Shimonoseki
下関市
Central Shimonoseki and Kanmon Strait
Central Shimonoseki and Kanmon Strait
Flag of Shimonoseki
Official seal of Shimonoseki
Map
Location of Shimonoseki in Yamaguchi Prefecture
Shimonoseki is located in Yamaguchi Prefecture
Shimonoseki
Shimonoseki
Location in Japan
Shimonoseki is located in Japan
Shimonoseki
Shimonoseki
Shimonoseki (Japan)
Coordinates: 33°57′28″N 130°56′29″E / 33.95778°N 130.94139°E / 33.95778; 130.94139
CountryJapan
RegionChūgoku (San'yō)
PrefectureYamaguchi
As AkamagasekiApril 1, 1889
As ShimonosekiJune 1, 1902
Government
 • MayorShintaro Maeda (since 2017)
Area
 • Total716.18 km2 (276.52 sq mi)
Population
 (June 30, 2023)
 • Total248,193
 • Density350/km2 (900/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+09:00 (JST)
City hall address1-1 Nanbu, Shimonoseki-shi, Yamaguchi-ken
750-8521
ClimateCfa
WebsiteOfficial website
Symbols
BirdPenguin
FishFugu
FlowerRhododendron
InsectFirefly
TreeSakura
Shimonoseki city hall
Captured battery at Shimonoseki, 1864
Kōzan-ji Temple
Battle of Dan-no-Ura in 1185

Shimonoseki (Japanese: 下関市, Hepburn: Shimonoseki-shi) is a city located in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. As of 30 June 2023, the city had an estimated population of 248,193 in 128762 households and a population density of 350 persons per km².[1] The total area of the city is 716.18 square kilometres (276.52 sq mi). It is the largest city in Yamaguchi Prefecture and the fifth-largest city in the Chūgoku region in terms of population. It is nicknamed the "Fugu Capital" for the locally caught pufferfish, and is the largest harvester of the pufferfish in Japan.[citation needed]

Geography

Shimonoseki is located at the westernmost point of Yamaguchi Prefecture and the westernmost point of Honshu. It borders the Sea of Japan to the west and the Seto Inland Sea to the south across the Kanmon Straits. It is long in the north-south direction and has a fan shape that opens to the Seto Inland Sea. The Asa River flows from the north to the central area, and the Ariho River flows from the northeast to the east, flowing south into the Seto Inland Sea. The city hall is located on the west bank of the Ariho River mouth.

Neighbouring municipalities

Yamaguchi Prefecture

Climate

Shimonoseki has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with hot summers and cool winters. Precipitation is significant throughout the year, but is heavier in summer.

