In ancient Greece the chief magistrate in various Greek city states was called eponymous archon (ἐπώνυμος ἄρχων, epōnymos archōn). "Archon" (ἄρχων, pl. ἄρχοντες, archontes) means "ruler" or "lord", frequently used as the title of a specific public office,[1] while "eponymous" means that he gave his name to the year in which he held office, much like the Roman dating by consular years.

In Classical Athens, a system of nine concurrent archons evolved, led by three respective remits over the civic, military, and religious affairs of the state: the three office holders were known as the eponymous archon (ruler of Athens, the highest political office in the city-state), the polemarch (πολέμαρχος, "war ruler", the commander-in-chief of the Athenian military), and the archon basileus (ἄρχων βασιλεύς, "king ruler", the high priest of the city).[2][3] The six others were the thesmothetai, judicial officers. Originally these offices were filled from the wealthier classes by elections every ten years. During this period the eponymous archon was the chief magistrate, the polemarch was the head of the armed forces, and the archon basileus was responsible for some civic religious arrangements, and for the supervision of some major trials in the law courts. After 683 BC the offices were held for only a single year, and the year was named after the eponymous archon.


The archon was the chief magistrate in many Greek cities, but in Athens there was a council of archons which exerted a form of executive government. From the late 8th century BC there were three archons: the archon eponymos, the polemarchos (originally with a military role, which was transferred to the ten strategoi in 501 BC), and the archon basileus (the ceremonial vestige of the Athenian monarchy).[4] These positions were filled from the aristocracy (the Eupatridae) by elections every ten years. During this period Archon Eponymous was the chief magistrate, the Polemarch was the head of the armed forces, and the Archon Basileus was responsible for the civic religious arrangements.

After 683 BC the offices were held for only a single year, and the year was named after the archon eponymous.[citation needed] The year ran from July to June.[5] The archon eponymous was the chief archon, and presided over meetings of the Boule and Ecclesia, the ancient Athenian assemblies. The archon eponymous remained the titular head of state even under the democracy, though with much reduced political importance. Under the reforms of Solon, himself archon eponymous in 594 BC, there was a brief period when the number of archons rose to ten. After 457 BC ex-archons were automatically enrolled as life members of the Areopagus, though that assembly was no longer extremely important politically.

One of the archons oversaw the procedure for ostracism after 487 BC.[6] An archon's court was in charge of the epikleroi.[7] Other duties of the archons included supervising the Panathenaea and Dionysia festivals.[8]

List of archons of Athens

In the following list of Archons, years where the name of the archon is unknown are identified as such. Years listed as "anarchy" mean that there was literally "no archon". There are various conflicting reconstructions of lists; sources for this list are given at the end. Note that the term of an archon covered two of our years, beginning in the spring or summer and continuing into the next spring or summer. The polemarch or strategoi, basileus, and thesmothetai (the six assistants to the archons) are also listed, where known.

Archaic period

Main article: Archaic Greece

See also: Greek Dark Ages and Ancient Greece

Life archons

See also: King of Athens and Chronicon (Jerome)

The later Athenian tradition varies on the exact position of this line; they held archonship for life, sometimes referred to as "Perpetual Archon", and exercised the sacral powers of kingship, as did the archon basileus later. The historicity of any of this ancient list may be reasonably doubted. However, Aristotle indicates, within the Constitution of Athens, that it was indeed the house of Codrus that abolished the title of king in favor of Archon.[9]

Year Archon Other notable information
1068–1048 BC Medon (Μέδων)[10] First ruler of Attica after the period of the Kings.
1048–1012 BC Acastus (Ἄκαστος)[11][12] Troy VIIb2 destroyed (c. 1120 BC).
1012–993 BC Archippus[13]
993–952 BC Thersippus[14]
952–922 BC Phorbas (Φόρβας) Troy VIIb3: deserted (c. 950 BC)
922–892 BC Megacles (Μεγακλῆς)
892–864 BC Diognetus
864–845 BC Pherecles[15] Homer composes the Iliad[16] and Odyssey. (c. 850 BC)[17]
845–825 BC Ariphron
824–797 BC Thespieus (Θεσπιεύς)
796–778 BC Agamestor[18]
778–755 BC Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος) First Olympiad[19][20] (776 BC)
755–753 BC Alcmaeon (Ἀλκμαίων)

Decennial archons

In 753 BC the perpetual archonship by the Eupatridae[21] was limited to 10 years (the "decennial archons"):[22]

Year Archon Other notable information
753–743 BC Charops[23][24] In Rome, Romulus, the first ruler of the city, takes power.[25]
743–733 BC Aesimides[26] In Messenia, First Messenian War begins.
733–723 BC Clidicus[27] Diaulos footrace introduced at the Olympics. (724 BC)
723–713 BC Hippomenes[28]
713–703 BC Leocrates
703–693 BC Apsander[29] Hesiod writes "Theogony" (c. 700 BC).
693–683 BC Eryxias Boxing added to the Olympics. (688 BC)[30] Chalcedon colony founded (685 BC).

Annual archons

After 683 BC the archonship was limited to one year. Archons resided in the Prytaneion.

Year Eponymous archon[31] Other officials or associated events
682–681 BC Creon Creon is considered by the ancient sources, and most modern authorities, as the first annual archon.[32]
681–680 BC Lysiades Mentioned in the Parian Marble.
680–679 BC Tlesias Pausanias (IV.15.1) dates the beginning of the Second Messenian War to his archonship.
679–671 BC Unknown
671–670 BC Leostratus
670–669 BC Unknown
669–668 BC Pisistratus Pausanias (II.24.7) dates the first Battle of Hysiae to his archonship.
668–667 BC Autosthenes Pausanias (IV.23.4) dates the capture of Eira and the end of the Second Messenian War to his archonship.
667–664 BC Unknown
664–663 BC Miltiades[33]
663–659 BC Unknown
659–658 BC Miltiades[33]
658–645 BC Unknown Pausanias (VIII.39.3) dates the capture of Phigalia by the Spartans to his archonship.
645–644 BC Dropides The Parian Marble associates Dropides with the floruit of Terpander the Lesbian, who developed the music of the lyre.
644–639 BC Unknown
639–638 BC Damasias Thales was born
638–634 BC Unknown
634–633 BC Epaenetus (?)[34]
633–632 BC Unknown
632–631 BC Megacles Cylon attempts to become tyrant
631–624 BC Unknown
624–623 BC Aristaechmus According to the Athenian Constitution, Dracon reformed the laws of Athens during the archonship of Aristaechmus.
623–621 BC Unknown


