C-124 Globemaster II
C-124C Globemaster II.jpg
Role Heavy-lift military transport aircraft
Manufacturer Douglas Aircraft Company
First flight 27 November 1949
Introduction 1950
Retired 1974 (USAF)
Primary user United States Air Force
Produced 1949–1955
Number built 448
Developed from Douglas C-74 Globemaster
Developed into Douglas C-132 (Unbuilt)

The Douglas C-124 Globemaster II, nicknamed "Old Shaky", is an American heavy-lift cargo aircraft built by the Douglas Aircraft Company in Long Beach, California.

The C-124 was the primary heavy-lift transport for United States Air Force (USAF) Military Air Transport Service (MATS) during the 1950s and early 1960s, until the Lockheed C-141 Starlifter entered service. It served in MATS, later Military Airlift Command (MAC), units of the Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard until retired in 1974.

Design and development

Douglas Aircraft developed the C-124 from 1947 to 1949, from a prototype they created from a World War II–design Douglas C-74 Globemaster, and based on lessons learned during the Berlin Airlift. The aircraft was powered by four large Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major piston engines producing 3,800 hp (2,800 kW) each. The C-124's design featured two large clamshell doors and a hydraulically actuated ramp in the nose as well as a cargo elevator under the aft fuselage. The C-124 was capable of carrying 68,500 lb (31,100 kg) of cargo, and the 77 ft (23 m) cargo bay featured two overhead hoists, each capable of lifting 8,000 lb (3,600 kg). As a cargo hauler, it could carry tanks, guns, trucks and other heavy equipment, while in its passenger-carrying role it could carry 200 fully equipped troops on its double decks or 127 litter patients and their attendants. It was the only aircraft of its time capable of transporting fully assembled heavy equipment such as tanks and bulldozers.

The C-124 first flew on 27 November 1949, with the C-124A being delivered from May 1950.[1] The C-124C was next, featuring more powerful engines, and an APS-42 weather radar fitted in a "thimble"-like structure on the nose. Wingtip-mounted combustion heaters were added to heat the cabin, and enable wing and tail surface deicing. The C-124As were later equipped with these improvements.

One C-124C, 52-1069, c/n 43978, was used as a JC-124C,[2] for testing the 15,000 shp (11,000 kW) Pratt & Whitney XT57 (PT5) turboprop, which was installed in the nose.[3][4]

Operational history

Nose and front door of a C124.
Nose and front door of a C124.
An early C-124A during the Korean War.
An early C-124A during the Korean War.

First deliveries of the 448 production aircraft began in May 1950 and continued until 1955. The C-124 was operational during the Korean War, and was also used to assist supply operations for Operation Deep Freeze in Antarctica. They performed heavy lift cargo operations for the U.S. military worldwide, including flights to Southeast Asia, Africa and elsewhere. From 1959 to 1961 they transported Thor missiles across the Atlantic to England. The C-124 was also used extensively during the Vietnam War transporting materiel from the U.S. to Vietnam. Until the C-5A became operational, the C-124, and its sister C-133 Cargomaster were the only aircraft available that could transport very large loads.

The United States Air Force's Strategic Air Command (SAC) was the initial operator of the C-124 Globemaster, with 50 in service from 1950 through 1962. Four squadrons operated the type, consisting of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Strategic Support Squadrons. Their primary duty was to transport nuclear weapons between air bases and to provide airlift of SAC personnel and equipment during exercises and overseas deployments.

The Military Air Transport Service (MATS) was the primary operator until January 1966, when the organization was retitled Military Airlift Command (MAC). Within a few years following the formation of MAC, the last remaining examples of the C-124 were transferred to the Air Force Reserve (AFRES) and the Air National Guard (ANG), said transfers being complete by 1970. The first ANG unit to receive the C-124C, the 165th Tactical Airlift Group (now known as the 165th Airlift Wing) of the Georgia Air National Guard, was the last Air Force unit to retire their aircraft (AF Serial No. 52-1066 and 53-0044) in September 1974.[5]

Variants

The experimental YC-124B-DL powered by four Pratt & Whitney YT-34-P-6 turboprops.
The experimental YC-124B-DL powered by four Pratt & Whitney YT-34-P-6 turboprops.
YC-124
Prototype rebuilt from a C-74 with a new fuselage and powered by four 3,500 hp R-4360-39 engines, it was later re-engined and redesignated YC-124A.
YC-124A
Prototype YC-124 re-engined with four 3,800 hp R-4360-35A engines.
C-124A
Douglas Model 1129A, production version with four 3,500 hp R-4360-20WA engines; 204 built, most retrofitted later with nose-radar and combustion heaters in wingtip fairings.
YC-124B
Douglas Model 1182E was a turboprop variant of the C-124A with four Pratt & Whitney YT34-P-6 turboprops; originally proposed as a tanker, it was used for trials on the operation of turboprop aircraft. Originally designated C-127.[6]
C-124C
Douglas Model 1317, same as C-124A but with four 3,800 hp R-4360-63A engines, nose radar, wingtip combustion heaters and increased fuel capacity; 243 built.

Operators

 United States
Military Air Transport Service / Military Airlift Command

Accidents and incidents

Surviving aircraft

C-124C 52–1000 making its last landing at Travis Air Force Base, 10 June 1984.
C-124C 52–1000 making its last landing at Travis Air Force Base, 10 June 1984.
C-124 at Pima
C-124 at Pima
South Korea
United States

Specifications (C-124C Globemaster II)

3-view line drawing of the Douglas C-124C Globemaster II

Data from McDonnell Douglas aircraft since 1920 : Volume I,[47] McDonnell Douglas Aircraft since 1920[48]

General characteristics

Performance

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ Associated Press article does not give full squadron name, but it is likely that this refers to the 1st Strategic Support Squadron, as this unit operated the C-124 and was based at Biggs AFB.

