II Paralympic Games
Host cityTokyo, Japan
Events144 in 9 sports
Opening3 November
Closing12 November
Opened by
StadiumOda Field
1964 Summer Olympics

The 1964 Summer Paralympics (Japanese: 1964年夏季パラリンピック, Hepburn: 1964-Nen Kaki Pararinpikku), originally known as the 13th International Stoke Mandeville Games and also known as Paralympic Tokyo 1964,[1] were the second Paralympic Games to be held. They were held in Tokyo, Japan, and were the last Summer Paralympics to take place in the same city as the Summer Olympics until the 1988 Summer Paralympics.

The 1964 Games, although still formally an edition of the International Stoke Mandeville Games, were the first to use the term "Paralympic" in association with the event; the term "Paralympic Games" was approved by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) first in 1984, while the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) was formed in 1989.[2][3]

In contrast with the 1960 Games, many events had more than three participants, meaning that athletes were no longer guaranteed a medal upon completing their event.[4]

Tokyo hosted the Summer Paralympic Games again in 2020.


Nine sports were competed at the 1964 games. In athletics, a wheelchair racing event in the form of a 60 m dash was added; previously the athletics program had included only field events. Wheelchair racing has since become one of the most prominent Paralympic events.[5]

Medal table

Main article: 1964 Summer Paralympics medal table

Athletes from 17 of the 19 National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) won at least one medal. By default, the table is ordered by the number of gold medals the athletes from a nation have won. The number of silver medals is taken into consideration next and then the number of bronze medals. If nations are still tied, equal ranking is given and they are listed alphabetically by IPC country code.

With a few exceptions, each event contributed one medal of each type to the table (although for team events, multiple physical medals were actually awarded). Two bronze medals were awarded in the dartchery, snooker and table tennis events.[6][7][8] Some swimming events did not award silver or bronze medals.[9]

Inaccurate reports

See also: Michal Escapa

At the start of the Paralympic Games there was no precision in reporting the results of the competitions. The Israeli athlete Michal Escapa was reported to be of Italian nationality and without a first name, as she is mentioned in the International Paralympic Committee[10] of the Italian Paralympic Committee[11] web sites) for the reports of the Swimming at the 1964 Summer Paralympics where she won two bronze medals, simply reported as Escapa and not as Michal Escapa.[12][13] However, as can be seen from a 1968 Israeli newspaper reporting an interview with the athlete, she was the same athlete who had won medals in swimming and table tennis in Tokyo 1964.[14]

  ‡ First-time Paralympic appearance

  *   Host nation (Japan)

1 United States504132123
2 Great Britain18232061
3 Italy14151443
4 Australia1211730
5 Rhodesia105217
6 South Africa88319
7 Israel731323
8 Argentina6151637
9 West Germany52512
10 Netherlands46414
11 France42511
12 Austria41712
13 Japan*15410
14 Belgium1023
15 Switzerland0101
16 Malta0022
17 Sweden0011
Totals (17 entries)144138137419

Athletes with outstanding performances included Margaret Harriman of Rhodesia who won two gold medals in archery,[15] and Serge Bec of France who won two individuals gold medals, one team gold medal and one team silver medal.[16] Dick Thompson of the United Kingdom won two individual golds, one silver and one bronze in athletics.[17] The United States' Ron Stein won six golds and South Africa's Daniel Erasmus won two golds and two silvers in athletics.[17]

Participating delegations

Nineteen delegations participated in the Tokyo Paralympics.[18]

The 1964 Games marked Austria,Fiji and South Africa's Paralympic Games début. South Africa had just been banned from taking part in the 1964 Summer Olympic Games, due to its policy of apartheid. It was not, however, banned from the Paralympics until 1980 Summer Paralympics,as Japan (in a host country position) did not oppose its participation.[19][20] A letter from archery medalist Irene Preslipski published in the Wilkes-Barre Times Leader on December 1, 1964, also mentions delegations from Ceylon, Mexico and the Philippines marching in the opening ceremony. However, these countries only sent in officials.


Members of the Australian Team march at the Opening Ceremony of the Tokyo 1964 Summer Paralympic Games

The Opening ceremony was organized in the Yoyogi Park, and the Closing Ceremony at Yoyogi National Gymnasium.[5] About 5000 spectators were present at both of the ceremonies.[5] Then Crown Prince Akihito and Crown Princess Michiko were present in both of them.[5]

Media coverage

Earlier it was thought that the Games might not get much media coverage, due to the focus on the Olympic Games, but both radio and television media gave high coverage to the Games.[5]

Organizing Committee

Yoshisuke Kasai was the chairman of the board of directors.[1] The board had 3 vice-chairmen, namely T. Azuma, H. Dazai and I. Miki.[1] The auditor of the organizing committee was M. Tozawa,[1] and the secretary general was K. Ujiie.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e The Thirteenth International Stoke Mandeville Games for The Paralysed, dinf.ne.jp, March 17, 1999
  2. ^ History and Use of the Term Paralympic Archived 2011-12-16 at the Wayback Machine, International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
  3. ^ Rome 1960, International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
  4. ^ IPC searchable database
  5. ^ a b c d e "Tokyo 1964". International Paralympic Committee. 2008. Retrieved 2011-07-12.
  6. ^ "Medallists Tokyo 1964 Paralympic Games Dartchery". International Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on 31 August 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  7. ^ "Medallists Tokyo 1964 Paralympic Games Snooker". International Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  8. ^ "Medallists Tokyo 1964 Paralympic Games Table Tennis". International Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  9. ^ "Medallists Tokyo 1964 Paralympic Games Swimming". International Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  10. ^ "Swimming - Women's 25 m Breaststroke Incomplete class 2". paralympic.org. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  11. ^ "Media Guide Tokyo 2020" (PDF). comitatoparalimpico.it (in Italian). Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  12. ^ "Michael Escapa - Profile". paralympic.org. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  13. ^ "Escapa - Profile". paralympic.org. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  14. ^ "Michal Escapa - Hi whose mistake?". nli.org.il (in Hebrew). 27 September 1968. Retrieved 15 September 2021. ... but at the Tokyo Olympics in 1964, she came to the place of success precisely. And she brought an additional Israeli team trophy as well as two sports for me
  15. ^ "Medallists-Tokyo 1964 Paralympic Games-Archery". International Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  16. ^ "Medallists-Tokyo 1964 Paralympic Games-Wheelchair Fencing". International Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  17. ^ a b "Medallists-Tokyo 1964 Paralympic Games-Athletics". International Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  18. ^ "Medal Standings - Tokyo 1964 Paralympic Games". International Paralympic Committee. 2008. Retrieved 2011-07-12.
  19. ^ "'The Netherlands against Apartheid' - 1970s", International Institute of Social History
  20. ^ South Africa at the Paralympics, International Paralympic Committee
Preceded byRome Summer Paralympics Tokyo II Paralympic Summer Games (1964) Succeeded byTel Aviv