Tkvarcheli
ტყვარჩელი, Тҟəарчал, Ткварчели
Tqvarcheli, Tqwarchal, Tkvarcheli
Town
Aerial view of the town
Aerial view of the town
Tkvarčeli.svg
Tkvarcheli is located in Abkhazia
Tkvarcheli
Tkvarcheli
Coordinates: 42°51′N 41°41′E / 42.850°N 41.683°E / 42.850; 41.683Coordinates: 42°51′N 41°41′E / 42.850°N 41.683°E / 42.850; 41.683
CountryGeorgia
de facto stateAbkhazia[note 1]
DistrictTkvarcheli
Population
 (2011)
 • Total5,013
Time zoneUTC+03:00 (MSK)

Tkvarcheli (Georgian: ტყვარჩელი [tʼqʼvɑɾtʃʰɛli] (listen); Abkhazian: Тҟəарчал, Tqwarchal; Ткуарчал (Tkuarchal) Russian: Ткварчели, Tkvarcheli) is a town in Abkhazia.[note 1] It is situated on the river Ghalidzga (Aaldzga) and a railway connects it with Ochamchire. Akarmara, an area within the town, is a ghost town with abandoned apartments and factories which became uninhabited in the early 1990s due to the War in Abkhazia (1992-3), and is home to just 35 residents today.[1]

History

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2009)

Coal mining, which began in the area in 1935, grew in importance during the Second World War, especially after the Donbas was lost during the German invasion of the Soviet Union. Tkvarcheli was given town status on 9 April 1942.[2]

During the War in Abkhazia (1992–93), Tkvarcheli withstood, through Russian military aid, a siege by the Georgian forces. Since 1995, it has been the centre of the newly formed Tkvarcheli District. On 27 September 2008, President Sergei Bagapsh awarded it the honorary title of Hero City.[2]

Industry

Coal-mining has been the town's main industry, although now the Soviet mines are closed and coal is quarried only by the Abkhaz-Turkish Tamsaş company using the open pit method.[1] Tamsaş's tax payments account for 75% of the Tkvarcheli district's budget however, the company was criticised for neglecting environmental requirements.[3] Georgia regards all this investment as illegal, in clear violation of the 1996 CIS restrictions[4] and has arrested several vessels, loaded with coal from Tkvarcheli, in its territorial waters, a measure that has reportedly brought Tamsaş to the verge of bankruptcy.[5]

Demography

The town's population was 21,744 in 1989. The three main ethnic groups were Abkhaz (42.3%), Russians (24.5%) and Georgians (23.4%).[6] As a result of the War in Abkhazia the town's industries all but stopped and its population decreased greatly and was between 7,000 and 8,000 in 2004 according to some sources[7] and only 4,800 according to others.[8] At the time of the 2003 census, its population was 4,786.[citation needed] By the time of the 2011 census, it had increased to 5,013. Of these, 66.5% were Abkhaz, 17.4% Georgian, 9.7% Russian, 1.3% Ukrainian, 1.1% Armenian and 0.4% Greek.[9]

Gallery

Notes

  1. ^ a b The political status of Abkhazia is disputed. Having unilaterally declared independence from Georgia in 1992, Abkhazia is formally recognised as an independent state by 5 UN member states (two other state recognised it but then withdrew its recognition), while Georgia continues to claim it as part of its own territory, designating it as Russian-occupied territory.

References

  1. ^ a b Inal Khashig Tkuarchal, Abkhazia – a former coal capital trying to survive 05.09.2020 JAMnews
  2. ^ a b "Городу-Герою Ткуарчал исполняется 70 лет". Apsnypress. 9 April 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
  3. ^ The Turkish Tamsas Can Resume Mining in Abkhazia If It Complies with Environmental Requirements Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine 09/11/2006 18:00, Official site of the President of Abkhazia
  4. ^ Abkhazia Today. The International Crisis Group Europe Report N°176, 15 September 2006. Retrieved on September 30, 2007. Free registration needed to view full report
  5. ^ Abkhaz MP: Georgia’s Sea Seizure Pose Threat to Abkhaz Coal Industry. Civil Georgia. October 26, 2007.
  6. ^ Abkhazia census statistics(in Russian)
  7. ^ Отчет миссии ПРООН по изучению возможностей Гальского района и смежных с ним территорий Абхазии, Грузия, Апрель 2004 Archived 2007-09-25 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Абхазия - город Ткварчели
  9. ^ 2011 Census results