Year Eponymous archon Other officials or associated events
621–615 BC Unknown
615–614 BC Heniochides
614–605 BC Unknown
605–604 BC Aristocles The Parian Marble associates the archonship of Aristocles with Alyattes becoming king of Lydia.
604–600 BC Unknown
600–599 BC Critias The Parian Marble dates the flight of Sappho from Lesbos to Sicily in the archonship of Critias.
599–597 BC Unknown
597–596 BC Cypselus[35]
596–595 BC Telecles[35]
595–594 BC Philombrotus[35] First Sacred War begins.
594–593 BC Solon Solon reforms Draco's code.
593–592 BC Dropides
592–591 BC Eucrates
591–590 BC Simon
590–589 BC anarchy
589–588 BC Phormion
588–587 BC Philippus
587–586 BC Unknown
586–585 BC anarchy
585–582 BC Unknown Pythian Games reorganised at Delphi.
582–581 BC Damasias According to the Athenian Constitution, Damasias held the archonship for two years and nine months before being expelled.
581–580 BC Damasias Demetrios of Phaleron states that it was during the archonship of Damasias that "Thales was first called wise".
580–579 BC anarchy Committee of 10 men serves jointly as archons[36]
579–578 BC anarchy
578–577 BC Unknown
577–576 BC Archestratidas
576–570 BC Unknown
570–569 BC Aristomenes
569–566 BC Unknown
566–565 BC Hippocleides
565–561 BC Unknown
561–560 BC Komeas The Athenian Constitution dates the usurpation of Pisistratus as tyrant of Athens to the archonship of Komeas.
560–559 BC Hegestratus Phaenias of Eresus dates the death of Solon to the archonship of Hegestratus.
559–556 BC Pisistratus Tyrant, 3 unknown archons from 559-556 BC
556–555 BC Hegesias The Athenian Constitution dates the first expulsion of Peisistratos to the archonship of Hegesias.
555–554 BC Euthidemus
554–548 BC Unknown
548–547 BC Erxicleides Pausanias (X.5.13) dates the destruction by fire of the fourth temple of Delphi to his archonship.
547–546 BC Thespius[35] Pisistratus becomes tyrant again
546–545 BC Phormion[35]
545–536 BC Unknown
536-535 BC [...]naios The Parian Marble dates the first performance of Thespis to the tenure of this archon, whose name is damaged.
535–533 BC Unknown
533–532 BC Thericles
532–528 BC Unknown
528–527 BC Philoneus According to the Athenian Constitution, Philoneus was archon when Pisistratus died and his sons Hippias and Hipparchus succeeded him as tyrants
527–526 BC Onetor[37]
526–525 BC Hippias
525–524 BC Cleisthenes[38] Cleisthenes later made reforms, in 508 BC.[39]
524–523 BC Miltiades Cadoux is uncertain whether this is Miltiades son of Kypselos, or Miltiades son of Cimon.[40]
523–522 BC Calliades
522–521 BC Pisistratus Possibly the son of Hippias, archon of 526/5.[41]
521–518 BC Unknown
518–517 BC Hebron (?)[42]
517–511 BC Unknown
511–510 BC Harpactides The Parian Marble dates the assassination of Hipparchus and the expulsion of the Peistratids from Athens to Harpactides' archonship.
510–509 BC Scamandrius
509–508 BC Lysagoras
508–507 BC Isagoras Cleisthenes competes with Isagoras for archonship, but is expelled by Cleomenes I of Sparta
507–506 BC Alcmeon
506–504 BC Unknown
504–503 BC Acestorides
503–501 BC Unknown
501–500 BC Hermocreon
500–499 BC Smyrus (?)[43]
499–497 BC Unknown
497–496 BC Archias[44]
496–495 BC Hipparchus
495–494 BC Philippus
494–493 BC Pythocritus
493–492 BC Themistocles
492–491 BC Diognetus
491–490 BC Hybrilides
490–489 BC Phaenippus The Parian Marble, Plutarch, and the Athenian Constitution all date the Battle of Marathon to the archonship of Phaenippus.
489–488 BC Aristides the Just
488–487 BC Anchises
487–486 BC Telesinus[45] The Athenian Constitution dates the ostracism of Megacles to the archonship of Telesinus.
486–485 BC Unknown
485–484 BC Philocrates
484–483 BC Leostratus
483–482 BC Nicodemus
482–481 BC Unknown
481–480 BC Hypsichides According to the Athenian Constitution, Hypsichides was archon when the ostracized of Athens were recalled.[46]

