XIII Paralympic Games
Host cityBeijing, China
MottoOne World, One Dream
(Chinese: 同一个世界 同一个梦想
: Tóng yīge shìjìe tóng yīge mèngxiǎng)
Events472 in 20 sports
Opening6 September
Closing17 September
Opened by
StadiumBeijing National Stadium
2008 Summer Olympics
Iran v South Africa in wheelchair basketball at the 2008 Summer Paralympics.

The 2008 Summer Paralympic Games (Chinese: 2008年夏季残疾人奥林匹克运动会; pinyin: 2008 Nián Xiàjì Cánjí Rén Àolínpǐkè Yùndònghuì), the 13th Summer Paralympic Games, took place in Beijing, China from September 6 to 17, 2008. As with the 2008 Summer Olympics, equestrian events were held in Hong Kong and sailing events in Qingdao. It was first time the new Paralympic logo featured in the Summer Paralympics since its rebranding after the 2004 Summer Paralympics.

3,951 athletes from 146 countries took part,[1] the largest number of nations ever (ten more than the 2004 Games in Athens). Five countries competed for the first time.[2] As host country, China fielded more athletes than any other country. The slogan for the 2008 Paralympics was the same as the 2008 Summer Olympics, "One World, One Dream" (simplified Chinese: 同一个世界 同一个梦想; traditional Chinese: 同一個世界 同一個夢想 Pinyin Tóng yīge shìjìe tóng yīge mèngxiǎng, lit. "One World, One Dream"). China dominated the medal count, finishing with 89 gold medals and 211 total medals, more than double the next-ranked NPC in both cases. 339 Paralympic records and 279 world records were broken.[1] International Paralympic Committee (IPC) President Philip Craven declared the Games "the greatest Paralympic Games ever."[3]

Beijing was selected to host the 2022 Winter Paralympics, making it the first city to host both Summer and Winter Games.


The Beijing National Stadium

Main articles: 2008 Summer Olympics venues and Olympic Green

Nineteen competition venues were selected—seventeen in Beijing, one in Hong Kong, and one in Qingdao.[4]

  1. Beijing National Stadium (Bird Nest) - Athletics, Opening and closing ceremonies
  2. Beijing National Aquatics Center (Water Cube) - Swimming
  3. Beijing National Indoor Stadium (Fan) - Wheelchair basketball
  4. Fencing Gymnasium of Olympic Green Convention Centre - Boccia, Wheelchair fencing
  5. Olympic Green Archery Field - Archery
  6. Olympic Green Hockey Field - Football 5-a-side, Football 7-a-side
  7. Olympic Green Tennis Centre (Flowers) - Wheelchair tennis
  8. Peking University Gymnasium - Table tennis
  9. Beihang University Gymnasium - Powerlifting
  10. China Agricultural University Gymnasium - Sitting volleyball
  11. Beijing Science and Technology University Gymnasium - Wheelchair rugby
  12. Beijing Institute of Technology Gymnasium - Goalball
  13. Beijing Shooting Range Hall - Shooting
  14. Laoshan Velodrome - Cycling (track)
  15. Workers Gymnasium - Judo
  16. Shunyi Olympic Rowing-Canoeing Park - Rowing
  17. Triathlon Venue - Cycling (road)
  18. Hong Kong Equestrian Venues - Equestrian
  19. Qingdao International Sailing Centre - Sailing



The Games's emblem, "Sky, Earth, and Human Beings" (Chinese: 天、地、人), was unveiled in July 2004, a multicolored Chinese character "之" (Chinese: zhī) stylized as an athletic figure in motion. Its red, blue and green colors represent sun, sky and earth.[5]


The slogan was the same as the 2008 Summer Olympics, "One World, One Dream".

Fu Niu Lele, mascot of the 2008 Summer Paralympics


The mascot was a cartoon cow named Fu Niu Lele (Chinese: 福牛乐乐), roughly meaning "Lucky Ox 'Happy'".[6]

Theme song

The theme song was "Flying with the Dream" Chinese: 和梦一起飞.[7] It was performed by Chinese-Tibetan singer Han Hong and Hong Kong singer and actor Andy Lau.