Citations

  1. ^ "C-124C." McCord Air Museum. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  2. ^ Baugher Joe. "USAF serials 1952." American Military Aircraft. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
  3. ^ Francillon 1979, p. 470.
  4. ^ Connors 2010, p. 294.
  5. ^ "Douglas C-124 Globemaster II Fact Sheet." Archived 5 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
  6. ^ Cox, George, and Kaston, Craig, 2019. American Secret Projects 2: Airlifters 1941-1961. Manchester: Crecy Publishing.
  7. ^ Berlin 2000, pp. 14–22.
  8. ^ Berlin 2000, pp. 23–30.
  9. ^ Berlin 2000, pp. 30–32.
  10. ^ Berlin 2000, pp. 32–38.
  11. ^ Berlin 2000, pp. 38–40.
  12. ^ Walker Aviation Museum | The Wonder of Aviation – Past, Present and Future. Wafbmuseum.org (23 May 2013). Retrieved 17 October 2013.
  13. ^ Prime, John Andrew (26 March 2011) "Plane's 1951 disappearance still a mystery" Air Force Times.
  14. ^ "Alaska glacier wreckage is 1950s military plane". Yahoo!!News (27 June 2012). Retrieved 17 October 2013.
  15. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas C-124A-DL Globemaster II 51-0107 Anchorage, AK". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  16. ^ "New technology aids recovery of Alaska plane wreck". phys.org. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  17. ^ "Accident description 50-0100." Aviation Safety Network, 24 March 2008. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
  18. ^ "Accident description 51-0137."Aviation Safety Network, 24 March 2008. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
  19. ^ "Accident description 51-5176." Aviation Safety Network, 24 March 2008. Retrieved 15 August, 2019.
  20. ^ Associated Press, "5 Airmen Die in Crash of Globemaster", The Dallas Morning News, Dallas, Texas, Sunday 1 September 1957, page 11.
  21. ^ "1952 USAF Serial Numbers". Joebaugher.com. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
  22. ^ Handte, Jerry. "Co-Pilot Tells How Plane Crashed." Binghamton Press, 5 September 1957, p. 1.
  23. ^ "Accident description 51-5173." Aviation Safety Network, 21 October 2006. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
  24. ^ Gero, David B. "Military Aviation Disasters: Significant Losses Since 1908". Sparkford, Yoevil, Somerset, UK: Haynes Publishing, 2010, ISBN 978-1-84425-645-7, p. 78.
  25. ^ "1949 USAF Serial Numbers". Joebaugher.com. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  26. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas C-124C Globemaster II 52-1017 Cape Hallett Bay". Flight Safety Foundation. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  27. ^ "Accident description 52-1062."Aviation Safety Network, 2018. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  28. ^ "Crash of a Douglas C-124A-DL Globemaster II at McChord AFB: 18 killed | Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Archives".
  29. ^ "Crash of a Douglas C-124A-DL Globemaster II at McChord AFB: 18 killed". Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Archives. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  30. ^ Ranter, Harro and Fabian I. Lujan. "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas C-124C Globemaster II 52-0968 Hawaii." Aviation Safety Network, 2009. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  31. ^ "Crash of a Douglas C-124 Globemaster II in Greece: 10 killed". Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Archives. Archived from the original on 16 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  32. ^ "Shadow box". airforce.togetherweserved.com. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  33. ^ "Crash of a Douglas C-124 Globemaster II in Spain: 8 killed". Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Archives. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  34. ^ "Accident description 51-5178." Aviation Safety Network, 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  35. ^ "Crash of a Douglas C-124 Globemaster II in Cold Bay: 7 killed". Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Archives. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  36. ^ "Crash of a Douglas C-124 Globemaster II in Paramaribo: 11 killed". Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Archives. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  37. ^ Weeks, John A. "C-124C Globemaster II". John A. Weeks III. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  38. ^ "C-124A Globemaster II". Air Mobility Command Museum. AMC Museum Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  39. ^ "C-124C "Globemaster II"". Museum of Aviation. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  40. ^ "Aircraft N86599 Data". Airport-Data.com. Airport-Data.com. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  41. ^ "DOUGLAS C-124C GLOBEMASTER II". McChord Air Museum. The McChord Air Museum Foundation. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  42. ^ Veronico, Nick. "Outdoor Exhibits – C-124C "Globemaster II"". Travis Air Force Base Heritage Center. Travis Heritage Center. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  43. ^ "GLOBEMASTER II". Pima Air & Space Museum. Pimaair.org. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  44. ^ "Douglas C-124 Globemaster II". National Museum of the US Air Force. 21 July 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  45. ^ "Airframe Dossier – DouglasDC-7 Seven Seas / C-74 Globemaster I / C-124 Globemaster II, s/n 52-1072 USAF". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  46. ^ "C-124C "Globemaster II"". Hill Air Force Base. 23 September 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  47. ^ Francillon, René J. (1988). McDonnell Douglas aircraft since 1920 : Volume I. London: Naval Institute Press. pp. 436–440. ISBN 0870214284.
  48. ^ Francillon 1979, pp. 468–471.
Bibliography