Climate data for Shimonoseki (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1883−present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.1
(66.4)
23.7
(74.7)
26.2
(79.2)
29.7
(85.5)
30.9
(87.6)
33.7
(92.7)
36.2
(97.2)
37.0
(98.6)
35.0
(95.0)
30.6
(87.1)
26.9
(80.4)
26.2
(79.2)
37.0
(98.6)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 9.7
(49.5)
10.5
(50.9)
13.7
(56.7)
18.4
(65.1)
22.7
(72.9)
25.8
(78.4)
29.7
(85.5)
31.3
(88.3)
27.8
(82.0)
23.0
(73.4)
17.5
(63.5)
12.3
(54.1)
20.2
(68.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.2
(45.0)
7.5
(45.5)
10.3
(50.5)
14.7
(58.5)
19.1
(66.4)
22.5
(72.5)
26.5
(79.7)
27.9
(82.2)
24.6
(76.3)
19.7
(67.5)
14.5
(58.1)
9.5
(49.1)
17.0
(62.6)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 4.8
(40.6)
4.9
(40.8)
7.4
(45.3)
11.6
(52.9)
16.2
(61.2)
20.1
(68.2)
24.2
(75.6)
25.6
(78.1)
22.2
(72.0)
16.9
(62.4)
11.8
(53.2)
7.0
(44.6)
14.4
(57.9)
Record low °C (°F) −6.3
(20.7)
−6.5
(20.3)
−5.5
(22.1)
0.5
(32.9)
6.5
(43.7)
9.5
(49.1)
15.1
(59.2)
17.5
(63.5)
12.8
(55.0)
5.9
(42.6)
0.7
(33.3)
−4.6
(23.7)
−6.5
(20.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 80.0
(3.15)
75.9
(2.99)
121.2
(4.77)
130.8
(5.15)
154.2
(6.07)
253.6
(9.98)
309.4
(12.18)
190.0
(7.48)
162.6
(6.40)
83.7
(3.30)
81.9
(3.22)
69.1
(2.72)
1,712.3
(67.41)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 1
(0.4)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 9.3 9.1 10.1 9.6 8.7 11.3 10.7 9.1 8.5 6.1 8.0 9.0 109.5
Average snowy days (≥ 1 cm) 0.4 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Average relative humidity (%) 63 63 65 67 70 78 79 75 73 67 66 63 69
Mean monthly sunshine hours 95.8 116.1 162.9 187.6 207.1 146.6 172.4 207.2 161.9 176.3 134.7 102.6 1,875.9
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[2][3]
Climate data for Toyota, Shimonoseki (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1977−present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.7
(62.1)
21.8
(71.2)
25.1
(77.2)
28.4
(83.1)
31.4
(88.5)
32.2
(90.0)
35.7
(96.3)
36.2
(97.2)
33.9
(93.0)
30.7
(87.3)
26.0
(78.8)
23.2
(73.8)
36.2
(97.2)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 8.7
(47.7)
9.8
(49.6)
13.4
(56.1)
18.6
(65.5)
23.1
(73.6)
25.9
(78.6)
29.3
(84.7)
30.7
(87.3)
27.2
(81.0)
22.3
(72.1)
16.7
(62.1)
11.2
(52.2)
19.7
(67.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.6
(38.5)
4.4
(39.9)
7.5
(45.5)
12.4
(54.3)
17.3
(63.1)
21.2
(70.2)
25.1
(77.2)
25.9
(78.6)
22.0
(71.6)
16.1
(61.0)
10.4
(50.7)
5.4
(41.7)
14.3
(57.7)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −1.1
(30.0)
−0.8
(30.6)
1.7
(35.1)
6.1
(43.0)
11.4
(52.5)
17.0
(62.6)
21.6
(70.9)
22.1
(71.8)
17.8
(64.0)
10.8
(51.4)
5.0
(41.0)
0.5
(32.9)
9.3
(48.8)
Record low °C (°F) −7.9
(17.8)
−9.1
(15.6)
−6.2
(20.8)
−4.0
(24.8)
0.0
(32.0)
5.5
(41.9)
12.0
(53.6)
14.3
(57.7)
4.6
(40.3)
−0.6
(30.9)
−3.7
(25.3)
−6.3
(20.7)
−9.1
(15.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 90.8
(3.57)
88.3
(3.48)
140.5
(5.53)
151.4
(5.96)
183.7
(7.23)
272.5
(10.73)
342.8
(13.50)
201.2
(7.92)
167.8
(6.61)
93.3
(3.67)
88.2
(3.47)
83.1
(3.27)
1,899.1
(74.77)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.3 10.7 11.6 10.0 9.5 12.4 11.6 9.9 9.5 7.7 9.3 11.1 124.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 99.8 107.6 156.1 182.9 206.1 137.0 152.6 189.8 151.6 169.5 134.5 103.9 1,791.3
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[4][5]

Demographics

Per Japanese census data, the population of Shimonoseki in 2020 is 255,051 people.[6] Shimonoseki has been conducting censuses since 1920.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1920 192,840—    
1925 213,109+10.5%
1930 222,702+4.5%
1935 237,248+6.5%
1940 261,549+10.2%
1945 261,982+0.2%
1950 280,949+7.2%
1955 308,799+9.9%
1960 317,029+2.7%
1965 317,146+0.0%
1970 315,603−0.5%
1975 322,300+2.1%
1980 325,478+1.0%
1985 324,585−0.3%
1990 315,643−2.8%
1995 310,717−1.6%
2000 301,097−3.1%
2005 290,693−3.5%
2010 280,987−3.3%
2015 268,517−4.4%
2020 255,051−5.0%
Shimonoseki population statistics[6]

History

Shimonoseki is part of ancient Nagato Province. It has prospered since ancient times as the gateway to Honshu from the Asian continent, including Kyushu, China, and the Korean peninsula. According to the Nihon Shoki, the semi-legendary Emperor Chuai constructed a palace at the location of what is now the Shimonoseki city hall during the Kofun period. The name of "Shimonoseki" appears in Heian period documents from 869 AD as the location of a checkpoint controlling maritime access to the Seto Inland Sea; however, by the Kamakura period, the name of "Akamanoseki" was in more common use. During the Genpei War, the Heike and Genji fought at the Battle of Dan-no-ura near the present Kanmon Bridge. During the Muromachi period, the powerful Ōuchi clan was shugo of both Nagato and Buzen Province in Kyushu and thus controlled trade and diplomatic missions from Ming China and Korea. In the Edo period, the area was part of Chōfu Domain controlled by the Mōri clan. In February 1691, German explorer Engelbert Kaempfer visited the town as part of his two-year stay in Japan, and described it as having around 400 to 500 houses, and as a major port in the region for supplying ship provisions.[7] During the Bakumatsu period, the Bombardment of Shimonoseki occurred in 1864, and in the early Meiji period, the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed in 1895, seeing a defeated China hand over Taiwan, Penghu, and Port Arthur to the victorious Japanese at the end of the First Sino-Japanese War. An Imperial decree in July 1899 established Shimonoseki as an open port for trading with the United States and the United Kingdom.[8]

