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King of Hanover
Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Hanover.svg
Coat of arms
Last to reign
George V
18 November 1851 – 20 September 1866
StyleHis Majesty
First monarchGeorge III
Last monarchGeorge V
Formation12 October 1814
Abolition20 September 1866
Pretender(s)Prince Ernst August

The King of Hanover (German: König von Hannover) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the Kingdom of Hanover, beginning with the proclamation of King George III of the United Kingdom, as "King of Hanover" during the Congress of Vienna, on 12 October 1814 at Vienna, and ending with the kingdom's annexation by Prussia on 20 September 1866.


King George III had ruled the Electorate of Hanover, with the title of Prince-elector, until Hanover was conquered by Napoleon in 1807. In 1813 George was restored to his Hanoverian territories, and in October 1814 they were constituted as the independent Kingdom of Hanover at the Congress of Vienna.

The personal union with the United Kingdom ended in 1837 on the accession of Queen Victoria because the succession laws in Hanover, based on Salic law, prevented a female inheriting the title if there was any surviving male heir (in the United Kingdom, a male took precedence only over his sisters).

List of Electors of Hanover

Ernest Augustus was appointed as the first Elector of Hanover in 1692, but he died in 1698 before the Imperial Diet confirmed the elevation of Hanover to the status of an Electorate in 1708. His widow, Sophia of Hanover, was still known as Electress of Hanover. Their son was George I.

Image Name Reign Succession Notes
King George I by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (3).jpg
George I Louis 1708–1727 Son of Ernest Augustus. Became King of Great Britain in 1714. Acquired Bremen-Verden in 1719.
George II.jpg
George II Augustus 1727–1760 Son of George I. Acquired Land Hadeln in 1731.
George, Prince of Wales, later George III, 1754 by Liotard.jpg
George III William Frederick 1760–1806 Grandson of George II. Became King of the United Kingdom (by way of the act of union with Ireland) in 1801. Acquired the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück in 1803. He lost (early 1801), regained (April 1801), lost again (May 1803), regained again (Autumn 1805), lost for a third time (early 1806), and regained for a third time (October 1813) de facto power in Hanover by various occupations and annexations during the Great French War (1801–1813). After the electoral title became defunct, with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, nonetheless between 1806 and 1814, the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was not recognised and George III retained the electoral title until early 1814 when George was proclaimed King of Hanover, a title which was universally recognised during the Congress of Vienna (1814–15).

List of Kings of Hanover

Monarch Consort Reign Royal House
# Portrait Name Portrait Name Reign start Reign end
George, Prince of Wales, later George III, 1754 by Liotard.jpg
King George III
German: König Georg III
Queen Charlotte
German: Königin Charlotte
12 October 1814
29 January 1820 Hanover
George IV van het Verenigd Koninkrijk.jpg
King George IV
German: König Georg IV
Queen Caroline
German: Königin Caroline
29 January 1820 26 June 1830 Hanover
William IV.jpg
King William IV
German: König Wilhelm IV
Beechey, William - Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen - NPG 1533.jpg
Queen Adelaide
German: Königin Adelaide
26 June 1830 20 June 1837 Hanover
King Ernest Augustus
German: König Ernst August
Friederike von Preussen - 1796.jpg
Queen Frederica
20 June 1837 18 November 1851 Hanover
King George V
German: König Georg V
Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg.jpg
Queen Marie
18 November 1851 20 September 1866 Hanover

Standard and coat of arms

After the personal union with Great Britain ended in 1837, the monarchs of Hanover kept the British royal arms and standard, only introducing a new Crown (after the British model).

See also