Chalkida
Χαλκίδα
Chalcis' seafront
Chalcis' seafront
Chalkida is located in Greece
Chalkida
Chalkida
Location within the region
Coordinates: 38°27′45″N 23°35′42″E / 38.46250°N 23.59500°E / 38.46250; 23.59500
CountryGreece
Administrative regionCentral Greece
Regional unitEuboea
Government
 • MayorElena Vaka (New Democracy)
Area
 • Municipality424.77 km2 (164.00 sq mi)
 • Municipal unit30.80 km2 (11.89 sq mi)
Highest elevation
5 m (16 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2021)
 • Municipality
109.256
 • Municipality density0.26/km2 (0.67/sq mi)
 • Municipal unit
64.490
 • Municipal unit density2.1/km2 (5.4/sq mi)
DemonymChalcidian[1]
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
341 00
Area code(s)22210
Vehicle registrationΧΑ
Websitewww.dimoschalkideon.gr

Chalcis (/ˈkælsɪs/;[2] Ancient Greek & Katharevousa: Χαλκίς, romanized: Chalkís), also called Chalkida or Halkida (Modern Greek: Χαλκίδα, pronounced [xalˈciða]), is the chief city of the island of Euboea or Evia in Greece, situated on the Euripus Strait at its narrowest point. The name is preserved from antiquity and is derived from the Greek χαλκός (copper, bronze), though there is no trace of any mines in the area.[3][4] In the Late Middle Ages, it was known as Negropont(e), an Italian name that has also been applied to the entire island of Euboea.

History

Ancient Greece

Colonies of ancient Chalcis
Archaeological museum of Chalkida
View of the ancient Roman aqueduct

The earliest recorded mention of Chalcis is in the Iliad,[5] where it is mentioned in the same line as its rival Eretria. It is also documented that the ships set for the Trojan War gathered at Aulis, the south bank of the strait near the city. Chamber tombs at Trypa and Vromousa dated to the Mycenaean period were excavated by Papavasiliou in 1910. In the 8th and 7th centuries BC, colonists from Chalcis founded thirty townships on the peninsula of Chalcidice and several important cities in Magna Graecia and Sicily, such as Naxos, Rhegion, Zankle and Cumae. Its mineral produces, metal-work, purple, and pottery not only found markets among these settlements but were distributed over the Mediterranean in the ships of Corinth and Samos.[3] The development of the city leads consequently to the increase of the population and finally to the colonization with the establishment of many important cities in the West, but also in the Greek area. The first recorded settlement in the West, which paved the way for the 2nd Greek colonization, is Pithecusae on the island of Ischia, in front of Naples, from Chalcidians and Eretrians around 770 BC. The etymology of the toponym "Pithikousa" comes from the pithos (pitharia) that the first settlers had with them to transport their products. Because of the first Chalcidian settlers, the Romans initially called all Greeks "Chalcidians", as they were the first Greeks they came into contact with.A few years later, the Chalcidian Antimnestos founds Rigio in 730-720 BC. and Crataimenis' fellow-citizen Zagli (later Messina) in 730 BC, thus wanting to control the sea strait between Sicily and Italy, just as the Metropolis of Chalkida controlled the Euboean gulfs. In the 8th century BC the increase in trade between the Chalkidian colonies in lower Italy and Sicily with the local populations resulted in the spread of the Chalkidic alphabet among the most ancient inhabitants of the peninsula. The Etruscans took this alphabet and appropriated it so that they too could express themselves in writing. Over the centuries the Romans renamed it 'Latin'.So today, at least eight letters of all Latin-derived languages are the same as their ancient Euboic counterparts. They are C, D, F, P, R, S and X (pronounced ks). The transmission of the Chalkidic alphabet to the west is the most important cultural contribution of ancient Chalkida to the world culture.

The Lelantine War was a war fought in the late 8th century BC. between the two powerful ancient states of Evia, Chalkida and Eretria, which at that time were at the height of their prosperity. This war was one of the first known major wars between ancient Greek cities and took pan-Hellenic dimensions as the warring Chalcidians and Eretrians allied themselves with other Greek cities. As Herodotus mentions, the Samians allied with the Chalcidians, while the Milesians allied with the Eretrians. The Thessalians also allied with the Chalcidians, a fact mentioned by Plutarch. The historical sources provide evidence for only one battle of the war, undoubtedly the last, with the reference point being the death of the Thessalian Amphidamandas, who was praised by Hesiod. In this battle the help from the Thessalian cavalry resulted in victory for Chalkida, by which it acquired the best agricultural district of Euboea and became the chief city of the island. Late in the 6th century BC, its prosperity was broken by a disastrous war with the Athenians, who expelled the ruling aristocracy and settled a cleruchy on the site. Chalcis subsequently became a member of both the Delian Leagues.[3]