Classical period

Main article: Classical Greece

Archon Other officials or notable events
480–479 75.1 Calliades[47] Second Persian invasion of Greece.[48] Aristides and Themistocles are strategoi.
479–478 75.2 Xanthippus Battle of Plataea; Aristides is strategos
478–477 75.3 Timosthenes Delian League founded.
477–476 75.4 Adimantus
476–475 76.1 Phaedon
475–474 76.2 Dromoclides
474–473 76.3 Acestorides
473–472 76.4 Menon
472–471 77.1 Chares
471–470 77.2 Praxiergus
470–469 77.3 Demotion
469–468 77.4 Apsephion
468–467 78.1 Theagenides
467–466 78.2 Lysistratus
466–465 78.3 Lysanias
465–464 78.4 Lysitheus Sophanes is a strategos
464–463 79.1 Archedemides
463–462 79.2 Tlepolemus Cimon is a strategos
462–461 79.3 Conon According to the Athenian Constitution (ch. 25), Ephialtes reforms the Areopagus, and is assassinated.
461–460 79.4 Euthippus Also spelled Euippos.[49]
460–459 80.1 Phrasicles
459–458 80.2 Philocles Phrynicus, Dicaeogenes and Hippodamas are strategoi.
458–457 80.3 Habron So Diodorus Siculus (11.79); other authorities state the eponymous archon for this year was Bion.[50]
457–456 80.4 Mnesitheides
456–455 81.1 Callias
455–454 81.2 Sosistratus
454–453 81.3 Ariston
453–452 81.4 Lysicrates
452–451 82.1 Chairephanes Diodorus (11.88–91) skips over Chairephanes and dates the events of his archonship to the previous year[51]
451–450 82.2 Antidotus Anaxicrates and Cimon are strategoi
450–449 82.3 Euthydemus
449–448 82.4 Pedieus Second Sacred War begins.
448–447 83.1 Philiscus Pericles, Tolmides and Epiteles are strategoi; Peace of Callias ends the Greco-Persian Wars
447–446 83.2 Timarchides Construction of the Parthenon begins.
446–445 83.3 Callimachus
445–444 83.4 Lysimachides Peace between Athens and Sparta. Age of Pericles begins.
444–443 84.1 Praxiteles Pericles is a strategos
443–442 84.2 Lysanias Pericles is a strategos
442–441 84.3 Diphilus Pericles is a strategos
441–440 84.4 Timocles Pericles and Glaucon are strategoi[52][53]
440–439 85.1 Morychides Pericles is a strategos
439–438 85.2 Glaucinus Also spelled Glaucidus. Pericles is a strategos
438–437 85.3 Theodorus Pericles is a strategos
437–436 85.4 Euthymenes Pericles is a strategos. Construction of the Propylaea begins
436–435 86.1 Lysimachus So Diodorus Siculus (12.33); other authorities state the eponymous archon for this year was Nausimachos.[50] Pericles is a strategos
435–434 86.2 Antiochides Also spelled Antilochidos. Pericles is a strategos
434–433 86.3 Crates Also spelled Chares. Pericles is a strategos
433–432 86.4 Apseudes Pericles, Lacedaemonius, Diotimus, and Proteas are strategoi
432–431 87.1 Pythodorus Beginning of the Peloponnesian War, according to Thucydides.[54] Pericles and Callias are strategoi.
431–430 87.2 Euthydemus Also spelled Euthydemos. Pericles is a strategos.
430–429 87.3 Apollodorus Pericles dies; Xenophon, Hestiodorus, Calliades, Melesandrus, and Phanomachus are strategoi.
429–428 87.4 Epameinon Phormio is a strategos.
428–427 88.1 Diotimus Demosthenes, Asopius, Paches, Cleidippes, and Lysicles are strategoi
427–426 88.2 Eucles Also spelled Eucleides. Nicias, Charoiades and Procles are strategoi
426–425 88.3 Euthynos Also called Euthydemos. Laches and Hippocrates are strategoi
425–424 88.4 Stratocles Nicias, Eurymedon, Pythodorus, and Sophocles are strategoi
424–423 89.1 Isarchus Demosthenes, Cleon, Thucydides and Hippocrates are strategoi
423–422 89.2 Amynias Also spelled Ameinias. Cleon is a strategos
422–421 89.3 Alcaeus Cleon is a strategos
421–420 89.4 Aristion Construction of the Erechtheion begins.
420–419 90.1 Astyphilus Alcibiades is strategos
419–418 90.2 Archias
418–417 90.3 Antiphon Laches and Nicostratus are strategoi[55]
417–416 90.4 Euphemus
416–415 91.1 Arimnestus Nicias, Alcibiades, and Lamachus are strategoi
415–414 91.2 Charias Also spelled Chabrias. Alcibiades is a strategos
414–413 91.3 Tisandrus Lamachus is a strategos
413–412 91.4 Cleocritus Eurymedon, Demosthenes, and Nicias are strategoi
412–411 92.1 Callias Scambonides
411–410 92.2 Mnasilochus (died); Theopompus Simichus and Aristarchus are strategoi
410–409 92.3 Glaucippus
409–408 92.4 Diocles Anytus is a strategos
408–407 93.1 Euctemon
407–406 93.2 Antigenes Alcibiades, Adeimantus, and Aristocrates are strategoi
406–405 93.3 Callias Angelides Archestratus, Thrasylus, Pericles, Lysias, Diomedon, Aristocrates, Erasinides, Protomachus, and Aristogenes are strategoi
405–404 93.4 Alexias Battle of Aegospotami. Adeimantus, Eucrates, Philocles, Menandrus, Tydeus, and Cephisodotus are strategoi
404–403 94.1 Pythodorus Sparta sets up the oligarchy of the Thirty Tyrants; Pythodorus not recognized as Eponymous Archon
403–402 94.2 Eucleides[56] Thirty Tyrants expelled, democracy reestablished. Old Attic alphabet was officially abolished in favor of the Ionic alphabet of twenty-four letters.
402–401 94.3 Micon Also spelled Micion.
401–400 94.4 Xenaenetus Also spelled Exaenetus.
400–399 95.1 Laches
399–398 95.2 Aristocrates
398–397 95.3 Euthycles Also spelled Ithycles.
397–396 95.4 Souniades
396–395 96.1 Phormion
395–394 96.2 Diophantus
394–393 96.3 Eubulides
393–392 96.4 Demostratos Adeimantus is a strategos
392–391 97.1 Philocles
391–390 97.2 Nicoteles
390–389 97.3 Demostratus Thrasybulus and Ergocles are strategoi
389–388 97.4 Antipater Agyrrhius and Pamphilus are strategoi
388–387 98.1 Pyrgion Thrasybulus and Dionysius are strategoi
387–386 98.2 Theodotus Peace of Antalcidas ends the Corinthian War
386–385 98.3 Mystichides
385–384 98.4 Dexitheus
384–383 99.1 Dieitrephes Also spelled Diotrephes
383–382 99.2 Phanostratus
382–381 99.3 Euandrus
381–380 99.4 Demophilus
380–379 100.1 Pytheas
379–378 100.2 Nicon
378–377 100.3 Nausinicus
377–376 100.4 Calleas Also spelled Callias.
376–375 101.1 Charisander Cedon is a strategos.
375–374 101.2 Hippodamas
374–373 101.3 Socratides
373–372 101.4 Asteius Iphicrates, Callistratus, Chabrias, and Timotheus are strategoi
372–371 102.1 Alcisthenes
371–370 102.2 Phrasicleides
370–369 102.3 Dysnicetus (mistakenly Dyscinetus in Pausanias 4.27.9)
369–368 102.4 Lysistratus
368–367 103.1 Nausigenes
367–366 103.2 Polyzelus
366–365 103.3 Ciphisodorus Chabrias is a strategos
365–364 103.4 Chion Iphicrates is a strategos
364–363 104.1 Timocrates
363–362 104.2 Charicleides Ergophilus and Callisthenes are strategoi
362–361 104.3 Molon Leosthenes and Autocles are strategoi.
361–360 104.4 Nicophemus Timomachus is a strategos
360–359 105.1 Callimides Menon, Timotheus, and Cephisodotus are strategoi
359–358 105.2 Eucharistus
358–357 105.3 Cephisodotus
357–356 105.4 Agathocles Chabrias is a strategos.
356–355 106.1 Elpines Iphicrates, Timotheus, and Menestheus are strategoi.
355–354 106.2 Callistratus
354–353 106.3 Diotemus
353–352 106.4 Thudemus
352–351 107.1 Aristodemus
351–350 107.2 Theellus Theogenes is Basileus (possibly)
350–349 107.3 Apollodorus
349–348 107.4 Callimachus Hegesileus is a strategos
348–347 108.1 Theophilus
347–346 108.2 Themistocles[57] Proxenus is a strategos
346–345 108.3 Archias
345–344 108.4 Eubulus
344–343 109.1 Lyciscus Phocion is a strategos.
343–342 109.2 Pythodotus
342–341 109.3 Sosigenes
341–340 109.4 Nicomachus
340–339 110.1 Theophrastus Phocion is a strategos
339–338 110.2 Lysimachides Phocion is a strategos, and is defeated by Philip II of Macedon
338–337 110.3 Chaerondas Lysicles is a strategos
337–336 110.4 Phrynichus
336–335 111.1 Pythodelos Also spelled Pythodoros.
335–334 111.2 Euaenetus
334–333 111.3 Ctesicles
333–332 111.4 Nicocrates
332–331 112.1 Nicetes Also spelled Niceratos
331–330 112.2 Aristophanes
330–329 112.3 Aristophon
329–328 112.4 Cephisophon
328–327 113.1 Euthicritus
327–326 113.2 Hegemon
326–325 113.3 Chremes
325–324 113.4 Anticles Philocles is a strategos
324–323 114.1 Hegesias Also spelled Agesias
323–322 114.2 Cephisodorus Also spelled Cephisophon. Phocion and Leosthenes are strategoi. Battle of Amorgos signals the end of Athenian sea power.
322–321 114.3 Philocles End of the Lamian War. Restriction of voting rights and installation of a Macedonian garrison in the Piraeus.