Torch relay

Main article: 2008 Summer Paralympics torch relay

The torch relay of the 2008 Summer Paralympics started from Tian Tan (Temple of Heaven) on August 28. The flame then gathered before The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests (祈年殿) and followed two routes (the "Route of Ancient China" and the "Route of Modern China"). Both routes returned to Beijing on September 5, and the torch was flamed at the National Stadium during the Opening Ceremony on September 6.

The Games

Further information: highlights, medal table, and medal winners

Opening ceremony

Main articles: 2008 Summer Paralympics opening ceremony and 2008 Summer Paralympics national flag bearers

The opening ceremony took place on September 6, 2008. The pre-ceremony performance was a succession of various musical performances, ranging from military music to folk music and a performance of Ode to Joy.[8] Following a countdown, a fireworks display signalled the beginning of the ceremony proper. The national flag of China was then raised, in accordance with usual protocol, and the national anthem of China performed.[8] Performers wearing suits in bright colours paraded round the stadium, as a welcoming ceremony preceding the athletes' entry.[8] As with the 2008 Summer Olympics, the ceremony included a parade of nations, with a flag bearer for each national team. Contrary to Olympic tradition, the national team of Greece did not enter first, as the Paralympic Games traces its roots to Stoke Mandeville rather than Olympia; the host country, as is customary in both Olympic and Paralympic Games, came last. As Chinese is written in characters and not letters, the order of the teams' entry was determined by the number of strokes in the first character of their respective countries' Simplified Chinese names.[9] Countries with the same number of strokes in the first character are sorted by those of the next character. This made Guinea (几内亚) the first country to enter as it takes two strokes to write the first character in the country's name (几). Following the athletes' parade, a performance took place, divided into chapters and sub-chapters entitled the "Journey of Space" and "Journey of Life"[8] The sunbird performance entailed Yang Haitao (杨海涛), a singer with a visual impairment, singing about dreams while an acrobat in sunbird costume descended in simulated flight from the air and "awakened the blind singer from his sleep".[8] The ceremony concludes with Hou Bin, the first Chinese paralympian to be three-time champion consecutively in the same event, lifted himself and his wheelchair up on a rope by strength of arms to the top of Beijing National Stadium, where he lit the cauldron to mark the beginning of the Games.[10]

Closing ceremony

Main article: 2008 Summer Paralympics closing ceremony

The 2008 Summer Paralympics closing ceremony was held at the Beijing National Stadium. It began at 8:00 pm China Standard Time (UTC+8) on September 17, 2008.[11]


Twenty sports were on the program:

Rowing made its first appearance in the Paralympics at these games.


 ●  Opening ceremony  ●  Event competitions  ●  Gold medal events  ●  Closing ceremony
September 6th
Ceremonies OC CC
Archery 4 3 2 9
Athletics 10 20 17 10 16 20 18 19 25 5 160
Boccia 4 3 7
Cycling Road cycling 15 4 4 46
Track cycling 5 7 7 4
Equestrian 2 4 2 3 11
Football 5-a-side 1 1
7-a-side 1 1
Goalball 2 2
Judo 4 4 5 13
Powerlifting 3 4 2 3 4 2 2 20
Rowing 4 4
Sailing 3 3
Shooting 2 2 2 2 2 2 12
Swimming 16 18 16 12 13 16 14 18 17 140
Table tennis 5 11 4 4 24
Volleyball 1 1 2
Wheelchair basketball 1 1 2
Wheelchair fencing 3 3 2 2 10
Wheelchair rugby 1 1
Wheelchair tennis 1 3 2 6
Daily medal events 27 41 61 46 45 52 49 56 51 36 8 472
Cumulative total 27 68 129 175 220 272 321 377 428 464 472
September 6th

Participating NPCs

The following National Paralympic Committees sent delegations to compete.[12] Macau and the Faroe Islands are members of the International Paralympic Committee, but not of the International Olympic Committee; hence they participate in the Paralympic Games but not in the Olympics.