Chalkis has had a Greco-Jewish presence since antiquity, which is sometimes claimed to have been continuous and to thus form Europe's oldest Jewish community,[6] although there is no evidence of it through the early Middle Ages.[7]

In the Hellenistic period, it gained importance as a fortress by which the Macedonian rulers controlled central Greece. It was used by kings Antiochus III of Syria (192 BC) and Mithradates VI of Pontus (88 BC) as a base for invading Greece.[3] Characteristic is the fact that in 323 BC the Stagerite philosopher Aristotle comes to Chalkida to die the following year at his mother's house. Then during the Hellenistic era, settlers from Chalkida founded Chalkida in Syria, by order of Seleucus I, from which settlers founded another Chalkida in the Lebanon Valley, as well as another Chalkida in Arabia.

Under Roman rule, Chalcis retained a measure of commercial prosperity within the province of Achaea (southern Greece).[3]

Middle Ages and early Modern period

Further information: Triarchy of Negroponte

Venetian map of Chalcis (Negroponte) (1597).
Church of Saint Paraskevi, patron saint of Chalkis
Negroponte by Vincenzo Coronelli, 1687
The Ottoman fortress of Karababa
St Nicholas church

It is recorded as a city in the 6th-century Synecdemus and mentioned by the contemporary historian Procopius of Caesarea, who recorded that a movable bridge linked the two shores of the strait.[8] In Byzantine times, Chalcis was usually called Euripos, a name also applied to the entire island of Euboea, although the ancient name survived in administrative and ecclesiastical usage until the 9th century; alternatively, it is possible that the name was given anew to a settlement that was founded in the 9th century in the location of the ancient city, after the latter had been abandoned in the early Middle Ages.[8] The town survived an Arab naval raid in the 880s and its bishop is attested in the 869–70 Church council held at Constantinople.[8]

By the 12th century, the town featured a Venetian trading station, being attacked by the Venetian fleet in 1171 and eventually seized by Venice in 1209, in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade.[8]

For Westerners, its common name was Negropont or Negroponte. This name comes indirectly from the Greek name of the Euripus Strait: the phrase στὸν Εὔριπον 'to Evripos', was rebracketed as στὸ Νεὔριπον 'to Nevripos', and became Negroponte in Italian by folk etymology, the ponte 'bridge' being interpreted as the bridge of Chalcis[9] to Boeotia.

The town was a condominium between Venice and the Veronese barons of the rest of Euboea, known as the "triarchs", who resided there. Chalcis or Negroponte became a Latin Church diocese, see below. A large hoard of late medieval jewellery dating from Venetian times was found in Chalcis Castle in the nineteenth century and is now in the British Museum.[10] The synagogue dated to around 1400.[11]

Negroponte played a significant role in the history of Frankish Greece, and was attacked by the Principality of Achaea in the War of the Euboeote Succession (1257/8), the Catalan Company in 1317, the Turks in 1350/1, until it was finally captured by the Ottoman Empire after a long siege in 1470.[8] That siege is the subject of the Rossini opera Maometto II. The Ottomans made it the seat of the Admiral of the Archipelago (the Aegean Islands). In 1688, it was successfully held by the Ottomans against a strong Venetian attack.[12]

The modern town

The city hall
Courthouse

Chalkida became part of the newborn Greek state after the Greek War of Independence. The modern town received an impetus in its export trade from the establishment of railway connection with Athens and its port Piraeus in 1904. In the early 20th century it was composed of two parts—the old walled town at the bridge over the Euripus, where a number of Turkish families continued to live until the late 19th century, and a sizeable Jewish community lived until World War II, and the more modern suburb that lies outside it, chiefly occupied by Greeks.[3]

The old town, called the Castro (citadel), was surrounded by a full circuit of defense walls until they were completely razed for urban development around the start of the 20th century.[13][14]

The city is served by a railway station and is the terminus for the Athens Suburban Railway to Athens.

Ecclesiastical history

Greek bishopric

St Demetrius church

The Byzantine diocese of Chalkis was initially a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Corinth, but in the 9th century was transferred to the Metropolitan of Athens, remaining in the sway of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. It was also known as Euripo, like it is mentioned in the Byzantine imperial Notitia Episcopatuum since emperor Leo VI the Wise (886-912).

Several of its Greek bishops are recorded, but some are disputed :

Latin crusader bishopric

At the establishment of the crusader state Lordship of Negroponte, Chalcis or Negroponte (seat of the central one of its three 'triarchies' constituent baronies) became a Latin Church diocese, the first bishop being Theodorus, the Greek bishop of the see, who entered communion with the see of Rome,[15] installed by papal legate.

