B-18 Bolo
Douglas B-18A airplane in flight (00910460 121).jpg
Role Heavy bomber
Manufacturer Douglas Aircraft Company
First flight April 1935
Introduction 1936
Retired 1946 from Brazilian Air Force[1]
Status Retired
Primary users United States Army Air Corps
United States Army Air Forces
Royal Canadian Air Force
Brazilian Air Force
Produced 1936– ca. 1939
Number built 350
Developed from Douglas DC-2
Developed into Douglas B-23 Dragon

The Douglas B-18 Bolo is an American heavy bomber which served with the United States Army Air Corps and the Royal Canadian Air Force (as the Digby) during the late 1930s and early 1940s. The Bolo was developed by the Douglas Aircraft Company from their DC-2, to replace the Martin B-10.

By 1940 standards, it was slow, had an inadequate defensive armament, and carried too small a bomb load. A B-18 was one of the first USAAF aircraft to sink a German U-boat, U-654 on 22 August 1942 in the Caribbean.[2] By 1942, surviving B-18s were relegated to antisubmarine, training and transport duties.

Design and development

In 1934, the United States Army Air Corps requested for a twin-engine heavy bomber with double the bomb load and range of the Martin B-10 then entering service. During the evaluation at Wright Field the following year, Douglas offered its DB-1. It was competing against the Boeing Model 299 (later developed into the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress) and Martin 146.

While the Boeing design was clearly superior, the 299's four engines eliminated it from consideration despite being the favorite, and the crash of the prototype, (caused by taking off with the controls still locked) put its purchase on hold. The Martin 146 was a minor improvement on the B-10, and was never seriously considered. During the depths of the Great Depression, the lower price of the DB-1 at $58,500 compared to $99,620 for the Model 299 also favored the Douglas entry, and it was ordered into immediate production in January 1936 as the B-18.

The DB-1 design was modified from that of the DC-2. The wingspan was 4.5 ft (1.4 m) greater, the fuselage was narrower and deeper, and the wings were moved up to a mid-wing position to allow space under the spars for an enclosed bomb bay. Added armament included manually operated nose, dorsal, and ventral gun turrets.

At one point, Preston Tucker's firm received a contract to supply Tucker remote controlled gun turrets but these were unsuccessful, and were never used in service.[3]

Operational history

B-18A formation during exercises over Hawaii, 1940–1941
B-18A formation during exercises over Hawaii, 1940–1941
B-18 at Aguadulce Army Airfield in Panama

The initial contract called for 133 B-18s (including the prototype), using Wright R-1820 radial engines. The last B-18 of the run, designated DB-2 by the company, had a power-operated nose turret in a redesigned nose but this did not become standard. Additional contracts in 1937 (177 aircraft) and 1938 (40 aircraft) were for the B-18A, which had the bombardier's position further forward over the nose-gunner's station in a wedge shaped nose and the B-18A was fitted with more powerful engines.

Deliveries of B-18s to Army units began in the first half of 1937, with the first examples being test and evaluation aircraft being turned over to the Materiel Division at Wright Field, Ohio, the Technical Training Command at Chanute Field, Illinois, the Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and Lowry Field, Colorado. Deliveries to operational groups began in late 1937, the first being the 7th Bombardment Group at Hamilton Field, California.

Production B-18s, with full military equipment, had a maximum speed of 217 mph (349 km/h), cruising speed of 167 mph (269 km/h), and combat range of 850 mi (1,370 km). By 1940, most USAAC bomber squadrons were equipped with B-18s or B-18As.

However, the B-18/B-18A's deficiencies were made apparent when an all-red Soviet Ilyushin TsKB-30 named Moskva (a prototype for the twin-engine DB-3 which flew the same year as the B-18) made a non-stop flight from Moscow to North America in April 1939, a distance of 4,970 mi (8,000 km), which was well beyond the capabilities of the B-18. The TsKB-30/DB-3 was also 25% faster, was capable of carrying a bomb load 2.5 times as large as the B-18, and carried a heavier defensive armament. In August of the same year, a Japanese Mitsubishi G3M2 named Nippon (which also had its first flight the same year as the B-18) flew from Tokyo to the US, and then around the world, with the stage from Chitose, Hokkaido to Nome, Alaska being over 2,500 mi (4,000 km). The military version (code named Nell during WW2) could also carry more than the B-18, further, faster, and was also better armed. Both types had roughly 7,000 ft (2,100 m) higher service ceilings as well.

The Air Corps conceded that the Bolo was obsolete and unsuitable for its intended role. However, in spite of this, the B-18/B-18A was still the most numerous American bomber type deployed outside the continental United States at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor. The B-18 would be a stopgap until the more capable Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress and Consolidated B-24 Liberator became available in quantity.

