Matsue
松江市
From top left: Kumano Taisha, Yaegaki Shrine, Miho Shrine, Matsue Castle, Lake Shinji (Yomegashima), Tamatsukuri hot springs, Mihonoseki Lighthouse, Night view of Matsue
From top left: Kumano Taisha, Yaegaki Shrine, Miho Shrine, Matsue Castle, Lake Shinji (Yomegashima), Tamatsukuri hot springs, Mihonoseki Lighthouse, Night view of Matsue
Flag of Matsue
Official seal of Matsue
Map
Location of Matsue in Shimane Prefecture
Location of Matsue
Matsue is located in Japan
Matsue
Matsue
Location in Japan
Coordinates: 35°28′05″N 133°02′55″E / 35.46806°N 133.04861°E / 35.46806; 133.04861
CountryJapan
RegionChūgoku (San'in)
PrefectureShimane
Government
 • MayorUesada Akihito (since April 2021) (Ind.)
Area
 • Total572.99 km2 (221.23 sq mi)
Population
 (March 31, 2023)
 • Total196,748
 • Density340/km2 (890/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+09:00 (JST)
City hall address86 Suetsugu, Matsue-shi, Shimane-ken 690-8540
ClimateCfa
WebsiteOfficial website
Symbols
FlowerCamellia, Peony
TreePinus, Cherry blossom

Matsue (Japanese: 松江市, Hepburn: Matsue-shi) is the capital city of Shimane Prefecture, Japan, located in the Chūgoku region of Honshu.[1][2] As of 31 March 2023, the city had an estimated population of 196,748 in 91287 households and a population density of 340 persons per km².[3] The total area of the city is 572.99 square kilometres (221.23 sq mi). Matsue is home to the Tokugawa-era Matsue Castle, one of the last surviving feudal castles in Japan.

Geography

Matsue is located at the northernmost point of Shimane Prefecture, between Lake Shinji and Nakaumi on the banks of the Ohashi River connecting the two lakes, though the city proper reaches the Sea of Japan coast. Matsue is the center of the Lake Shinji-Nakaumi metropolitan area, which has a population of approximately 600,000 in 2020. The Lake Shinji-Nakaumi metropolitan area is the fourth largest on the Sea of Japan coast after Niigata, Greater Kanazawa, and Fukui.[4]

Climate

Matsue has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with very warm summers and cool winters. Precipitation is abundant throughout the year, and is somewhat heavier in June, July and September. The average annual temperature in Matsue is 15.2 °C (59.4 °F). The average annual rainfall is 1,791.9 mm (70.55 in) with July as the wettest month. The temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 27.1 °C (80.8 °F), and lowest in January, at around 4.6 °C (40.3 °F).[5] The highest temperature ever recorded in Matsue was 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) on 1 August 1994; the coldest temperature ever recorded was −8.7 °C (16.3 °F) on 19 February 1977.[5]