On 8 February 1314, the Latin see was united in commendam (as an 'additional benefice') with the Latin Patriarchate of Constantinople, so that the exiled Patriarch, excluded from Constantinople itself since the Byzantine reconquest of the city, could have actual jurisdiction on Greek soil and exercise a direct role as head of the Latin clergy in what remained of Latin Greece.[16]

Main sights

The church of Saint Paraskevi (the patron saint of the island) was the church of the Dominican Priory of Negroponte, one of the first two houses authorized for the Order of Preachers' Province of Greece in 1249. Started about 1250, this is among the oldest examples of early Dominican architecture surviving, and is one of the only early Dominican churches to retain its original form until the present.[17][18] The central arch over the iconostasis and the ceiling and walls of the south chapel are the best examples of Italian Gothic stone-carving in Greece.[19] Images of the Dominican saints, Dominic and Peter Martyr, stand at the base of the central arch.[20] The north chapel holds the tomb of the founder of the senatorial Lippamano family of Venice. Some of the column capitals are Byzantine.

The bridges

The Chalcis' Bridge connecting the island with the mainland of Greece.

The town is now connected to mainland Greece by two bridges, the "Sliding Bridge" in the west at the narrowest point of the Euripus Strait and a suspension bridge.

The Euripus Strait which separates the city and the island from the mainland was bridged in 411 BC with a wooden bridge. In the time of Justinian the fixed bridge was replaced with a movable structure. The Turks replaced this once again with a fixed bridge. In 1856, a wooden swing bridge was built; in 1896, an iron swing bridge, and in 1962, the existing "sliding bridge"; the construction works of the 19th century destroyed the most part of the medieval castle built across the bridge. The Euripus Bridge or Chalcis Bridge, a cable-stayed suspension bridge opened in 1993, joins Chalcis to the mainland to the south.

A special tidal phenomenon takes place in the strait, as strong tidal currents reverse direction once every six hours, creating strong currents and maelstroms.[21][22]

Municipality

The municipality Chalcis was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of Chalcis city itself with four former municipalities, which also became municipal units:[23]

The municipality has an area of 424.766 km2, the municipal unit 30.804 km2.[24]

Transportation

Chalcis railway station

In 2003, a bypass of Chalcis was opened from the southern part of the bridge to connect with GR-77, also with access to GR-44.

Chalcis station is the northern terminus of the Oinoi–Chalcis railway, and is served by Line 3 of the Athens Suburban Railway.

Historical population

Year Town population Municipality population
1981 44,847 -
1991 51,646 -
2001 53,584 -
2011 59,125 -

Notable residents

Bust of philosopher Aristotle, from Chalcidice, apoikía of Chalkis.
A statue of Mordechai Frizis
Nikos Skalkottas

Sports teams

Chalcis also has a water polo team named NC Chalkida, a football (soccer) team named Chalkida F.C., as well as a junior football team named Evoikos Chalkida.

The Chalkida football team merged with Lilas Vasilikou for a period of two years (2004–2006). The team was finally dissolved because of financial difficulties. Although there was a team created with the same name (AOX) it does not represent the glorious team of the past.

Chalcis also has a basketball team (AGEX), which previously played in the Greek A2 Basketball League. For a while, Chalkida hosts the basketball team Ikaros Chalkidas that played in the top Greek Basket League.

Sport clubs based in Chalkida
Club Founded Sports Achievements
NO Chalkida 1933 Water Polo Earlier presence in A1 Ethniki
Chalkida F.C. 1967 Football Earlier presence in A Ethniki
AGE Chalkida BC 1976 Basketball Earlier presence in A2 Ethniki

Twin towns

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Greece

Chalcis is twinned with:

Geography

Climate

Chalcis has a mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa), closely bordering a semi-arid climate with hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters.

Climate data for Chalcis
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 12.9
(55.2)
13.6
(56.5)
16.0
(60.8)
20.3
(68.5)
25.3
(77.5)
29.8
(85.6)
32.6
(90.7)
32.3
(90.1)
28.9
(84.0)
23.1
(73.6)
18.6
(65.5)
14.7
(58.5)
22.3
(72.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.3
(48.7)
9.8
(49.6)
11.7
(53.1)
15.5
(59.9)
20.2
(68.4)
24.6
(76.3)
27.0
(80.6)
26.6
(79.9)
23.3
(73.9)
18.3
(64.9)
14.4
(57.9)
11.1
(52.0)
17.7
(63.9)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 6.5
(43.7)
6.9
(44.4)
8.4
(47.1)
11.6
(52.9)
15.4
(59.7)
20.1
(68.2)
22.5
(72.5)
22.3
(72.1)
19.2
(66.6)
14.9
(58.8)
11.4
(52.5)
8.3
(46.9)
14.0
(57.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 44.6
(1.76)
48.3
(1.90)
42.6
(1.68)
28.2
(1.11)
17.2
(0.68)
9.7
(0.38)
4.2
(0.17)
4.6
(0.18)
11.9
(0.47)
47.7
(1.88)
50.6
(1.99)
66.6
(2.62)
376.2
(14.82)
Average relative humidity (%) 72 71 68 62 58 52 48 49 56 66 73 73 62
Mean monthly sunshine hours 137.9 144.5 187.5 238.9 303.3 341.2 373.7 356.5 283.4 218.5 164.3 136.4 2,886.1
Source 1: www.yr.no [25]
Source 2: www.weather.gr [26]