Burundi, Gabon, Georgia, Haiti and Montenegro participated in the Paralympics for the first time.[1]

Botswana was due to take part, but its single athlete, defending Paralympic champion sprinter Tshotlego Morama, withdrew prior to the Games due to injury. The country's last-minute attempt to field other athletes in her place was rejected, as they did not meet the requirement of having participated in international events.[13]

Participating National Paralympic Committees

Medal count

Main article: 2008 Summer Paralympics medal table

This table is based on the medal count of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC).

The ranking is sorted primarily by the number of gold medals earned by a National Paralympic Committee. The number of silver medals is taken into consideration next and then the number of bronze medals. If countries are still tied, equal ranking is given and they are listed alphabetically by IPC Country Code.

  *   Host nation (Host nation (China))

2008 Summer Paralympics medal table
1 China (CHN)*897052211
2 Great Britain (GBR)422931102
3 United States (USA)36352899
4 Ukraine (UKR)24183274
5 Australia (AUS)23292779
6 South Africa (RSA)213630
7 Canada (CAN)19102150
8 Russia (RUS)18232263
9 Brazil (BRA)16141747
10 Spain (ESP)15212258
11–76Remaining NPCs170219229618
Totals (76 entries)4734714871431

Events highlights

Main article: 2008 Summer Paralympics highlights

International television

In France, following the Games, Philippe Juvin, national secretary of the governing Union for a Popular Movement, accused national public television network France Télévisions of having practiced "segregation" by providing live coverage of the Beijing Olympics but only ten-minute daily summaries of events, outside prime time, for the Beijing Paralympics. France Télévisions replied that it would take Juvin to court for slander.[14][15]

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Beijing 2008", International Paralympic Committee
  2. ^ "CPC announces Canadian team for the 2008 Beijing Paralympic Games in China" Archived September 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Canadian Paralympic Committee, July 8, 2008.
  3. ^ "IPC chief: "These are greatest Paralympic Games ever" _English_Xinhua". News.xinhuanet.com. September 17, 2008. Archived from the original on September 19, 2008. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
  4. ^ "Competition Venues – The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games". The Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad. Archived from the original on July 26, 2008. Retrieved July 26, 2008.
  5. ^ "Beijing Paralympics Emblem – The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games". Archived from the original on July 20, 2008. Retrieved July 5, 2008.
  6. ^ "Introduction to the Design of Fu Niu Lele – The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games". Archived from the original on June 6, 2008. Retrieved July 5, 2008.
  7. ^ "Beijing Paralympic theme song shows love for life". Xinhua. September 6, 2008. Archived from the original on September 29, 2008. Retrieved September 17, 2008.
  8. ^ a b c d e "Full Coverage: The Opening Ceremony of the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games" Archived September 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Xinhua, September 6, 2008.
  9. ^ "Opening Ceremony plan released – The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games". Archived from the original on September 6, 2008. Retrieved September 6, 2008.
  10. ^ Peopledaily. "Peopledaily.com." China opens Beijing Paralympic Games in celebration of life and humanity. Retrieved on September 14, 2008.
  11. ^ English People's Daily. "People's daily." 2008 Olympics Closing Ceremony – Beijing. Retrieved on September 28, 2008.
  12. ^ Official list Archived September 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, International Paralympic Committee.
  13. ^ "Botswna locked out of Paralympics", Mmegi, September 5, 2008
  14. ^ "Paralympiques: L'UMP accuse" Archived September 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Journal du dimanche, September 19, 2008.
  15. ^ "Jeux paralympiques: France TV va attaquer Juvin (UMP) pour diffamation" Archived September 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Agence France-Presse, September 18, 2008.
Preceded byAthens Summer Paralympics Beijing XIII Paralympic Summer Games (2008) Succeeded byLondon