The following is a list of tribes which dwelled and states which existed on the territories of contemporary Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine.


Clan cultures of the Stone Age and Bronze Age, up to the Late Antiquity period of the tribal societies that were replaced or incorporated into the Early Slavs. The Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies in the Iron Age and Migration Age Europe whose tribal organizations created the foundations for today's Slavic nations.[1]

The tribes were later replaced or consolidated by states containing a mixture of Slavs, Varangians and Finno-Ugric groups, starting with the formation of Kievan Rus'.[2] When Kievan Rus' gradually disintegrated in the 12th and 13th centuries, in part by the Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus', its constituent principalities, known historiographically as "Rus' principalities",[3] asserted their autonomy or sovereignty.[a] This included semi-autonomous Rus' principalities in the southwest dependent on the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (and later absorbed into Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, such as Halych (Galicia) and Volhynia[3]) and in the northeast long dependent on the Golden Horde until around 1500 (including the Novgorod Republic, Vladimir-Suzdal, Smolensk, Polotsk, and Turov,[5] and later Tver, Moscow (Muscovy) and Nizhny Novgorod-Suzdal[6]). In traditional historiography on Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, the impact of Turco-Mongol rule by the Golden Horde and its successor states (traditionally called the "Tatar yoke" or "Mongol yoke") has been neglected or downplayed, with Imperial Russian historiography of the 18th century expressing European superiority over Muslims, nomads, and Asians, of the 19th century expressing racist and colonialist ideologies, and around 1900 expressing Great Russian chauvinism towards minorities.[7] 20th-century Soviet and Western scholars have sought to give a more balanced perspective, but were still influenced by earlier Imperial Russian literature and their own biases.[7]

From around the late 14th century, Muscovy would gradually dominate and absorb the northeastern Rus' principalities,[6][8] while competing with Lithuania (and Poland), Novgorod, Tver, and the Teutonic Order for political, socio-economic and cultural control of the entire region.[8] Muscovy became the Tsardom of Russia in 1547, followed by the Russian Empire in 1721, which conquered and annexed the southwestern former Rus' territories from Poland–Lithuania, the Cossack Hetmanate and the Crimean Khanate during the reign of Catherine the Great (r. 1762–1796).[9]

After World War I, the Russian Civil War and the Polish–Soviet War, most of these areas were part of the Soviet Union during the interwar period, except for the western territories that were part of the Second Polish Republic or other states.[b] During the Cold War, all of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine were part of the Soviet Union as three of its fifteen constituent republics, becoming independent upon its dissolution in 1991.


Name Period Type Notes
Antes people Protohistoric Tribe
Arthania Hypothetical (unknown) Hypothetical state whose existence has not been confirmed
Astrakhan Khanate –1556 Khanate To Tsardom of Russia in 1556.
Republic of Belarus 1991–present Republic Established when the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic proclaimed independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Joined the Union State with the Russian Federation in 1999.
Belarusian Democratic Republic / Belarusian People's Republic (BNR) 1918–1919 Republic Client state of the German Empire (under the military jurisdiction of Ober Ost), received some diplomatic recognition. To Lit-Bel SSR and Second Polish Republic in 1919. As of 2023, its last remaining institution, the Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic, is the oldest existing government in exile.[11]
Principality of Beloozero 1238–1485 Principality To Moscow in 1485.
Principality of Belyov –1407 Principality To Lithuania in 1407.
Bosporan Kingdom c. 438 BCE – c. 527 CE Kingdom Hellenistic Greek state in parts of Crimea, southern Ukraine and Southern Russia. Fate uncertain, but attacked by Huns, Goths and finally the Byzantine Empire.
Bükk culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Bug–Dniester culture Prehistoric
c. 6300–5000 BCE
Archaeological culture
Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia 1919 Unrecognised state Established on 1 January 1919 by Bolshevik forces from Soviet Russia during the Lithuanian–Soviet War and Polish–Soviet War. Merged into the Socialist Soviet Republic of Lithuania and Belorussia in February 1919.
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR) 1920–1991 Soviet republic Evolved from the Socialist Soviet Republic of Lithuania and Belorussia (Lit-Bel). Joined the Soviet Union in 1922. Proclaimed independence in 1991 as Republic of Belarus.