See also

References

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "Chalcidian, n. & adj.3". Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1933.
  2. ^ Richmond, Henry J. (1905), The Pronunciation of Greek and Latin Proper Names in English, Ann Arbor: George Wahr, p. 32, ISBN 9780857927866, archived from the original on 2016-03-04
  3. ^ a b c d e f Chisholm 1911.
  4. ^ Simon C. Bakhuizen, R. Kreulen, Chalcis-in-Euboea: Iron and Chalcidians Abroad, Brill Archive, 1976, p. 58.
  5. ^ Homer, Il., Bk. II, l. 537.
  6. ^ "ΚΟΙΝΟΤΗΤΑ ΧΑΛΚΙΔΑΣ - ΙΣΤΟΡΙΚΟ". Kis.gr. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  7. ^ Public Domain Deutsch, Gotthard; Caimi, M. (1902). "Chalcis". In Singer, Isidore; et al. (eds.). The Jewish Encyclopedia. Vol. 3. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. p. 661.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Gregory, Timothy E. (1991). "Chalkis in Greece". In Kazhdan, Alexander (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. p. 407. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.
  9. ^ Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, J.B. Bury, ed., Methuen, 1898 p. 6:390, footnote 69
  10. ^ "Collection search: You searched for". British Museum. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  11. ^ JE (1902).
  12. ^ Kevin Andrews, Castles of the Morea. Gennadeion Monographs 4. Princeton: ASCSA Publications 2006 [1953]. p. 185-6
  13. ^ Andrews, Castles of the Morea. p. 191.
  14. ^ Spyros Kokkinis, "Ἱστορικὰ μνημεῖα καὶ λαϊκὴ ἀρχιτεκτονικὴ στὴν Χαλκίδα". Ἀρχεῖον Εὐβοϊκῶν Μελετῶν, 15 (1969), 149—248.
  15. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 212-215
  16. ^ Loenertz, R.-J. (1966). "Cardinale Morosini et Paul Paléologue Tagaris, patriarches, et Antoine Ballester, vicaire du Papae, dans le patriarcat de Constantinople (1332-34 et 1380-87)". Revue des études byzantines (in French). 24: 224–256. doi:10.3406/rebyz.1966.1373.
  17. ^ Nikolaus Delinikolaos and Vasiliki Vemi, "Αγία Παρασκευή Χαλκίδας. Ένα βενετικό πρόγραμμα ανοικοδόμησης του 13ο αιώνα." in Chryssa Maltezou and Christina E. Papakosta eds., Venezia-Eubea, Da Egripos a Negroponte, 2006, 229-266, at pages 248—49.
  18. ^ Pierre MacKay, "St. Mary of the Dominicans: The Monastery of the Fratres Praedicatores in Negropont." in Chryssa Maltezou and Papakosta eds., Venezia-Eubea, 125-156.
  19. ^ Ramsay Traquair, "Frankish Architecture in Greece," Journal of the Royal Institute of British Architects Third Series, 31, (1923—24) 42—48, fig. 13 ("Italian Gothic", p. 47).
  20. ^ The two first Dominican saints can just be made out at the base of the arch in a photograph in Beata Panagopoulos, Cistercian and Mendicant Monasteries in Mediaeval Greece. Chicago, 1979, plate 105, p. 133, but not with any detail.
  21. ^ Eginitis, D. (1929). "The problem of the tide of Euripus". Astronomische Nachrichten. 236 (19–20): 321–328. Bibcode:1929AN....236..321E. doi:10.1002/asna.19292361904. See also the commentary about this explanation in Lagrange, E. (1930). "Les marées de l'Euripe". Ciel et Terre (Bulletin of the Société Belge d'Astronomie) (in French). 46: 66–69. Bibcode:1930C&T....46...66L.
  22. ^ "Evia Island". Chalkis. Evia.gr. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  23. ^ "ΦΕΚ A 87/2010, Kallikratis reform law text" (in Greek). Government Gazette.
  24. ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-21.
  25. ^ "Weather statistics for Chalcis, Central Greece (Greece)". Yr.no. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  26. ^ "ATHENS (NAT.OBS.) Climate". Weather.gr. Retrieved 13 January 2018.

Sources and external links

Bibliography - ecclesiastical history