World War II

When war came to the Pacific, most of the B-18/B-18A aircraft based overseas in the Philippines and in Hawaii were destroyed on the ground in the initial Japanese onslaught. The few Bolos that remained played no significant role in subsequent operations.

The B-18s remaining in the continental US and in the Caribbean were then deployed in a defensive role in anticipation of attacks on the US mainland. These attacks never materialized. B-17s supplanted B-18s in first-line service in 1942. Following this, 122 B-18As were modified for anti-submarine warfare. The bombardier was replaced by a search radar with a large radome. Magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) equipment was sometimes housed in a tail boom. These aircraft, designated B-18B, were used in the Caribbean on anti-submarine patrol. On 2 October 1942, a B-18A, piloted by Captain Howard Burhanna Jr. of the 99th Bomb Squadron, depth charged and sank the German submarine U-512 north of Cayenne, French Guiana.[4]

Two aircraft were transferred to Brazilian Air Force in 1942, and were used with a provisional conversion training unit set up under the provisions of Lend-Lease. They were later used for anti-submarine patrols. They were struck off charge at the end of the war.

RCAF Digby in flight
RCAF Digby in flight

In 1940 the Royal Canadian Air Force acquired 20 B-18As (as the Douglas Digby Mark I), and also used them for patrol duties, being immediately issued to 10 Squadron to replace the squadron's Westland Wapitis.[5]

Bolos and Digbys sank an additional two submarines during the course of the war. RCAF Eastern Air Command (EAC) Digbys carried out 11 attacks on U-boats. U-520 was confirmed sunk by Flying Officer F. Raymes' crew of No. 10 (BR) Squadron, on 30 October 1942.[6] east of Newfoundland.[7] However, the antisubmarine role was relatively short-lived, and the Bolos were superseded in this role in 1943 by B-24 Liberators which had a much heavier payload and a substantially longer range which finally closed the mid-Atlantic gap. Some of the Douglas Digbys in Canadian service were converted into transports or used for training.[8]

Crop spraying Bolo
Crop spraying Bolo

Surviving USAAF B-18s ended their useful lives in training and transport roles, and saw no further combat action. Two B-18As were modified as unarmed cargo transports under the designation C-58. At the end of the war, remaining examples were sold as surplus on the commercial market. Some postwar B-18s were operated as cargo or crop-spraying aircraft by commercial operators.

Variants

Early B-18 with characteristic short nose
Early B-18 with characteristic short nose
DB-1
Manufacturer's designation for prototype, first of B-18 production run, 1 built.
B-18
Initial production version, 131 or 133 built.[9]
B-18M
Trainer B-18 with bomb gear removed.
DB-2 showing the powered nose turret and redesigned nose
DB-2 showing the powered nose turret and redesigned nose
DB-2
Manufacturer's designation for prototype with powered nose turret; last of B-18 production run, 1 built.
B-18A
B-18 with more powerful Wright R-1820-53 engines and relocated bombardier's station, 217 built.[10]
B-18AM
Trainer B-18A with bomb gear removed.
B-18B in flight, showing Magnetic Anomaly Detector in tail and radar in nose
B-18B in flight, showing Magnetic Anomaly Detector in tail and radar in nose
B-18B
Antisubmarine conversion, 122 converted by adding a radar and magnetic anomaly detector.[11]
B-18C
Antisubmarine conversion, 2 converted. Fixed forward-firing .50 in (12.700 mm) machine gun, starboard side of the fuselage near lower nose glazing.
XB-22
Improved B-18 with 1,600 hp (1,200 kW) Wright R-2600-3 radial engines. Not built, due to better designs being available.[12]
C-58
Transport conversion.
Digby Mark I
Royal Canadian Air Force modification of B-18A. Named for RAF Digby.