Catacomb culture Prehistoric
c. 2500–1950 BCE[12]
Archaeological culture
Cernavodă culture Prehistoric
c. 4000–3200 BCE
Archaeological culture
Principality of Chernigov (Chernihiv) 1024–1406 Principality Established as appanage of Kievan Rus'. To Lithuania in 1406.
Chernoles culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Chernyakhov culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Corded Ware culture Prehistoric
c. 3000–2350 BCE[13]
Archaeological culture
Cossack Hetmanate
(Zaporizhian Host)
1649–1764 Elective monarchy
Broke away from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Had an autonomous Zaporozhian Sich within it. Changed alliance/vassalage several times between Poland–Lithuania, the Crimean Khanate/Ottoman Empire, and the Tsardom of Russia. Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1764.
Crimean Khanate 1441–1783 Khanate Evolved out of the Golden Horde. To Russian Empire in 1783.
Cucuteni–Trypillia culture Prehistoric
c. 5000–3000 BCE[14]
Archaeological culture
Cumania (Cuman–Kipchak confederation) c. 10th century–1241 Tribal confederation Evolved out of Kimek–Kipchak confederation. To Golden Horde in 1241.
First Czechoslovak Republic 1918–1938 Republic Established in the end of World War I out of Austria-Hungary, including Carpathian Ruthenia (since 1991 mostly part of Ukraine). Occupied and partially annexed by Nazi Germany and Hungary in 1938–9, during which Carpatho-Ukraine was an autonomous region within the Second Czechoslovak Republic rump state.
Dnieper–Donets culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Don Republic 1918–1920 Unrecognised state Breakaway revolutionary anti-Soviet republic controlled by the Armed Forces of South Russia. To Soviet Russia in 1920.
Dregovichs Protohistoric Tribe
Drevlyans (Derevlians) Protohistoric
6th–10th century
Tribe Consolidated into Kievan Rus'
Principality of Drutsk 1101–1565 Principality Established as appanage of the Principality of Polotsk. To Lithuania in 14th century.
Dulebes Protohistoric Tribe
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia (Ruthenia) 1198–1349 Principality
Formed by the union of the principalities of Halych and Volhynia. To Grand Duchy of Lithuania, to Kingdom of Poland in 1349.
German Empire 1871–1918 Constitutional monarchy Unification of German monarchies under leadership of the Kingdom of Prussia (including modern Kaliningrad Oblast, part of the Russian Federation since 1991). Transformed into the Weimar Republic after World War I.
Globular Amphora culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Great Horde (Uluğ Orda) c. 15th century–1502 Khanate Rump state of the Golden Horde. To Crimean Khanate in 1502.
Golden Horde (Ulug Ulus) 1243–1502 Khanate Established during the Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus'. Evolved into the Great Horde.
Goths Protohistoric
c. 2nd century–4th century
Tribal confederation Germanic tribal grouping which migrated to Oium in Scythia (modern Ukraine) in the 2nd century, and went on to raid and conquer parts of the Roman Empire. It is uncertain whether the Crimean Goths (and the Crimean Gothic language) descended from them, or from a later Germanic influx.
Principality of Great Perm 1323–1505 Principality To Moscow in 1505.
Greeks in pre-Roman Crimea c. 600–50 BCE Greek colonies Panticapaeum, Chersonesus, and other colonies.
Principality of Grodno 1117–1315 Principality To Lithuania in 1315.
Principality of Halych 1124–1198 Principality Established as appanage of Principality of Terebovlia. Merged into Principality (later Kingdom) of Galicia–Volhynia (Ruthenia).
Hutsul Republic 1919 Unrecognised state Breakaway revolutionary anti-Habsburg republic. To West Ukrainian People's Republic and Czechoslovakia.
Principality of Jersika 1203– Principality
Kashubians Protohistoric
13th–15th century
Tribe Consolidated into the Duchy of Pomerania
Kazakh Khanate Khanate To Russian Empire in 1847.
Kazan Khanate –1552 Khanate To Tsardom of Russia in 1552.
Khvalynsk culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Khanate of Khiva Khanate Russian protectorate since 1873.
Khazaria c. 650–969 Khanate Reportedly converted to Judaism. Defeated by Kievan Rus'.