Hellenistic period

Main article: Hellenistic period

Year Eponymous archon Other officials or notable events
321–320 BC Archippus
320–319 BC Neaechmus
319–318 BC Apollodorus
318–317 BC Archippus
317–316 BC Demogenes Demetrius of Phalerum installed by the Macedonian regent Cassander as Governor.
316–315 BC Democleides
315–314 BC Praxibulus
314–313 BC Nikodorus
313–312 BC Theophrastus So Diodorus Siculus (19.73); other authorities state the eponymous archon for this year was Theodorus.[58]
312–311 BC Polemon Seleucid Empire begins.
311–310 BC Simonides
310–309 BC Hieromnemon
309–308 BC Demetrius
308–307 BC Caerimus Also spelled Charinus.
307–306 BC Anaxicrates Demetrius Phalereus is expelled when Demetrius I Poliorcetes captures the city from Cassander.
306–305 BC Coroebus Antigonid dynasty begins.
305–304 BC Euxenippus
304–303 BC Pherecles
303–302 BC Leostratus
302–301 BC Nicocles
301–300 BC Clearchus
300–299 BC Hegemachus[59]
299–298 BC Euctemon
298–297 BC Mnesidemus
297–296 BC Antiphates
296–295 BC Nicias
295–294 BC Nicostratus
294–293 BC Olympiodorus
293–292 BC Olympiodorus Serving for a second time
292–291 BC Philippus
291–290 BC Charinus (?)[60]
290–289 BC Ambrosius (?)[60]
289–288 BC Ariston (?)[60]
288–287 BC Cimon
287–286 BC Xenophon
286–285 BC Diocles
285–284 BC Diotimus
284–283 BC Isaeus
283–282 BC Euthius
282–281 BC Nicias Attalid dynasty begins.
281–280 BC Ourias
280–279 BC Telecles[61]
279–278 BC Anaxicrates
278–277 BC Democles
277–276 BC Aristonymus
276–275 BC Philocrates
275–274 BC Olbius
274–273 BC Eubulus
273–272 BC Glaucippus
272–271 BC Lysitheides
271–270 BC Pytharatus[62]
270–269 BC Sosistratus
269–268 BC Peithidemus Beginning of the Chremonidean War; Athens declares war on Macedon, ruled by Antigonus Gonatas.
268–267 BC Diogeiton
267–266 BC Menecles
266–265 BC Nicias (Otryneus)
265–264 BC Eubulus
264–263 BC Diognetus Diognetus is the latest archon mentioned in the Parian Chronicle, therefore that inscription was made during his tenure.
263–262 BC Antipatrus Athens surrenders to Antigonus Gonatas in the archonship of Antipatros.[63]
262–261 BC Arrheneides Antigonus Gonatas imposes a new regime on Athens.[63]
261–260 BC [...]sinus[64]
260–259 BC Philostratus
259–258 BC Philinus
258–257 BC Antiphon
257–256 BC Thymochares
256–255 BC Antimachus
255–254 BC Cleomachus
254–253 BC Phanostratus
253–252 BC Pheidostratus
252–251 BC Callimedes
251–250 BC Thersilochus
250–249 BC Polyeuctus
249–248 BC Hieron
248–247 BC Diomedon
247–246 BC Theophemus
246–245 BC Philoneos
245–244 BC Cydenor
244–243 BC Lysiades
243–242 BC Eurycleides
242–241 BC Phanomachus
241–240 BC Lyceus
240–239 BC Polystratus
239–238 BC Athenodorus
238–237 BC Lysias
237–236 BC Alkibiades
236–235 BC Cimon
235–234 BC Ecphantus
234–233 BC Lysanias
233–232 BC Unknown
232–231 BC Mneseides (?)
231–230 BC Jason (?)
230–228 BC Unknown
228–227 BC Heliodorus
227–226 BC Leochares[65]
226–225 BC Theophilus
225–224 BC Ergochares
224–223 BC Nicetes
223–222 BC Antiphilus[66]
222–221 BC Euxenus
221–220 BC Unknown
220–219 BC Thrasyphon[67]
219–218 BC Menecrates
218–217 BC Chaerephon
217–216 BC Callimachus
216–215 BC Unknown
215–214 BC Hagnias
214–213 BC Diocles First Macedonian War begins. (214 BC)
213–212 BC Euphiletus
212–211 BC Heracleitus
211–210 BC Archelaus
210–209 BC Aeschron[68]
209–208 BC Unknown[69]
208–207 BC Unknown
207–206 BC Callistratus
206–205 BC Pantiades
205–204 BC Diodotus
204–203 BC Apollodorus
203–202 BC Proxenides
202–201 BC Dionysius
201–200 BC Isocrates[70]
200–199 BC Nicophon
199–198 BC [...]ppus
198–197 BC Unknown
197–196 BC Ancylus
196–195 BC Pleistaenus[71]
195–194 BC Unknown
194-193 BC Dionysius
193–192 BC Phanarchides
192–191 BC Diodotus
191–190 BC Timouchus
190–189 BC Demetrius
189–188 BC Euthycritus
188–187 BC Symmachus
187–186 BC Theoxenus
186–185 BC Zopyrus
185–184 BC Eupolemus
184–183 BC Charicles[71]
183–182 BC Hermogenes
182–181 BC Timesianax
181–180 BC Hippias
180–179 BC Dionysius
179–178 BC Menedemus
178–177 BC Philon
177–176 BC [...]ppus
176–175 BC Hippacus
175–174 BC Sonicus
174–173 BC Alexander
173–172 BC Alexis
172–171 BC Sosigenes
171–170 BC Antigenes
170–169 BC Aphrodisius
169–168 BC Eunicus
168–167 BC Xenocles
167–166 BC Nicosthenes
166–165 BC Achaeus (?)[72]
165–164 BC Pelops
164–163 BC Euergetes
163–162 BC Erastus
162–161 BC Poseidonius
161–160 BC Aristolas
160–159 BC Tychandrus
159–158 BC Aristaemus[73]
158–157 BC Aristaechmus
157–156 BC Anthesterius
156–155 BC Callistratus
155–154 BC Mnestheus
154–153 BC Unknown
153–152 BC Phaidrias
152–151 BC Andreas (?)[74]
151–150 BC Zeleucus (?)[74]
150–149 BC Speusippos (?)[74] Fourth Macedonian War begins (150 BC).
149–148 BC Lysiades (?)[74]
148–147 BC Archon
147–146 BC Epicrates Rome takes control of Greece

