 1916
Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener Royal Engineers Herbert Kitchener 1850 10 September 1909[97] 1916
King George V Royal Welsh Fusiliers — (Royal Family) George V 1865 7 May 1910[98] 1936
Paul Methuen, 3rd Baron Methuen Scots Guards Paul Methuen 1845 19 June 1911[99] 1932
William Nicholson, 1st Baron Nicholson Royal Engineers William Nicholson 1845 19 June 1911[100] 1918
John French, 1st Earl of Ypres 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars John French 1852 3 June 1913[101] 1925
Nicholas II of Russia — (Emperor of Russia) Nicholas II 1868 1 January 1916[102] 1918
Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig 7th Queen's Own Hussars Douglas Haig 1861 1 January 1917[103] 1928
Sir Charles Egerton 31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment of Foot Sir Charles Egerton 1848 16 March 1917[104] 1921
Emperor Taishō (Yoshihito) — (Emperor of Japan) Taishō 1879 1 January 1918[105] 1926
Ferdinand Foch 35th Artillery Regiment – (French Army) Ferdinand Foch 1851 19 July 1919[106] 1929
Herbert Plumer, 1st Viscount Plumer York and Lancaster Regiment Herbert Plumer 1857 31 July 1919[107] 1932
Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby 6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons Edmund Allenby 1861 31 July 1919[108] 1936
Sir Henry Wilson, 1st Baronet Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own) Henry Wilson 1864 31 July 1919[109] 1922
Sir William Robertson, 1st Baronet 3rd Dragoon Guards William Robertson 1860 29 March 1920[110] 1933
Sir Arthur Barrett 44th (East Essex) Regiment of Foot Arthur Barrett 1857 12 April 1921[111] 1926
Albert I of Belgium — (King of the Belgians) Albert I 1875 4 May 1921[112] 1934
William Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood Royal Scots Fusiliers William Birdwood 1865 20 March 1925[113] 1951
Sir Claud Jacob Worcestershire Regiment Claud Jacob 1863 30 November 1926[114] 1948
George Milne, 1st Baron Milne Royal Artillery George Milne 1866 30 January 1928[115] 1948
Alfonso XIII of Spain — (King of Spain) Alfonso XIII 1886 3 June 1928[116] 1941
Hirohito (Emperor Shōwa) — (Emperor of Japan) Hirohito 1901 26 June 1928[117] 1989
Julian Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy King's Royal Rifle Corps Julian Byng 1861 17 July 1932[118] 1935
Rudolph Lambart, 10th Earl of Cavan Grenadier Guards Rudolph Lambart 1865 31 October 1932[119] 1946
Philip Chetwode, 1st Baron Chetwode Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry Philip Chetwode 1869 13 February 1933[120] 1950
Sir Archibald Montgomery-Massingberd Royal Artillery Archibald Montgomery-Massingberd 1871 7 June 1935[121] 1947
King Edward VIII — (Royal Family) Edward VIII 1894 21 January 1936[122] 1972
Sir Cyril Deverell West Yorkshire Regiment Cyril Deverell 1874 15 May 1936[123] 1947
King George VI — (Royal Family) George VI 1895 12 December 1936[124] 1952
Edmund Ironside, 1st Baron Ironside Royal Artillery Edmund Ironside 1880 20 July 1940[125] 1959
Jan Smuts — (South African Army) Jan Smuts 1870 24 May 1941[126] 1950
Sir John Dill Prince of Wales's Leinster Regiment John Dill 1881 18 November 1941[127] 1944
John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort, VC Grenadier Guards John Vereker 1886 1 January 1943[128] 1946
Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell Black Watch Archibald Wavell 1883 1 January 1943[129] 1950
Alan Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke Royal Artillery Alan Brooke 1883 1 January 1944[130] 1963
Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis Irish Guards Harold Alexander 1891 4 June 1944[131] 1969
Bernard Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein Royal Warwickshire Regiment Bernard Montgomery 1887 1 September 1944[132] 1976
Henry Maitland Wilson, 1st Baron Wilson Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own) Henry Maitland Wilson 1881 29 December 1944[133] 1964
Sir Claude Auchinleck 62nd Punjabis (Indian Army) Claude Auchinleck 1884 1 June 1946[134] 1981
William 'Bill' Slim, 1st Viscount Slim Royal Warwickshire Regiment William Slim 1891 4 January 1948[135] 1970
Sir Thomas Blamey — (Australian Army) Thomas Blamey 1884 8 June 1950[136] 1951
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Royal Navy – (Royal Family) Prince Philip 1921 15 January 1953[137][138] 2021
John Harding, 1st Baron Harding of Petherton Somerset Light Infantry John Harding 1896 21 July 1953[139] 1989
Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester King's Royal Rifle Corps Prince Henry 1900 31 March 1955[140] 1974
