Kiras Bangun (1852 – 22 October 1942), also known as Garamata is a national hero of Indonesia.


Bangun was born in the village of Batu Karang (modern day Karo Regency, North Sumatra), Dutch East Indies, in 1852.[1] He was nicknamed Garamata (Red Eyes). As a youth, he wandered from urung (village) to urung in order to maintain the norms, customs and cultures of Karo.[2]

In 1905, Bangun fought the Dutch in Southeast Aceh and Dairi with guerrilla tactics. However, the Dutch that used oportuniteit beginsel, forced him out of hiding and exiled him to Riung.[3] He was released in 1909, although still under Dutch control.[4] From 1919 to 1926, helped by two of his sons, he led the rebellion in Tanah Karo. They were exiled to Cipinang, whilst he continued his struggle against the Dutch.[5]

Bangun died on 22 October 1942 in Batu Karang.[5]

He was given the title Gelar Pahlawan Nasional Indonesia (National Hero of Indonesia) on 9 November 2005 by president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.[6]


  1. ^ Sudarmanto (2007), p. 398.
  2. ^ Ajisaka (2008), p. 233.
  3. ^ Sudarmanto (2007), p. 400.
  4. ^ Sudarmanto (2007), pp. 400–401.
  5. ^ a b Sudarmanto (2007), p. 401.
  6. ^ Keputusan Presiden ("Presidential Decision") Republik Indonesia Nomor 82/TK/2005.