Roman period

Main article: Roman Greece

See also: History of the Roman Empire

Year Eponymous archon Other officials or notable events
146–145 BC Aristophantus (?)[73][74]
145–144 BC Metrophanes (?)[74]
144–143 BC Theaetetus
143–142 BC Aristophon
142–141 BC Micion (?)[74]
141–140 BC [Dionysius]
140–139 BC Hagnotheus
139–138 BC Diocles[75]
138–137 BC Timarchus
137–136 BC Heracleitus
136–135 BC Timarchides
135–134 BC Dionysius
134–133 BC Nicomachus
133–132 BC Xenon
132–131 BC Ergocles
131–130 BC Epicles
130–129 BC Demostratus
129–128 BC Lyciscus
128–127 BC Dionysius
127–126 BC Theodorides
126–125 BC Diotimus
125–124 BC Jason
124–123 BC Nicias (died); Isigenes
123–122 BC Demetrius
122–121 BC Nicodemus
121–120 BC Phocion (?)
120–119 BC Eumachus
119–118 BC Hipparchus
118–117 BC Lenaeus
117–116 BC Menoetes
116–115 BC Sarapion
115–114 BC Nausias
114–113 BC [...]raton
113–112 BC Paramonus
112–111 BC Dionysius
111–110 BC Sosicrates
110–109 BC Polycleitus
109–108 BC Jason
108–107 BC Demochares
107–106 BC Aristarchus
106–105 BC Agathocles
105–104 BC Andronides (?)
104–103 BC Heracleides
103–102 BC Theocles
102–101 BC Echecrates
101–100 BC Medeius Served as archon again in 91-90, 90-89, 89-88 BC.
100–99 BC Theodosius
99–98 BC Procles
98–97 BC Argeius
97–96 BC Heracleitus
96–95 BC [...]craton
95–94 BC Theodotus
94–93 BC Callias
93–92 BC Criton
92–91 BC Menedemus
91–90 BC Medeius Previously served as archon in 101-100 BC, continued in office for the next two years, probably indicating a constitutional crisis.
90–89 BC Medeius
89–88 BC Medeius
88–87 BC anarchy Athens captured by Lucius Cornelius Sulla, who reorganizes its government
87–86 BC Philanthes
86–85 BC "Hierophant" His personal name is obscured due to hieronymy
85–84 BC Pythocritus
84–83 BC Nicetas
83–82 BC Pammenes
82–81 BC Demetrius
81–80 BC Ar[...]
80–79 BC Apollodorus
79-78 BC Unknown
78–77 BC Aeschraeus
77-76 BC Seleucus
76–75 BC Heracleodoros
75–74 BC Aeschines
74–73 BC Unknown
73–72 BC Nicetes (?)
72–71 BC Unknown
71–70 BC Aristoxenus (?)
70–69 BC Criton (?)
69–67 BC Unknown
67–66 BC Theoxenus (?)
66–65 BC Medeius (?) Probably the son of Medeius, archon in 101-100, 91-90, 90-89, and 89-88 BC
65–64 BC Unknown
64-63 BC Oenophilus
63-62 BC [...]ius
62–61 BC Aristeius
61–60 BC Theophemus
60–59 BC Herodes[76]
59–58 BC Leucius
58–57 BC Calliphon
57–56 BC Diocles
56–55 BC Coentus
55–54 BC Aristoxenus
54–53 BC Zenon
53–52 BC Diodorus
52–51 BC Lysander
51–50 BC Lysiades
50–49 BC Demetrius
49–48 BC Demochares
48–47 BC Philocrates
47–46 BC Diocles
46–45 BC Eucles
45–44 BC Diocles
44–43 BC Leucius / Lucius of Rhamnous
43-42 BC Polycharmus
42–41 BC Euthydomus
41–40 BC Nicander
40–39 BC Philostratus
39–38 BC Diocles of Melite
38–37 BC Menander of Steiria
37–36 BC Callicratides (?)
36–35 BC Asclepiodorus
35–34 BC Theopeithes
34–33 BC Apollogenes (?)
33–32 BC Cleidamus
32-31 BC Unknown
31–30 BC Unknown
30–29 BC Architemus
29–26 BC Unknown The Roman Republic transitions into the Roman Empire upon Octavian being granted the title "Augustus" by the Roman Senate.
26–25 BC Dioteimus
25–22 BC Unknown
22–21 BC Apolexis
20–19 BC Demeas
19–17 BC Unknown
17-16 BC Ae[...][77]
16–15 BC Pythagoras[77]
15–14 BC Antiochus[77]
14–13 BC Polyaenus
13–12 BC Zenon
12–11 BC Leonidas
11–10 BC Theophilus
10–9 BC Nicias
9–8 BC Xenon
8–7 BC Apolexis son of Philocrates[78]
7–6 BC Unknown
6–5 BC Nicostratus
5–4 BC Cotys King of Thrace, father of Rhoemetalces, archon of 36-37.[79]
4–3 BC Anaxagoras
3–2 BC Demochares
2–1 BC Polycharmus
1 BC–AD 1 Lacon
1–2 Democrates
2–3 [...] of Sounium
3–4 [...] of Sphettus
4–5 [...]on
5–23 Unknown
23–24 M[...] The archons from M... to Antipater are traditionally assigned to AD 23-31, but may be up to seven years earlier than this.[80]
24–25 Charm[...]
25–26 Callicr[...]
26–27 Pamphilus
27–28 Themistocles
28–29 Oenophilus
29–30 Boethus
30–31 [(Vipsanius) Antipa]ter Son of Antipater of Phlya; father of the archon of 45-46, grandfather of the archon of ca. 75, and ancestor of the archon of ca. 110-115.[81]
31-36 Unknown
36–37 King Rhoemetalces Ne(oterus) King of Odrysian Thrace[82] Son of Cotys, archon of 5-4 BC.
37–38 Arist[...] (?)
38-39 Polycritus (?)
39-40 Zen[on] (?)
40-41 [...]ouius Leo[...][83]
41-45 Unknown
ca. 42 Ti. Claudius Lysiades the younger Presumably son of another archon named Lysiades, ancestor of Ti. Claudius Lysiades, Demostratus, and Philippus, archons of 174-175, 180-181, and 193-194.[84]
45–46 (Vipsanius) Antipater neoterus Son of the archon of 30-31, father of the archon of ca. 75, and ancestor of the archon of ca. 110-115.[85]
46–49 Unknown
49–50 Deinophilus
50–54 Unknown
53–54 Dionysodorus
54–56 Unknown
56–57 Konon Grandfather of Flavius Sophocles, archon of 103-104.[86]
57–61 Unknown
61–62 Thrasyllus
62–65 Unknown
64–65 C. Carrinus Secundus, son of Gaius
65–66 Demostratus
66-74 Unknown
ca. 75 (Vipsanius) Aeolion[87] Grandson of the archon of 30/1, son of the archon of 45/6, and grandfather of the archon of ca. 110-115.[88]
75–81 Unknown
82-83 Anarchy Synchronised by Phlegon of Tralles with the consulship of Domitian and Petilus Rufus
83-84 Annius [Thrasylus]?
ca. 84-90 Q. Vibius Crispus
ca. 85 Ti. Claudius Demostratus of Sounium Exact date uncertain
87-88 Domitian As Roman Emperor
ca. 80-90 L. Flavius Flammas of Cydathenaeum Exact date uncertain
ca. 85-90 T. Flavius Leosthenes of Paeania Exact date uncertain
91-92 Q. Trebellius Rufus Also a Roman Senator and high priest of the imperial cult for Narbonese Gaul.[89]
92-93 anarchy
ca. 93 C. Julius Antiochus
Epiphanes Philopappus
Grandson of the last king of Commagene
ca. 94 [Annius Pythod]orus
95–96 Octavius Theon
96–97 Octavius Proclus
97-99 unknown
99–100 T. Coponius Maximus of Hagnus
100–101 Lucius Vibullius Hipparchus of Marathon
101–102 Flavius Stratolaus
102-103 Claudius Demophilus
103-104 Flavius Sophocles of Sounium Grandson of Conon, archon of 56-57 or 57-58.[90]
104-105 T. Flavius Alcibiades of Paeania Son of T. Flavius Leosthenes, archon ca. 85-90 AD[91]
105-106 unknown
106-107 Cassius Diogenes
107-108 Flavius Euphanes
108-109 G. Julius Cassius of Steiria Ancestor of Cassianus Apollonius, archon ca. 203-208, Cassianus "Sacred Herald", archon of 231-232, and Cassianus Philippus, archon of 237-238.[92]
109–110 Flavius Pantaenus of Gargettus Builder of the Library of Pantainos
ca. 110-115 Vipsanius Aeolion of Phlya Grandson of (Vipsanius) Aeolion, archon ca. 75 AD.[93]
ca. 110-120 Diocles of Phalerum
111–112 Hadrian Subsequently Roman emperor
ca. 112-115 Didius Secundus of Sphettus
ca. 115 Galerius Em-
116–117 Flavius Macrinus of Acharnae
ca. 120 Fulvius Metrodorus of Sounium
ca. 120 Zopyrus son of Dionysius of Agryle
ca. 120-130 D. Junius Patron of Berenicidae
ca. 125 Ti. Claudius Chrysippus of Phlya
126–127 Herodes Atticus Adoptive son and nephew of Vibullius Hipparchus, archon in 118/9, also builder the Panathenaic Stadium and the Odeon, and a notable sophist.[94]
127–128 Memmius Peisander of Collytus
ca. 128–131 Claudius Dometianus
131–132 Claudius Philogenes of Besa
ca. 130-140 Q. Alleius Epictetus
ca. 130-140 Popillius Ligys
ca. 130-140 L. ... of Anaphlystus Name not preserved and date very approximate.
138–139 Praxagoras Timotheus of Thoricus
139–140 T. Flavius Alcibiades Son of T. Flavius Alcibiades, archon in 104/5[95]
140–141 Ti. Claudius Attalus Andragathus of Sphettus Originally of Synnada in Phrygia, also patron of the association of Dionysiac artists, priest of the Harmony of the Greeks and Zeus Eleutherius at Plataia[96]
141–142 P. Aelius Phileas of Melite
142–143 P. Aelius Alexander of Phalerum
143–144 P. Aelius Vibullius Rufus of Marathon Son of Vibullius Hipparchus, archon in 118/9 and nephew of Herodes Atticus, archon in 126/7
144–145 Sulla Assignment to this year is not certain.[97]
145–146 Arrian Originally of Nicomedia, also Roman consul ca. 130, governor of Cappadocia, and historian.