Sir Gerald Templer Royal Irish Fusiliers Gerald Templer 1898 27 November 1956[141] 1979
Sir Francis Festing Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own) Francis Festing 1902 1 September 1960[142] 1976
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah — (King of Nepal) Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah 1920 17 October 1962[143] 1972
Haile Selassie I — (Emperor of Ethiopia) Haile Selassie I 1892 20 January 1965[144] 1975
Sir Richard Hull 17th/21st Lancers 1907 8 February 1965[145] 1989
Sir James Cassels Seaforth Highlanders 1907 29 February 1968[146] 1996
Sir Geoffrey Baker Royal Artillery Sir Geoffrey Baker 1912 31 January 1971[147] 1980
Michael Carver, Baron Carver Royal Tank Corps 1915 18 July 1973[148] 2001[149]
Sir Roland Gibbs King's Royal Rifle Corps 1921 13 July 1979[150] 2004[151]
Birendra Bir Bikram Shah — (King of Nepal) Birendra Bir Bikram Shah 1945 18 November 1980[152] 2001[153]
Edwin Bramall, Baron Bramall King's Royal Rifle Corps Edwin Bramall 1923 1 January 1982[154] 2019[155]
Sir John Stanier 7th Queen's Own Hussars 1925 10 July 1985[156] 2007[157]
Sir Nigel Bagnall Green Howards 1927 9 September 1988[158] 2002[159]
Richard Vincent, Baron Vincent of Coleshill Royal Artillery 1931 2 April 1991[160] 2018
Sir John Chapple 2nd King Edward VII's Own Gurkha Rifles (The Sirmoor Rifles) 1931 14 February 1992[161] 2022
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent Royal Scots Greys – (Royal Family) Prince Edward 1935 11 June 1993[162] living
Peter Inge, Baron Inge Green Howards Peter Inge 1935 15 March 1994[163] 2022
King Charles III Welsh Guards, Royal Navy, and Royal Air Force – (Royal Family) Charles, Prince of Wales 1948 16 June 2012[7] living
Charles Guthrie, Baron Guthrie of Craigiebank Welsh Guards Charles Guthrie 1938 16 June 2012[7] living
Michael Walker, Baron Walker of Aldringham Royal Anglian Regiment Michael Walker 1944 13 June 2014[8] living

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Titles and styles are those held by the field marshal when they died, or those currently held in the case of living field marshals; in most cases, these are not the same as the titles and styles held by an officer upon their promotion to the rank, nor (in the case of operational field marshals) those held when the officer retired from active service. All post-nominal letters, with the exception of 'VC' (denoting the Victoria Cross) are omitted.
  2. ^ The regiment given is the regiment into which the field marshal was commissioned. This is not necessarily the regiment the officer first joined, nor is it necessarily the regiment in which the officer spent most of his career. An '—' indicates either that the officer did not lead a career in the British Army, or that the officer was not initially commissioned into a formal regiment.

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Brewer's Dictionary.
  2. ^ The Daily Telegraph & 12 April 2008.
  3. ^ Heathcote, p. 4.
  4. ^ Heathcote, p. 1.
  5. ^ "No. 60350". The London Gazette. 7 December 2012. p. 23557.
  6. ^ "The Queen appoints the Prince of Wales to honorary five star". PrinceOfWales.gov.uk. 16 June 2012. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012.
  7. ^ a b c BBC News & 16 June 2012.
  8. ^ a b Ministry of Defence & 13 June 2014.
  9. ^ "Photograph of Prince Philip as Captain General Royal Marines wearing the insignia of a field marshal". GettyImages.com. Getty Images. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  10. ^ Dress Regulations for the Army. London, England: His Majesty's Stationery Office. 1934. p. 3.
  11. ^ Heathcote, p. 2.
  12. ^ Ashcroft, pp. 79–81.
  13. ^ London Gazette 4 September 1860.
  14. ^ London Gazette 3 June 1881.
  15. ^ London Gazette 26 November 1918.
  16. ^ London Gazette 24 December 1858.
  17. ^ a b Heathcote, p. 7.
  18. ^ Woodward, David R. (May 2006) [September 2004]. "Robertson, Sir William Robert, first baronet (1860–1933)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/35786. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  19. ^ Heathcote, pp. 320–326, Table 1.
  20. ^ a b Heathcote, pp. 166–167.
  21. ^ Heathcote, pp. 71–73.
  22. ^ Heathcote, pp. 52–53.
  23. ^ Heathcote, pp. 99–101.
  24. ^ Heathcote, pp. 97–99.
  25. ^ Heathcote, pp. 272–273.
  26. ^ Heathcote, pp. 285–287.
  27. ^ Heathcote, pp. 245–246.
  28. ^ Heathcote, pp. 211–212.
  29. ^ Heathcote, pp. 202–204.
  30. ^ Heathcote, pp. 234–235.