Climate data for Matsue (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1940−present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.6
(69.1)
24.7
(76.5)
26.4
(79.5)
30.7
(87.3)
32.4
(90.3)
35.0
(95.0)
37.1
(98.8)
38.5
(101.3)
36.1
(97.0)
32.1
(89.8)
27.4
(81.3)
23.2
(73.8)
38.5
(101.3)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
9.4
(48.9)
13.1
(55.6)
18.5
(65.3)
23.2
(73.8)
26.2
(79.2)
29.8
(85.6)
31.6
(88.9)
27.1
(80.8)
22.0
(71.6)
16.5
(61.7)
10.9
(51.6)
19.7
(67.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.6
(40.3)
5.0
(41.0)
8.0
(46.4)
13.1
(55.6)
18.0
(64.4)
21.7
(71.1)
25.8
(78.4)
27.1
(80.8)
22.9
(73.2)
17.4
(63.3)
12.0
(53.6)
7.0
(44.6)
15.2
(59.4)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 1.5
(34.7)
1.3
(34.3)
3.6
(38.5)
8.2
(46.8)
13.5
(56.3)
18.2
(64.8)
22.8
(73.0)
23.8
(74.8)
19.6
(67.3)
13.4
(56.1)
8.0
(46.4)
3.6
(38.5)
11.4
(52.5)
Record low °C (°F) −6.9
(19.6)
−8.7
(16.3)
−4.7
(23.5)
−2.1
(28.2)
2.4
(36.3)
7.8
(46.0)
12.9
(55.2)
15.3
(59.5)
7.9
(46.2)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.4
(27.7)
−7.5
(18.5)
−8.7
(16.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 153.3
(6.04)
118.4
(4.66)
134.0
(5.28)
113.0
(4.45)
130.3
(5.13)
173.0
(6.81)
234.1
(9.22)
129.6
(5.10)
204.1
(8.04)
126.1
(4.96)
121.6
(4.79)
154.5
(6.08)
1,791.9
(70.55)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 28
(11)
25
(9.8)
6
(2.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
11
(4.3)
68
(27)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm) 21.1 16.9 15.0 11.6 10.4 12.0 12.7 10.6 12.6 12.0 14.9 19.8 169.7
Average relative humidity (%) 76 74 72 70 71 78 80 77 79 76 76 76 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 67.4 88.6 140.5 182.4 206.5 157.1 168.6 201.0 146.2 154.4 113.8 78.8 1,705.2
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[5]
Climate data for Kashima, Matsue (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1978−present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.3
(66.7)
22.7
(72.9)
24.7
(76.5)
29.3
(84.7)
31.8
(89.2)
35.1
(95.2)
36.8
(98.2)
37.5
(99.5)
35.8
(96.4)
31.7
(89.1)
26.8
(80.2)
22.2
(72.0)
37.5
(99.5)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
9.1
(48.4)
12.5
(54.5)
17.8
(64.0)
22.5
(72.5)
25.6
(78.1)
29.1
(84.4)
30.7
(87.3)
26.7
(80.1)
21.8
(71.2)
16.5
(61.7)
11.1
(52.0)
19.3
(66.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.8
(40.6)
5.0
(41.0)
7.7
(45.9)
12.5
(54.5)
17.4
(63.3)
21.1
(70.0)
25.1
(77.2)
26.3
(79.3)
22.3
(72.1)
16.9
(62.4)
11.8
(53.2)
7.1
(44.8)
14.8
(58.7)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
0.9
(33.6)
2.6
(36.7)
6.9
(44.4)
12.3
(54.1)
17.3
(63.1)
21.8
(71.2)
22.6
(72.7)
18.4
(65.1)
12.3
(54.1)
7.4
(45.3)
3.4
(38.1)
10.6
(51.1)
Record low °C (°F) −6.6
(20.1)
−9.9
(14.2)
−4.5
(23.9)
−2.3
(27.9)
2.5
(36.5)
9.1
(48.4)
12.3
(54.1)
14.7
(58.5)
7.3
(45.1)
3.0
(37.4)
−0.8
(30.6)
−3.5
(25.7)
−9.9
(14.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 143.7
(5.66)
108.0
(4.25)
124.9
(4.92)
105.6
(4.16)
121.5
(4.78)
166.9
(6.57)
224.8
(8.85)
136.4
(5.37)
198.9
(7.83)
122.6
(4.83)
131.8
(5.19)
157.7
(6.21)
1,742.8
(68.61)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 18.4 14.4 13.2 9.8 9.1 10.7 11.8 9.5 11.5 10.6 13.4 17.9 150.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 55.8 81.0 142.1 192.4 215.8 163.8 181.6 214.9 156.9 157.8 105.8 67.1 1,735.1
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[6][7]

Demographics

Per Japanese census data, the population of Matsue in 2020 is 203,616 people.[8] Matsue has been conducting censuses since 1920.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1920 118,138—    
1925 122,592+3.8%
1930 129,262+5.4%
1935 135,250+4.6%
1940 134,221−0.8%
1945 154,617+15.2%
1950 159,374+3.1%
YearPop.±%
1955 166,907+4.7%
1960 168,375+0.9%
1965 169,153+0.5%
1970 175,399+3.7%
1975 184,157+5.0%
1980 194,173+5.4%
1985 201,026+3.5%
YearPop.±%
1990 203,298+1.1%
1995 206,718+1.7%
2000 211,564+2.3%
2005 210,796−0.4%
2010 207,682−1.5%
2015 206,230−0.7%
2020 203,616−1.3%
Matsue population statistics[8]

History

City view from Matsue Castle, 2019

Matsue is located within ancient Izumo Province and there are many archaeological sites from the Yayoi, Kofuns and Nara periods within the city borders. The area was also the stronghold of the Amago clan during the Sengoku period. The present-day castle town of Matsue was originally established by Horio Yoshiharu, lord of the Matsue clan, when he built Matsue castle and planned the surrounding town over a five-year period from 1607 to 1611. Matsue continued to be the seat of Matsue Domain under the Tokugawa shogunate until the Meiji restoration. Horio Yoshiharu's son Tadauji died before his father, thus the province was inherited by his grandson Tadaharu. However, Tadaharu died childless so the province was passed on to the Kyōgoku. Kyōgoku Takatsugu served Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Takatsugu's son Tadataka married the 4th daughter of Hidetada, Hatsu. He served in the Battle of Osaka and reportedly took 300 heads. In 1634, he received the province of Izumo, succeeding the childless Horio Tadaharu. During his rule he was instrumental in engineering projects that helped control the flow of the Hiikawa river.