146–147 T. Flavius [...] The record of his name is garbled; it might have been "Tiberius Flavius Alcibiades."[98]
ca. 147–152 L. Nummius "Sacred Herald" of Phalerum His personal name is obscured due to hieronymy
150–151 Aelius Ardys
152–153 or 153-154 L. Nummius Menis of Phalerum
152–153 or 153-154 Pompeius "Torchbearer" His personal name is obscured due to hieronymy
154–155 (Aelius) Praxagoras of Melite
155–156 Popillius Theotimus of Sounium
ca. 156–160 Aelius Callicrates
ca. 156-160 Aelius Gelos of Phalerum
156-157 or 157-158 Lycomedes of Leuconoeum
157-158 or 159-160 Dionysius of Leuconoeum
158–159 Ti. Aurelius Philemon of Philaedae
159-160 Unknown
160-161 P. Aelius Themison, also called Pammenes of Azenia
161–162 L. Memmius "Altar priest" of Thoricus His personal name is obscured due to hieronymy
162-163 Flavius Harpalianus of Steiria
163–164 Philistides of Piraeus Father of Aristocleides, archon of 176-177 and Philistides, archon of ca. 194-200, grandfather of Aurelius Philistides, archon of ca. 225 AD.[99]
164–165 'Arrius Epaphroditus
165–166 Sextus of Phalerum
166–167 Marcus Valerius Mamertinus of Marathon Subject of a trial before Marcus Aurelius.[100]
167–168 anarchy Rotoff suggests that the absence of an archon for this year, and two of the following four years, was likely due to the Antonine Plague.[101]
168–169 Tineius Ponticus of Besa
169–170 anarchy
170–171 Tiberius Memmius Flaccus of Marathon
171–172 anarchy
172–173 Lucius Gellius Xenagoras of Melite Originally of Delphi. Father of Xenagoras, archon of ca. 213-220.[102]
173–174 Veisius Piso of Melite
ca. 174–175 Ti. Claudius Lysiades of Melite Descendant of Lysiades the younger, archon ca. 42 AD, brother of Ti. Claudius Demostratus, archon of 180-181, and uncle of Ti. Claudius Philippus, archon of 193/4.[103]
175–176 Claudius Heracleides of Melite
176-177 Aristocleides of Piraeus Son of Philistides, archon of 163-164, brother of Philistides, archon of ca. 194-200, uncle of Aurelius Philistides, archon of ca. 225 AD.[104]
177-178 or 178-179 Sallustianus Aeolion of Phyla
179-180 [Scrib]onius Capito
180–181 Claudius Demostratus Descendant of Lysiades the younger, archon ca. 42 AD, brother of Ti. Claudius Lysaides, archon of ca. 174-175, and father of Ti. Claudius Philippus, archon of 193/4.[105]
181-182 Athenodorus of Eitea
182–183 Marcus Munatius Maximianus Vopiscus of Azenia Father of Munatius Themison, archon ca. 205.[106]
183–184 Domitius Aristaeus of Paeonidae Perhaps an uncle of Domitius Arabianus, archon ca. 216-226 and thus originally from Amastris.[107]
184–185 Titus Flavius Sosigenes of Pallene
185–186 Philotimus son of Arcesidemus of Elaeous
186–187 C. Fabius Thisbianus of Marathon Probably father of Fabius "torchbearer", archon ca. 210-211. Perhaps of Peloponesian origin.[108]
187–188 Ti. Claudius Bradua Atticus Son of Herodes Atticus, archon of 126-127
188–189 Commodus Also Roman Emperor
189–190 Menogenes
190–191 Julius "Hierophant" His personal name is obscured due to hieronymy
191–192 Gaius Pinarius Proculus of Hagnus
192–193 Unknown
ca. 192-200 Aelius Alexander of Phalerum Brother of Aelius Gelos, archon ca. 192-200.[109]
ca. 192-200 Aelius Gelos of Phalerum Brother of Aelius Alexander, archon ca. 192-200.[110]
ca. 192-200 Quintus ... of Eleusis
ca. 192-200 Pompeius Alexander of Acharnae
193–194 Ti. Claudius "Torchbearer" His personal name is obscured due to hieronymy, but is known from earlier sources to have been Philippus. Descendant of Lysiades the younger, archon ca. 42 AD, nephew of Ti. Claudius Lysaides, archon of ca. 174-175, and son of Ti. Claudius Demostratus, archon of 180-181.[111]
ca. 194-201 Philisteides of Piraeus Son of Philistides, archon of 163-164, brother of Aristocleides, archon of ca. 176-177, uncle of Aurelius Philistides, archon of ca. 225 AD.[112]
195-196 Gaius Helvidius Secundus of Pallene
ca. 195-205 Flavius "Iacchagogue" of Agryle His personal name is obscured due to hieronymy
196-197 Unknown
ca. 196-206 Claudius Phocas of Marathon
197-198 Annius ... of Sphettus Uncertain
ca. 199-200 Flavius Straton
197-198 Xenokles (?)
198–199 Titus Flavius Sosigenes Palleneus (?)
199-200 Dionysodorus Eucarpon (?)
ca. 200 Pomp. Hegias of Phalerum
ca. 200 Aurelius Dem[...] (?)
Early 3rd cent. P. Aelius Apollonius of Pallene
ca. 200-220 Claudius Apolloniarius
200-201 Unknown
201-202 C. Quintus Himertus of Marathon Father of Cleon, archon ca. 215-226.[113]
202-203 Anarchy
203-209 Unknown
ca. 203-208 Gaius Cassianus Apollonius of Steiria Descendant of Julius Cassius, archon of 108-109, cousin of Cassianus "Sacred Herald", archon of 231-232, and father of Cassianus Philippus, archon of 237-238.[114]
ca. 205 M. Munatius Themison of Azenia Son of Munatius Maximianus Vopiscus, archon of 182-183.[115]
209–210 Flavius Diogenes of Marathon
ca. 210-211 Fabius "Torchbearer" of Marathon His personal name is obscured due to hieronymy, from earlier sources it is known to have been Thisbianus. Probably son of Fabius Thisbianus, archon of 186-187.[116]
ca. 210-220 Aelius He[racleides?] of Steiria
210-215 Unknown
ca. 212- ... Agathocles Following the Constitutio Antoniniana in this year, Roman citizenship and was extended to all Athenians who had not already received it, with the nomen Aurelius.
ca. 213-220 L. Gellius Xenagoras of Melite Son of Xenagoras, archon of 172-173.[117]
ca. 213-220 Ti. Claudius L- of Melite
ca. 213-230 Aurelius Calliphron presbyterus
215–216 Aurelius Dionysius of Acharnae
216-220 Unknown
ca. 216–226 Domitius Arabianus of Marathon Probably Marcus Ulpius Domitius Aristaeus Arabianus, legate of Asia ca. 208-217, originally of Amastris. Perhaps a nephew of Domitius Aristaeus, archon ca. 183-184.[118]
ca. 216-226 G. Quintus Cleon of Marathon Son of Himertus, archon of 201-202.[119]
ca. 216-226 Ti. Claudius Patroclus of Lamptrae
220–221 Philinus
ca. 220 P. Pomp. Hegias of Phalerum
ca. 220-230 G. Pinarius Bassus
221-222 Unknown
222-223 Aurelius Melpomenus
223-227 Unknown
ca. 225 Aurelius Philistides Grandson of Philistides, archon of 163-164, nephew of Philistides, archon ca. 194-201, and son of Aristocleides, archon of ca. 176-177.[120]
227-228 A- ...
228-231 Unknown
ca.230 Marcus Ulpius Eubiotus Leurus of Hypata Suffect consul sometime before his archonship, related by marriage to Emperor Pupienus.
231-232 Cassianus "Sacred Herald" of Steiria His personal name is obscured due to hieronymy, from earlier sources we know that it was Bassus. Descendant of Julius Cassius, archon of 108-109, cousin of Cassianus Apollonius, archon ca. 203-208 and Cassianus Philippus, archon of 237-238.[121]
232-235 Unknown
234–235 ... Epictetus of Acharnae
236-237 Unknown
240–241 Cas[sianus Philippus] of Steiria Descendant of Julius Cassius, archon of 108-109, son of Cassianus Apollonius, archon ca. 203-208, cousin of Cassianus "Sacred Herald", archon of 231-232.[122]
238-240 Unknown
239-240 or 240-241 Flavius Asclepiades of Diomeia
240-255 Unknown
ca. 240-253 Aurelius Laudicianus
ca. 240-260 Claudius Teres Originally from Illyria.
ca. 250 Marcus Aurelius Calliphron, also called Frontinus of Gargettus Father of Cornelianus, archon ca. 260.[123]
255-256 Lucius Flavius Philostratus of Steiria Perhaps grandson of the author Philostratus
ca. 255 Aurelius Dionysius of Lamptrae
ca.255 P. Herennius Dexippus Also archon Basileus? Later led Athenian troops against the Heruls.
255-264 Unknown
ca. 260 M. Herennius Calliphron, also called Cornelianus of Gargettus Son of Calliphron / Frontinus, archon ca. 250.[124]
264–265[125] Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Also Roman Emperor
ca. 267-268 Titus Flavius Mondon of Phlya Archon twice and also priest of Athena Polias and the Harmony of the Greeks; he was originally from Thespiae.[126]
between 300
and 330
Constantine the Great[127][128]
between 300
and 350
end 4th
386-387 Hermogenes
c. 475 Theagenes
484-485 Nicagoras

