Fukuyama
福山市
INES Fukuyama Tomonoura Fukuyama Castle Fukuyama Rose Festival Fukuyama city distant view
INES FukuyamaTomonoura
Fukuyama CastleFukuyama Rose Festival
Fukuyama city distant view
Flag of Fukuyama
Official seal of Fukuyama
Map
Location of Fukuyama in Hiroshima Prefecture
Fukuyama is located in Japan
Fukuyama
Fukuyama
Location in Japan
Coordinates: 34°29′09″N 133°21′44″E / 34.48583°N 133.36222°E / 34.48583; 133.36222
CountryJapan
RegionChūgoku (San'yō)
PrefectureHiroshima
Government
 • MayorNaoki Edahiro
Area
 • Total518.14 km2 (200.05 sq mi)
Population
 (March 31, 2023)
 • Total459,160
 • Density890/km2 (2,300/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+09:00 (JST)
City hall address3-5 Higashi-Sakura-cho, Fukuyama-shi, Hiroshima-ken 720-8501
ClimateCfa
WebsiteOfficial website
Symbols
FlowerRose, Chrysanthemum
MammalBat
TreeChinaberry tree, Mokusei Kusunoki
Fukuyama City Hall
City view from Fukuyama Castle
Panorama of Fukuyama

Fukuyama (福山市, Fukuyama-shi) is a city in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. As of 31 March 2023, the city had an estimated population of 459,160 in 214259 households and a population density of 890 persons per km².[1] The total area of the city is 518.14 square kilometres (200.05 sq mi). After Hiroshima, it is the largest city in Hiroshima Prefecture. The city's symbol is the rose and it holds an annual Rose Festival in the month of May. The official mascot of Fukuyama is an anthropomorphic rose child by the name of Rola.

Geography

Fukuyama City is located in southeastern Hiroshima Prefecture. The center of the city is located in the Fukuyama Plain, which has been built by land reclamation projects since the Edo period, and the delta area that spreads out at the mouth of the Ashida River, which flows north and south through the city. The southern end of the city faces the Seto Inland Sea, and the northern mountainous area, which is the southern end of the so-called 'Jinseki Plateau', at the southwestern end of the Kibi Plateau with an elevation of 400 to 500 meters in connected to the Chugoku Mountains. The highest peak in the city is Mt. Kyonoue at 611 meters above sea level. This is the basin of the Oda River, a tributary of the Takahashi River that flows into Kurashiki, Okayama. The urban area is roughly divided into the former Fukuyama city, the eastern (Zao, Kasuga) district, the southern (Tomo, Numakuma) district, the Matsunaga (former Matsunaga City) district, and the northern (Kannabe, Ekiya, Kamo) districts. Fukuyama expanded by incorporated neighboring municipalities one after another, but because the eastern part was blocked by the prefectural border and the southern part by the sea, the city limits expanded to the north and west.

Neighboring municipalities

Hiroshima Prefecture

Okayama Prefecture

Climate

Fukuyama has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa)[2] with very warm summers and cool winters. Precipitation is significant throughout the year, but is somewhat lower in winter.

Climate data for Fukuyama (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1942−present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.4
(63.3)
23.6
(74.5)
24.1
(75.4)
28.6
(83.5)
32.4
(90.3)
34.3
(93.7)
38.2
(100.8)
38.5
(101.3)
36.7
(98.1)
32.2
(90.0)
26.2
(79.2)
21.4
(70.5)
38.5
(101.3)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 9.8
(49.6)
10.5
(50.9)
13.9
(57.0)
19.2
(66.6)
24.0
(75.2)
27.0
(80.6)
30.9
(87.6)
32.8
(91.0)
28.8
(83.8)
23.3
(73.9)
17.5
(63.5)
12.1
(53.8)
20.8
(69.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.6
(40.3)
5.2
(41.4)
8.5
(47.3)
13.7
(56.7)
18.7
(65.7)
22.5
(72.5)
26.6
(79.9)
27.9
(82.2)
24.0
(75.2)
18.0
(64.4)
12.0
(53.6)
6.8
(44.2)
15.7
(60.3)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 0.0
(32.0)
0.4
(32.7)
3.2
(37.8)
8.1
(46.6)
13.3
(55.9)
18.5
(65.3)
22.9
(73.2)
23.9
(75.0)
19.9
(67.8)
13.3
(55.9)
7.1
(44.8)
2.1
(35.8)
11.1
(51.9)
Record low °C (°F) −8.1
(17.4)
−9.2
(15.4)
−5.9
(21.4)
−1.8
(28.8)
2.8
(37.0)
8.0
(46.4)
13.2
(55.8)
15.8
(60.4)
8.0
(46.4)
1.5
(34.7)
−2.4
(27.7)
−6.7
(19.9)
−9.2
(15.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 38.5
(1.52)
47.0
(1.85)
83.7
(3.30)
91.6
(3.61)
117.7
(4.63)
174.5
(6.87)
198.0
(7.80)
95.2
(3.75)
136.0
(5.35)
91.1
(3.59)
55.1
(2.17)
43.3
(1.70)
1,171.7
(46.13)
Average snowfall cm (inches) trace 3
(1.2)
trace 0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
trace 4
(1.6)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 4.7 6.5 9.0 8.8 8.5 10.5 9.6 6.4 8.1 6.5 5.6 5.4 89.6
Average snowy days (≥ 1 cm) 0.2 1.0 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 1.5
Average relative humidity (%) 69 68 67 66 68 75 76 73 73 72 73 72 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 139.8 138.6 174.8 191.4 211.5 162.4 193.5 221.8 165.6 174.3 150.7 145.6 2,069.8
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[3][4]