In 1637, Tadataka also died childless and the domain passed to the Matsudaira clan. Naomasa was the third son of Tokugawa Hideyasu. Hideyasu, daimyō of Echizen Province, himself was the second son of Tokugawa Ieyasu, making Naomasa the grandson of the first Tokugawa Shōgun. Naomasa made a name for himself fighting in the Battle of Osaka at the age of 14. He was daimyō of Ono in Echizen and later Matsumoto in Shinano Province before becoming the ruler of Izumo 1638. Unlike the previous rulers Naomasa had children and his heirs managed to keep Izumo for ten generations until the end of the Edo period. Overall, ten Matsudaira daimyō ruled Matsue. The most famous after the first (Matsudaira Naomasa) is the seventh, Matsudaira Harusato, more commonly referred to as Fumai (不昧公).[9] He revolutionized the administrative system of the Matsue clan which was in financial difficulties and put it back on its feet. He invested in mulberry bushes and promoted special foods like shijimi clams that were a delicacy in Matsue. Harusato was a great enthusiast of Japanese tea ceremony. Because his influence on wagashi, Japanese sweets for the tea ceremony from Matsue are famous, especially one called wakakusa.

Municipal timeline

Government

Matsue has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city council of 34 members. Matsue conributes 11 members to the Shimane Prefectural Assembly. In terms of national politics, the city is part of the Shimane 1st district of the lower house of the Diet of Japan.

Economy

Matsue is a major regional commercial center and as one of the base cities of the San'in region, and along with Yonago, there are many head offices of companies operating in the San'in region. Agriculture, commercial fishing and tourism play major roles in the local economy; however, the city has only a small industrial base.

Education

Universities and colleges

Primary and secondary education

Matsue has 33 public elementary school, 17 public junior high schools and one public high school operated by the city government, and seven public high schools operated by the Shimane Prefectural Board of Education. The prefecture operates five special education schools for the handicapped. There are also four private high schools.

Transportation

Railway

JR West (JR West) - San'in Main Line

JR West (JR West) - Kisuki Line

Ichibata Electric Railway (Bataden) - Kita-Matsue Line

Highways

International relations

International Friendship Cities

Sister cities

Although not an official friendship city of Matsue, there has been ongoing exchange with Dublin, Ireland since 1988 when former mayor Nakamura Yoshijirō visited the city.[15]

Local attractions

Festivals

Various traditional festivals are still held, such as Dōgyōretsu, a drum parade held annually on the third Sunday of October,[18] and Hōranenya, one of Japan's top three boat festivals that is held only once every 10 years (most recently in May 2019).[19]

Notable people from Matsue

References

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Matsue" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 617; "Chūgoku" at p. 127.
  2. ^ Japan National Tourism Organization (JNTO), "Matsue area"; retrieved 2012-2-11.
  3. ^ "Matsue City official statistics" (in Japanese). Japan.
  4. ^ 中海・宍道湖圏域の概要 at the Wayback Machine (archived July 23, 2023)
  5. ^ a b c 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  6. ^ 観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値). JMA. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  7. ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). JMA. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  8. ^ a b Matsue population statistics
  9. ^ https://fumaikou.jp/about[dead link]
  10. ^ "島根県:市町村合併(トップ / 県政・統計 / 市町村情報 / 市町村情報 / 市町村合併)". Shima Prefectural Government. Retrieved 2024-02-07.
  11. ^ 住民基本台帳人口移動報告年報 [Annual Report on Population Movement in the Basic Resident Register] (in Japanese). 総務庁統計局. 2005. p. 146. Matsue-shi, Kashima-cho, Shimane-cho, Mihonoseki-cho, Yakumo-mura, Tamayu-cho, Shinji-cho and Yatsuka-cho were incorporated into a newly established Matsue-shi as of March 31, 2005.
  12. ^ 松江市が人口「最下位」を返上 (in Japanese). Sanin-Chūō Shimbun. Archived from the original on 2010-12-24. Retrieved 2011-03-21.
  13. ^ "松江市:市政情報:海外の姉妹都市".
  14. ^ "松江市:市政情報:姉妹都市".
  15. ^ "松江市:市政情報:アイルランド".
  16. ^ "Sada Shin Noh, sacred dancing at Sada shrine, Shimane". UNESCO. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  17. ^ "Izumo Kokunbunji". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  18. ^ "松江市鼕行列保存会 - 鼕と鼕行列の歴史".
  19. ^ "松江の船神事「ホーランエンヤ」 開催周期10年に短縮". 5 August 2010.