See also


  1. ^ At first the chief of the city was only a priest. "The charge of the public sacrifices of the city belongs according to religious custom, not to special priests, but to those men who derive their dignity from the hearth, and who are here called kings, elsewhere Prytaneis, and again archons." (Aristotle, Politics, VIII.5)
  2. ^ Michael Rostovtzeff, Greece, passim.
  3. ^ "The Athenian archons when they entered upon their duties ascended to the Acropolis wearing crowns of myrtles, and offered a sacrifice to the titular, divinity of the town. It was also customary for them to wear crowns of foliage when they exercised their functions. And it is certain that the crown, which became and which still remains the emblem of power, was then only a religious symbol, an exterior sign, which accompanied prayer and sacrifice. Amongst the nine archons, the second archon, the one called the King, was the representative of the high priestly function of the old Kings, but each of his colleagues had some priestly duty to fulfill, some sacrifice to offer to the gods. ("Gustave Ducoudray, The history of ancient civilization: a handbook, 1889 pg 129)
  4. ^ Gods, Heroes and Tyrants: Greek Chronology in Chaos By Emmet John Sweeney.
  5. ^ Green, Peter (2009). "Diodorus Siculus on the Third Sacred War". In Marincola, John (ed.). A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography. Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Vol. 2. Oxford, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons. p. 364. ISBN 9780470766286.
  6. ^ Fox The Classical World p. 122
  7. ^ Lacey The Family in Ancient Greece p. 139-145
  8. ^ Adkins Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece p. 35-36
  9. ^ Aristotle Constitution of Athens, 3
  10. ^ The son of Codrus was lame, which was why his brother Neileus would not let him rule, but the Delphian oracle bestowed the kingdom upon Medon. For more see Pausanias, Description of Greece, 7. 2. 1.
  11. ^ Constitution of Athens and Related Texts – Page 70
  12. ^ John Blair, Blair's Chronological and Historical Tables: From the Creation to the Present Time, with Additions and Corrections from the Most Authentic Writers, Including the Computation of St. Paul, as Connecting the Period from the Exode to the Temple. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1844. pg. 27
  13. ^ John Lemprière, A Classical Dictionary pg. 183
  14. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, Volume 3 – Page 64. (cf. "The successors of Codrus were Medon (son of Codrus), Acastus (son of Medon), Archippus (son of Acastus), Thersippus (son of Archippus), Phorbas (son of Thersippus), Megacles (son of Phorbas), Diognetus (son of Megacles), Pherecles (son of Diognetus), Ariphron (son of Pherecles), Thespieus (son of Ariphron), Agamestor (son of Thespieus), Aeschylus (son of Agamestor), Alcmaeon. All these, according to the common tradition, held the archonship for life. After Alcmaeon the tenure of the office was made decennial. The first decennial archon was Charops, the second was Aesimides, and the third was Clidicus. See Eusebius, Chronic. vol. 1. pp. 185–190, ed. Schone.")
  15. ^ Michael Russell, A Connection of Sacred and Profane History, Pg 355
  16. ^ See Historicity of the Iliad.
  17. ^ Herodotus 2.53.
  18. ^ George Crabb, Universal Historical Dictionary pg. 91
  19. ^ According to Diodorus Siculus (of the 1st century BC).
  20. ^ Blair, Chronological and Historical Tables pg. 30
  21. ^ Herodotus, George Rawlinson, Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, Sir John Gardner Wilkinson. The History of Herodotus: A New English Version, Ed. with Copious Notes and Appendices, Illustrating the History and Geography of Herodotus, from the Most Recent Sources of Information; and Embodying the Chief Results, Historical and Ethnographical, which Have Been Obtained in the Progress of Cuneiform and Hieroglyphical Discovery, Volume 3. Appleton, 1882. Pg 316
  22. ^ Evelyn Abbott. A Skeleton Outline of Greek History: Chronologically Arranged. Pg 27.
  23. ^ The Roman Antiquities, Volume 1. By Dionysius (Halicarnassensis). pg 162.
  24. ^ History of Ancient and Modern Greece. By John Frost. Pg 35
  25. ^ According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus
  26. ^ Pausanias's Description of Greece, 4.5.3; Volume 3 By Pausanias. Pg 64
  27. ^ Henry-Fines Clinton. Fasti Hellenici, the Civil and Literary Chronology of Greece, from the Earliest Accounts to the Death of Augustus. University Press, 1834 pg 241, Pg 166
  28. ^ Nicolas Lenglet Dufresnoy. Chronological Tables of Universal History: Sacred and Profane, Ecclesiastical and Civil; from the Creation of the World, to the Year One Thousand Seven Hundred and Forty-three. With a Preliminary Discourse on the Short Method of Studying History; and a Catalogue of Books Necessary for that Purpose; with Some Remarks on Them, Volume 1. A. Millar, 1762. Pg 124
  29. ^ John Blair. Blair's Chronological and Historical Tables: From the Creation to the Present Time, with Additions and Corrections from the Most Authentic Writers, Including the Computation of St. Paul, as Connecting the Period from the Exode to the Temple. Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, Paternoster Row., 1844. Pg 38
  30. ^ Blair's Chronological and Historical Tables. Pg 39
  31. ^ Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates of archons down to 481/0 BC are taken from T. J. Cadoux, "The Athenian Archons from Kreon to Hypsichides", Journal of Hellenic Studies, 68 (1948), pp. 70-123
  32. ^ Cadoux, "Athenian Archons", p. 88
  33. ^ a b Cadoux notes "We cannot be sure that it was the same man who held the second archonship, nor, if we held that it was, do we know anything of the circumstances under which this happened. Nor, again, do we know if this man or men belonged to the Philaid family." ("Athenian Archons", p. 90)
  34. ^ Cadoux notes this entry is based on a surviving passage of Hippys of Rhegion which is very obscure; Hippys states one Epainetos was king at Athens in the 36th Olympiad. However, this statement is full of mistakes which makes Cadooux suspicious of this passage. ("Athenian Archons", p. 91)
  35. ^ a b c d e Per one surviving fragment of the Athenian Archon list. Donald W. Bradeen, "The Fifth-Century Archon List", Hesperia, 32 (1963), pp. 187-208
  36. ^ Cadoux, "Athenian Archons", p. 103
  37. ^ So Cadoux and Alan Samuel; Benjamin D. Merrit notes the name could be read "Onetorides". (Merrit, "Greek inscriptions, 14-27", Hesperia, 8 (1939), p 60)
  38. ^ This identification has been questioned by Matthew P. J. Dillon, "Was Kleisthenes of Pleisthenes Archon at Athens in 525 BC?", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 155 (2006), pp. 91-107
  39. ^ Herodotus, Histories, books V and VI Google Books link
  40. ^ But he adds, "It seems gratuitous to invent a third Miltiades-presumably from another family; and there are no solid chronological grounds for rejecting either of the two Philaids." (Cadoux, "Athenian Archons", p. 110)
  41. ^ See Cadoux, "Athenian Archons", pp. 111f
  42. ^ Alan Samuel is doubtful this archon existed, claiming this is based on Eustathius' misunderstanding his source, which provides the date Pindar died, not when he was born. Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology (Muenchen: Beck'sche, 1972), p. 204
  43. ^ Cadoux suspects this is a corruption of the archon's real name. ("Athenian Archons", p. 116)
  44. ^ Added from Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology, p. 205
  45. ^ Nine archons were appointed by lot by the tribes from 500 nominees chosen by the demes and that this was the method in the Archonship of Telesinus. See also the Areopagite constitution.
  46. ^ Cadoux, "Athenian Archons", p. 119
  47. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons from 480/79 to 348/7 BC are taken from Alan E. Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology (Muenchen: Beck'sche, 1972), pp. 206-210.
  48. ^ "Calliades was archon in Athens, and the Romans made Spurius Cassius and Proculus Verginius Tricostus consuls, and the Eleians celebrated the Seventy-fifth Olympiad, that in which Astylus of Syracuse won the 'stadion.' It was in this year that king Xerxes made his campaign against Greece" (Diodorus, 11.1.2)
  49. ^ Alternative spellings are taken from Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology, pp. 206-210
  50. ^ a b Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology, p. 207
  51. ^ Develin 1989, p. 78.
  52. ^ Classical Philology. p. 53
  53. ^ The Works of Xenophon: & II and Anabasis. 1890 By Xenophon. Pg 98