Operators

 Brazil
1st Bomber Group (3 examples)
 Canada
No. 10 Squadron RCAF, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Digby Mk.1)
B-18 operated by Australian National Airways for the USAAF, over the Brisbane River in 1943
B-18 operated by Australian National Airways for the USAAF, over the Brisbane River in 1943
 United States
1st Search Attack Group, Langley Field, Virginia (B-18A/B/C)
2d Bombardment Group, Langley Field, Virginia (B-18A)
3d Bombardment Group, Barksdale Field, Louisiana (B-18)
5th Bombardment Group, Hickam Field, Hawaii (B-18)[Note 1]
6th Bombardment Group, Rio Hato Airfield, Panama, (B-18/B-18A/B)
7th Bombardment Group, Hamilton Field, California, (B-18)
5th Bombardment Group, Luke Field, Oahu, Hawaii Territory (B-18)[Note 1]
9th Bombardment Group, Caribbean; Panama and South American air bases (B-18/B-18A/B)
11th Bombardment Group, Hickam Field, Hawaii Territory (B-18)[Note 1]
13th Bombardment Group, Langley Field, Virginia (B-18A/B)
17th Bombardment Group, McChord Field, Washington (B-18)
19th Bombardment Group, Clark Field, Philippines Commonwealth (B-18)[Note 1]
22d Bombardment Group, Muroc Field, California (B-18)
25th Bombardment Group, Caribbean (B-18/B)
27th Bombardment Group, Barksdale Field, Louisiana (B-18)
28th Bombardment Group, California, (B-18)
28th Composite Group, Elmendorf Field, Alaska, (B-18A)
29th Bombardment Group, Langley Field (B-18A)
40th Bombardment Group, Panama, Puerto Rico (B-18/B)
41st Bombardment Group, California, (B-18)
42nd Bombardment Group, Portland, Oregon (B-18)
45th Bombardment Group, Savannah Airfield, Georgia (B-18A)
47th Bombardment Group, McChord Field, Washington (B-18)
479th Antisubmarine Group, Langley Field, Virginia (B-18A/B)

Aircraft on display

Six B-18s are known to exist, five of them preserved or under restoration in museums in the United States, and one is a wreck still located at its crash site:[13]

B-18
B-18 at Castle Air Museum in California
B-18 at Castle Air Museum in California
B-18A
B-18A at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, in Ohio
B-18A at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, in Ohio
B-18B
B-18B at Pima Air Museum in Arizona
B-18B at Pima Air Museum in Arizona

Specifications (B-18A)

Douglas B-18A Bolo 3-view silhouette
Douglas B-18A Bolo 3-view silhouette

Data from McDonnell Douglas aircraft since 1920 : Volume I[22]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

Avionics

Notable appearances in media

Main article: Aircraft in fiction § B-18 Bolo

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Most aircraft were destroyed on the 7th and 8th December 1941 during the Japanese attacks on the outbreak of war between Japan and the US.

Citations

  1. ^ "Historical Listings: Brazil (BRZ) Archived 2012-10-18 at the Wayback Machine." World Air Forces. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  2. ^ Conaway, William. "Confirmed Sinkings of German U-Boats by VI Bomber Command Bombardment Aircraft." Planes and Pilots of World War 2, 2000. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
  3. ^ Lehto, 2016, p. no. not available.
  4. ^ Uboat.net: "B-18 sinks U-512." uboat.net. Retrieved: 17 May 2010.
  5. ^ Christopher Shores, "History of the Royal Canadian Air Force", p32
  6. ^ "Douglas Digby." rcaf.com. Retrieved: 17 May 2010.
  7. ^ "Canadian Digby sinks U-520." Uboat.net. Retrieved: 17 May 2010.
  8. ^ Pigott, Peter (2005). On Canadian Wings: A Century of Flight. Ontario: Dundurn. p. 83. ISBN 9781550025491. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  9. ^ "B-18." Archived March 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine National Museum of the USAF. Retrieved: 17 May 2010.
  10. ^ "B-18A." Archived January 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine National Museum of the USAF. Retrieved: 17 May 2010.
  11. ^ "B-18B." Archived January 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine National Museum of the USAF. Retrieved: 17 May 2010.
  12. ^ "XB-22." Archived January 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine National Museum of the USAF. Retrieved: 17 May 2010.
  13. ^ "List of survivor B-18s on display or restoration." Warbird Resource Group. Retrieved: 9 April 2012.
  14. ^ "Hawaii: Big Island B-18". Wreckchasing Message Board. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  15. ^ "B-18 Bolo". Warbird Information Exchange. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  16. ^ "B-18 Bolo, s/n 37-029." Castle Air Museum. Retrieved: 15 December 2017.
  17. ^ "B-18 Bolo, s/n 37-469." National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 18 November 2015.
  18. ^ "B-18 Bolo, s/n 39-025." Wings Over the Rockies Air & Space Museum. Retrieved: 15 December 2017.
  19. ^ *Ogden, Bob (2011). Aviation Museums and Collections of North America (2 ed.). London: Air-Britain (Historians). p. 630. ISBN 978-0851304274.
  20. ^ "B-18 Bolo, s/n 37-505." McChord Air Museum. Retrieved: 9 April 2012.
  21. ^ "B-18 Bolo, s/n 38-593." Pima Air & Space Museum. Retrieved: 9 April 2012.
  22. ^ Francillon, René J. (1988). McDonnell Douglas aircraft since 1920 : Volume I. London: Naval Institute Press. pp. 184–193. ISBN 0870214284.
  23. ^ Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April 2019.

Bibliography