  31. ^ Heathcote, pp. 92–94.
  32. ^ Heathcote, pp. 302–303.
  33. ^ Heathcote, pp. 179–180.
  34. ^ Heathcote, pp. 127–130.
  35. ^ Heathcote, pp. 73–75.
  36. ^ Heathcote, pp. 23–26.
  37. ^ Heathcote, pp. 153–154.
  38. ^ Heathcote, pp. 178–179.
  39. ^ Heathcote, pp. 277–279.
  40. ^ Heathcote, pp. 82–83.
  41. ^ Heathcote, pp. 199–200.
  42. ^ Heathcote, pp. 112–113.
  43. ^ Heathcote, pp. 291–295.
  44. ^ Heathcote, pp. 116–118.
  45. ^ Heathcote, pp. 9–10.
  46. ^ Heathcote, pp. 301–302.
  47. ^ Heathcote, pp. 200–202.
  48. ^ Heathcote, pp. 222–223.
  49. ^ Heathcote, pp. 89–90.
  50. ^ Heathcote, pp. 182–183.
  51. ^ Heathcote, pp. 12–13.
  52. ^ Heathcote, pp. 297–299.
  53. ^ Heathcote, pp. 232–234.
  54. ^ Heathcote, pp. 154–155.
  55. ^ Heathcote, pp. 235–237.
  56. ^ Heathcote, pp. 267–269.
  57. ^ Heathcote, pp. 94–96.
  58. ^ Heathcote, pp. 63–64.
  59. ^ Heathcote, pp. 171–173.
  60. ^ Heathcote, pp. 90–92.
  61. ^ Heathcote, pp. 46–47.
  62. ^ Heathcote, pp. 148–150.
  63. ^ Heathcote, pp. 141–144.
  64. ^ Heathcote, pp. 69–71.
  65. ^ Heathcote, pp. 316–318.
  66. ^ Heathcote, pp. 146–148.
  67. ^ Heathcote, pp. 255–256.
  68. ^ Heathcote, pp. 60–63.
  69. ^ Heathcote, pp. 243–245.
  70. ^ Heathcote, pp. 121–122.
  71. ^ Heathcote, pp. 173–174.
  72. ^ Heathcote, pp. 105–108.
  73. ^ Heathcote, pp. 256–257.
  74. ^ Heathcote, pp. 318–319.
  75. ^ Heathcote, pp. 253–255.
  76. ^ Heathcote, pp. 223–225.
  77. ^ Heathcote, pp. 150–151.
  78. ^ Heathcote, pp. 207–208.
  79. ^ Heathcote, pp. 96–97.
  80. ^ Heathcote, pp. 237–238.
  81. ^ Heathcote, pp. 41–43.
  82. ^ Heathcote, pp. 257–259.
  83. ^ Heathcote, pp. 163–165.
  84. ^ Heathcote, pp. 270–272.
  85. ^ Heathcote, pp. 311–314.
  86. ^ Heathcote, pp. 246–250.
  87. ^ Heathcote, pp. 114–115.
  88. ^ Heathcote, pp. 83–85.
  89. ^ Heathcote, pp. 299–301.
  90. ^ Heathcote, pp. 230–232.
  91. ^ Heathcote, pp. 26–28.
  92. ^ Heathcote, pp. 314–316.
  93. ^ Heathcote, pp. 295–297.
  94. ^ Heathcote, pp. 125–127.
  95. ^ Heathcote, pp. 151–153.
  96. ^ Heathcote, pp. 59–60.
  97. ^ Heathcote, pp. 191–197.
  98. ^ Heathcote, pp. 135–137.
  99. ^ Heathcote, pp. 205–207.
  100. ^ Heathcote, pp. 228–230.
  101. ^ Heathcote, pp. 130–135.
  102. ^ Heathcote, pp. 225–228.
  103. ^ Heathcote, pp. 155–160.
  104. ^ Heathcote, pp. 115–116.
  105. ^ Heathcote, pp. 319–320.
  106. ^ Heathcote, pp. 122–125.
  107. ^ Heathcote, pp. 240–243.
  108. ^ Heathcote, pp. 19–23.
  109. ^ Heathcote, pp. 303–308.
  110. ^ Heathcote, pp. 250–253.
  111. ^ Heathcote, pp. 39–41.
  112. ^ Heathcote, pp. 10–12.
  113. ^ Heathcote, pp. 43–45.
  114. ^ Heathcote, pp. 190–191.
  115. ^ Heathcote, pp. 208–211.
  116. ^ Heathcote, pp. 17–19.
  117. ^ Heathcote, pp. 176–178.
  118. ^ Heathcote, pp. 64–69.
  119. ^ Heathcote, pp. 197–199.
  120. ^ Heathcote, pp. 86–89.
  121. ^ Heathcote, pp. 219–222.
  122. ^ Heathcote, pp. 108–112.
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