Akamagaseki city was established on April 1, 1889 with the creation of the modern municipalities system. The city was renamed Shimonoseki on June 1, 1902.

On February 13, 2005, Shimonoseki absorbed the towns of Hōhoku, Kikugawa, Toyota and Toyoura (all from Toyoura District) to create the new and expanded city of Shimonseki. Since October 1, 2005, the city has been designated as a core city by the Japanese government with increased local autonomy.[citation needed]

Government

Shimonoseki has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city council of 34 members. Shimonoseki contributes ten members to the Yamaguchi Prefectural Assembly. In terms of national politics, the city is part of the Yamaguchi 4th district of the lower house of the Diet of Japan.

Economy

Having prospered as a port city, Shimonoseki has long had a thriving industry related to shipping, trade, and finance. It is still the center of the prefecture in terms of economy.

Education

Universities and colleges

University of East Asia

Primary and secondary schools

Shimonoseki has 41 public elementary school and 21 public junior high schools and one public high school operated by the city government. The city has nine public high schools operated by the Yamaguchi Prefectural Board of Education. There are also one private junior high school and five private high schools. The prefecture also operates four special education schools for the handicapped.

The city has a North Korean school, Yamaguchi Korean Elementary and Junior High School (山口朝鮮初中級学校).[9] It formerly housed two other North Korean schools, Yamaguchi Korean High School and Shimonoseki Korean Elementary and Junior High School (下関朝鮮初中級学校).[10]

Transportation

JR network map

Railway

JR WestSan'yō Shinkansen

JR West (JR West) - San'yō Main Line

JR West (JR West) - San'in Main Line

Highways

Ferries from Shimonoseki Port International Terminal

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Japan

Shimonoseki is twinned with:[12]

Local attractions

Festivals

Shimonoseki is home to many festivals, held throughout the year. Of these, the most famous are the Shimonoseki Kaikyo Festival and Shimonoseki Bakan Festival.

Architecture

Museums

Parks and monuments

Sports

Professional Teams

Sporting venues

Crime and safety

The Goda-ikka yakuza syndicate is headquartered in Shimonoseki. A designated yakuza group, the Goda-ikka is the largest yakuza syndicate in Yamaguchi Prefecture.[13]

Notable people from Shimonoseki

See also: Category:People from Shimonoseki

References

  1. ^ "Shimonoseki City official statistics" (in Japanese). Japan.
  2. ^ 観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値). JMA. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
  3. ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). JMA. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
  4. ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). JMA. Retrieved May 25, 2022.
  5. ^ 観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値). JMA. Retrieved May 25, 2022.
  6. ^ a b Shimonoseki population statistics
  7. ^ Kaempfer, Engelbert (1729). Histoire naturelle, civile et ecclésiastique de l'Empire du Japon. Tome 2 (translated by François Naudé) (in French). The Hague. p. 176.
  8. ^ US Department of State. (1906). A digest of international law as embodied in diplomatic discussions, treaties and other international agreements (John Bassett Moore, ed.), Vol. 5, p. 759.
  9. ^ ウリハッキョ一覧. Chongryon. Archived from the original on December 19, 2015. Retrieved October 14, 2015.().
  10. ^ ウリハッキョ一覧. Chongryon. November 6, 2005. Archived from the original on November 6, 2005. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
  11. ^ "European Inbound tour operator - OsaTravel" オリエントフェリー運航一時休止について(お知らせ) (PDF). Archived from the original on 2016-02-07.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  12. ^ "姉妹友好都市". city.shimonoseki.lg.jp (in Japanese). Shimonoseki. Archived from the original on 2020-02-19. Retrieved 2020-04-08.
  13. ^ "The 7th President announces the succession, The Goda-ikka, The Prefectural Police on red alert" Archived 2011-10-08 at the Wayback Machine, 21 October 2009, Yamaguchi Shimbun (in Japanese)