  54. ^ Thucydides (2.2) states that it began "in the 48th year of the priestess-ship of Chrysis at Argos, in the ephorate of Aenesias at Sparta, in the last month but two of the archonship of Pythodorus at Athens." Thucydides reports a solar eclipse that summer (2.28), which can be confidently dated to 3 August 431 BC. (E. J. Bickerman, Chronology of the Ancient World (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1968), p. 87)
  55. ^ Thucydides: Arguments. Peloponnesian War, Book III (cont'd.)-VI By Thucydides. Pg 208
  56. ^ Sophocles: The Oedipus Coloneus. 3d ed. 1900 By Sophocles, Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb. Pg 4. (cf. Micon was [the Archon of] 402 B.C., Callias of [the Archon of] 406 B.C. Between them came Alexias (405), Pythodorus (404, the Anarchy), and Eucleides (403).)
  57. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons from 347/6 to 301/0 BC are taken from Benjamin D. Meritt, "Athenian Archons 347/6–48/7 B.C.", Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 26 (1977), pp. 161–191
  58. ^ Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology, p. 210
  59. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons from 300/299 to 228/7 BC are taken from Michael J. Osborne, "The Archons of Athens 300/299-228/7", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 171 (2009), pp. 83-99
  60. ^ a b c The order in which these three archons held their office is not yet clear. (Osborne, "Archons of Athens", p. 85 n. 14)
  61. ^ This year is commonly attributed to "Gorgias" based on Pseudo-Plutarch (Vitae Decem Oratorum, 847D); however, Gorgias may be a corruption of the very rare name "Ourias" archon in 281/0 BC; Gorgias is thus a ghost. (Osborne, "Archons of Athens", p. 87 n. 21)
  62. ^ Osborne notes that Pytharatus "is one of the very few archons of the 3rd century after the 290s to be securely dated on the basis of Olympiads and literary testimony." "Archons of Athens", p. 88 n. 26
  63. ^ a b Osborne, "Archons of Athens", p. 90 n. 29
  64. ^ Voula Bardani and Stephen Tracy, "A New List of Athenian Ephebes and a New Archon of Athens", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 163 (2007), pp. 75-80
  65. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons from 227/6 to 211/0 BC are taken from Michael Osborne, "The Date of the Athenian Archon Thrasyphon", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 164 (2008), pp. 85-8
  66. ^ Aleshire had placed Hoplon at this year because there was a gap; however, Osborne's latest revision of the Archon list has removed that gap. For further details, see Aleshire, "The Athenian Archon Hoplon", Hesperia, 57 (1988), pp. 253-5
  67. ^ Thrasyphon is commonly dated to 221/0 BC based on a Magnesian inscription that allows his archonship to be dated to the fourth year of Olympiad 139; Osborne has argued that the correlation is not that exact and his archonship could fall in the first year of Olympiad 140. (Osborne, "The Date", pp. 85, 88)
  68. ^ Merrit disagrees, placing Sostratos here and providing a primary source; Osborne provides no supporting evidence for Aeschron here. Merritt, "Athenian Archons", p. 178
  69. ^ Unless otherwise noted, the archons from 209/8 to 201/0 BC are taken from John S. Traill, "A Revision of Hesperia, XLIII, 1974, 'A New Ephebic Inscription from the Athenian Agora'", Hesperia, 45 (1976), pp. 296-303
  70. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons from 201/0 to 160/59 BC are taken from Osborne, "Archons of Athens"
  71. ^ a b Following the arguments of John S. Traill, "The Athenian Archon Pleistainos", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 103 (1994), pp. 109-114
  72. ^ Christian Habicht argues that, based on the floruit of the letter-cutter of inscription did not extend beyond 185 BC, Achaeus' archonship occurred earlier and places Epaenetus in this year. (Habicht, "The Eponymous Archons", p. 245)
  73. ^ a b Unless otherwise noted, archons from 159/8 to 141/0 BC are taken from Christian Habicht, "The Eponymous Archons of Athens from 159/8 to 141/0 B. C.", Hesperia, 57 (1988), pp. 237-247
  74. ^ a b c d e f g Habicht expresses less certainty about the dates of these seven archones. (Habicht, "The Eponymous Archons", p. 246)
  75. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons from 139/8 to 61/60 BC are taken from Merrit, "Athenian Archons"
  76. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons from 60/59 to 10/9 BC are taken from Simone Follet, "Deux inscriptions attiques inédites copiées par l'abbé Michel Fourmont (Parisinus Suppl. gr. 854)", Revue des Études Grecques, 118 (2005). pp. 1-14.
  77. ^ a b c Samuel adds these three names, as well as the next four, citing IG III2 1713 for their presence in the archon list. (Greek and Roman), p. 226
  78. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons from 8/7 BC to AD 74 are taken from Samuel, Greek and Roman, pp. 223–237
  79. ^ Identified with a member of the Thracian Royal house based on IG II2 1070, making him the first verified foreigner to be the Athenian Eponymous archon. (Robert K. Sherk, "The Eponymous Officials of Greek Cities: I", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 83 (1990), p. 275)
  80. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 489
  81. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 488–489
  82. ^ R. Neubauer, "Das Archontat des Rhoemetalkas in Athen", Hermes, 10 (1876), pp. 145–152
  83. ^ Or eponymous archon in 41/2.
  84. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 153-164
  85. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 488–489
  86. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 243-244
  87. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons from AD 74 to 267 are taken from Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 501–510
  88. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 488–489
  89. ^ James H. Oliver, "Greek Inscriptions", Hesperia: The American Excavations in the Athenian Agora: Twenty-First Report, 11 (1942), p. 80
  90. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 243-244
  91. ^ Gustav Hirschfeld, "Die Familie des Titus Flavius Aklibiades", Hermes, 7 (1873), pp. 52–61
  92. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 314–320
  93. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 489–491
  94. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 114–115
  95. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 256–257
  96. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 138–139
  97. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 508, 527
  98. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 246
  99. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. xv
  100. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 462
  101. ^ Rotoff, "An Athenian Archon List", p. 408
  102. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 281-282
  103. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 153-164
  104. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. xv
  105. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 153-164
  106. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 370
  107. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 218-221
  108. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 225
  109. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 6-7
  110. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 6-7
  111. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 153-164
  112. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. xv
  113. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 420
  114. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 314–320
  115. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 370
  116. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 225
  117. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 281-282
  118. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 218-221
  119. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 420
  120. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. xv
  121. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 314–320
  122. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 314–320
  123. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 290-291
  124. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 290-291
  125. ^ After 265, the record is so fragmentary that "Unknown" is not indicated past this point.
  126. ^ Byrne, Roman Citizens, pp. 266-267
  127. ^ So claimed by James H. Oliver, "Roman Emperors and Athens", Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 30 (1981), 423
  128. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons for 300 to 484-485 are taken from Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology, pp. 234–237.

Further reading