Kievan Rus' (Kyivan Rus') c. 9th–13th century Grand principality First confirmed Slav-dominated state in Eastern Europe consolidating several Slavic and Finno-Ugric tribes and Norse Varangians (Rus' people). Evolved into an amalgam of Rus' principalities (see also Council of Liubech), then disintegrated.[15]
Principality of Kiev (Kyiv) 1132–1240 Principality Evolved from Kievan Rus'. Sacked by Mongols in 1240. To Lithuania 1362.
Kimek–Kipchak confederation c. 880–1200 Tribal confederation Transformed into the Cuman–Kipchak confederation.
Khanate of Kokand –1883 Khanate To Russian Empire in 1883.
Principality of Koknese c. 1180s–1206 Principality
Principality of Kolomna 1165– Principality
Korchak culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Principality of Kozelsk since 1235 Principality
Krivichs Protohistoric Tribal confederation
Kuban People's Republic 1918–1920 Republic Breakaway revolutionary anti-Soviet republic controlled by the Armed Forces of South Russia. Received some diplomatic recognition. To Soviet Russia in 1920.
Principality of Kursk since 1195 Principality
Kuyaba Hypothetical
c. 10th century
(unknown) Hypothetical state whose existence has not been confirmed. Might be the same as Kievan Rus'.
Kyi dynasty Hypothetical
Principality A hypothetical state preceding Kievan Rus' whose existence has not been confirmed.
Kyiv culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Lechites Protohistoric Linguistic grouping Fragmented into tribes
"Lechites" are a modern scholarly linguistic subdivision of early medieval West Slavs
Lipiţa culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Grand Duchy of Lithuania c. 1236–1569 Grand duchy Until Union of Lublin in 1569, afterwards see Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Socialist Soviet Republic of Lithuania and Belorussia (Lit-Bel) 1919–1920 Unrecognised state Merger of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Socialist Soviet Republic of Belorussia. Subdued the Belarusian Democratic Republic. Defeated and partitioned by the Second Polish Republic, the Republic of Lithuania, and Soviet Russia in 1920.
Lusatian culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Mariupol culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Principality of Mezetsk –1504 Principality To Moscow in 1504.
Middle Dnieper culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Milograd culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Principality of Minsk 1070–1326 Principality Since 1070. To Lithuania in 1326.
Principality of Mosalsk Principality (to Moscow at 1494)
Principality of Moscow (Grand Duchy of Moscow; Muscovy) c. 13th century–1547 Principality Since 1276; since 1330 Grand Duchy. Became Tsardom of Russia in 1547, Russian Empire in 1721.
Principality of Murom Principality (since 1127) (to Moscow at 1393)
Nazi Germany 1933–1945 Totalitarian fascist dictatorship Established by Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party seizing power in the Weimar Republic (including East Prussia) in 1933. The Nazi regime had extensive plans for creating Lebensraum in Eastern Europe under Generalplan Ost, apart from invading and occupying large swaths of territory from modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine during Operation Barbarossa (1941), and committing large-scale ethnic cleansing there, only Bialystok District (1941–1945, which included some areas of modern Belarus) was ever formally annexed into the German Reich. Nazi Germany was defeated by the Allies of World War II in 1945; it became Allied-occupied Germany. Under the 1945 Potsdam Agreement, Königsberg and environs were transferred to Soviet Russia, which annexed it as Kaliningrad Oblast.
Nogai Horde Khanate (to Russia at 1634)
Novgorod Republic 1136–1478 Republic Originally a princely appanage of Kievan Rus', Novgorod evolved a republican system in the 11th century. Conquered and annexed by Muscovy in 1478.
Principality of Novgorod-Seversk (Novhorod-Siverskiy) c. 12th century–1356 Principality Personal union with Chernigov; to Lithuania in 1356
Novgorod Slavs
(Ilmen Slavs)
8th–10th century
Tribe Consolidated into the Novgorod Republic
Novosilsky principality Principality (to Lithuania at 1425)
Obotrites Protohistoric
c. 8th century–1167
Tribal confederation Consolidated into the House of Mecklenburg
Old Prussians c. 9th century–1274 Tribe Baltic tribe dwelling in East Prussia (partially in modern Kaliningrad Oblast, part of the Russian Federation since 1991). Subdued by the Teutonic Order during the Prussian Crusade (1217–1274).