Demographics

Per Japanese census data, the population of Fukuyama in 2020 is 460,930 people.[5] Fukuyama has been conducting censuses since 1960.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1960 281,701—    
1965 301,376+7.0%
1970 355,264+17.9%
1975 405,677+14.2%
1980 425,675+4.9%
1985 441,502+3.7%
1990 445,403+0.9%
1995 453,791+1.9%
2000 456,908+0.7%
2005 459,087+0.5%
2010 461,471+0.5%
2015 464,811+0.7%
2020 460,930−0.8%
Fukuyama population statistics[5]

History

The Fukuyama area is part of ancient Bingo Province, but until large-scale land reclamation projects in the Edo Period, it was largely tidal flats or part of the sea. An exception was the Ekiya neighborhood of northern Fukuyama, which was a post station on the old Sanyōdō highway. In the Edo Period, Fukuyama Castle and its surrounding castle town was founded as a castle town in 1619 by Mizuno Katsunari,[6] a cousin of Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu. Mizuno was given command of a territory consisting of southern Bingo Province and southwestern Bitchū Province. The Mizuno were later replaced by the Abe clan. Following the Meiji restoration, the town of Fukuyama was established on April 1,1889 with the creation of the modern municipalities system.

Fukuyama Town became Fukuyama City on July 1, 1916. The population of the city at that time was 32,356. In 1933, ten villages from surrounding Fukayasu District were merged into Fukuyama. Two additional villages from Numakuma District were similarly merged in 1942. On August 8, 1945 (two days after the atomic-bombing of Hiroshima), 91 American B-29 bombers made an air raid on Fukuyama, destroying much of the city.

On March 31, 1954, several towns and villages in Kōrimatsu District merged to found the city of Matsunaga. Matsunaga City would eventually merge with Fukuyama City on May 1, 1966. Several towns and villages from the Fukayasu District merged into Fukuyama in 1956, and Fukayasu Town merged in 1962. On April 1, 1974, Ashida Town in Ashina District merged with Fukuyama, followed by Kamo Town, Fukayasu District and Ekiya Town, Ashina District on February 1, 1975,.

Fukuyama was promoted to core city status on April 1, 1998 with greater local autonomy.

Several other surrounding towns and districts subsequently merged with Fukuyama:

Government

Fukuyama has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city council of 1000 members.Fukuyama contributes ten members to the Hiroshima Prefectural Assembly. In terms of national politics, the city is part of the Hiroshima 7th district of the lower house of the Diet of Japan.

Economy

Fukuyama is a major center for heavy industry, notably steel. JFE Steel West Japan Works Fukuyama Area (former Nippon Kokan Fukuyama Works), which was completed in 1961, is not only the company's largest manufacturing base, but also the world's largest steelworks. Fukuyama is also a major manufacturing base for textiles, processed food, electronic equipment, pumps, cranes, machine inspection equipment, food trays, and rubber.

Education

Colleges and universities

Primary and secondary schools

Fukuyama has 74 public elementary schools, 34 public junior high schools and one public high school operated by the city government. The city has 13 public high schools operated by the Hiroshima Prefectural Board of Education and one by the national government. There are also the private elementary schools, five private junior high schools and seven private high schools. The prefecture also operates three special education schools for the disabled.

Other

The Holocaust Education Center in Fukuyama, inaugurated on June 17, 1995, is dedicated to the memory of 1.5 million children who were murdered in the Holocaust. It has the distinction of being the first institution in Japan devoted to Holocaust education.

Transportation

Fukuyama Station on the Sanyo Shinkansen

Railway

JR WestSan'yō Shinkansen

JR West (JR West) - San'yō Main Line

JR West (JR West) - Akō Line

Ibara Railway Company

Highways

Sister city relations

Local attractions

Fukuyama Rose Festival

Notable people from Fukuyama, Hiroshima

References

  1. ^ "Fukuyama city official statistics" (in Japanese). Japan.
  2. ^ "福山市水産振興ビジョン 第1章 福山市の概要" (PDF). 福山市農林水産課. Retrieved 2020-09-24.
  3. ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). JMA. Retrieved May 16, 2022.
  4. ^ 観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値). JMA. Retrieved May 16, 2022.
  5. ^ a b Fukuyama population statistics
  6. ^ "Fukuyama Castle - Visit Hiroshima". Fukuyama Castle - Visit Hiroshima. Archived from the original on 2021-10-22. Retrieved 2018-09-29.
  7. ^ "Hamilton Ontario Sister Cities". Archived from the original on 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
  8. ^ "In a Batman series first, Gotham adopts a real sister city: A Japanese city named after a bat". Japan Today. Retrieved 2022-07-05.