Pechenegs Protohistoric
c. 860–1122
Tribes, khanates
Penkovka culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Principality of Peremyshl Principality To Grand Duchy of Galicia-Volhynia, later incorporated to Kingdom of Poland.
Principality of Pereyaslavl c. 11th century–1239 Principality Established as appanage of Kievan Rus'. Destroyed by the Mongols in 1239.
Polabian Slavs Protohistoric Tribe
Polans (eastern) Protohistoric Tribe
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 1569–1795 Elective monarchy Established by Union of Lublin (1569) between Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Second Polish Republic 1918–1939 Republic Emerged at the end of World War I as a revolutionary republic in the power vacuum between the defeated Tsarist Russian forces and retreating German Empire. Rather than a multi-ethnic federation (as some including its Chief of State Józef Piłsudski advocated, based on the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth), it became a Polish-dominated unitary republic with large Ukrainian, Belarusian, Lithuanian, and German minorities. Nazi Germany invaded and destroyed it in 1939, starting World War II.
Principality of Polotsk (Polatsk) c. 10th century–1307 Principality Purportedly evolved from tribal union of Krivichs. Vassal state of Kievan Rus' since c. 1000. To Lithuania at 1307.
Pomeranian culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Kingdom of Pontus 281 BCE–62 CE Kingdom Hellenistic Greek kingdom around the Black Sea.
Principality of Pronsk 1129– Principality
Duchy of Prussia (Brandenburg-Prussia) 1525–1701 Duchy Reorganisation of the State of the Teutonic Order. Based in Königsberg (modern Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad Oblast, part of the Russian Federation since 1991), in personal union with Electoral Brandenburg (based in Berlin) since 1618. Became the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701.
Kingdom of Prussia 1701–1918 Absolute monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
Successor to the Duchy of Prussia. Capital at Berlin, coronation at Königsberg (capital of East Prussia province). Joined the German Empire as its dominant member state in 1871. Abolished in 1947; Kaliningrad Oblast created and transferred to Soviet Russia under the 1945 Potsdam Agreement.
Przeworsk culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Pskov Republic c. 1200–1510 Republic Originally a Rus' principality, Pskov evolved a republican system around 1200. To Moscow in 1510.
Principality of Putyvl 1150– Principality
Qasim Khanate –1681 Khanate To Russia in 1681.
Radimichs Protohistoric Tribe
Kingdom of Romania 1881–1947 Constitutional monarchy
Various dictatorships
North Bukovina and south Bessarabia were conquered by royal Romanian forces during World War I, and were part of Romania in the interwar period. The Red Army occupied them in 1944, and the new socialist Romanian People's Republic ceded them to Soviet Ukraine by the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947. They have been part of Ukraine since 1991.
Principality of Rostov 1207–1474 Principality Since 1207. To Moscow in 1474.
Rus' Khaganate Hypothetical
c. 839–882
Khanate A hypothetical state preceding Kievan Rus' whose existence has not been confirmed.
Russian Federation 1991–present Federal republic Established when the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic proclaimed independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Joined the Union State with Belarus in 1999.
Russian Republic 1917–1918 Provisional government Petrograd-based. Emerged from the Russian Provisional Government of the February Revolution. To Soviet Russia in 1917.
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
(RSFSR, Soviet Russia, Bolshevik Russia)
1917–1991 Soviet republic
Federal republic
Emerged out of the October Revolution. Revolutionary Bolshevik communist federal Soviet republic, joined the Soviet Union as its dominant member state in 1922. Proclaimed independence in 1991 as Russian Federation.
Russian State (1918–1920) 1918–1920 Military dictatorship Omsk-based. Emerged from the Provisional All-Russian Government, controlled by the White Army. To Soviet Russia in 1920.
Principality of Rylsk Principality (since 1152)
Principality of Ryazan (Riazan) Principality (to Moscow in 1521)
Samara culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Sclaveni or Sclaviniae Protohistoric Tribe
Scythia Protohistoric
c. 7th–3rd century BCE
Kingdom Successor to Iškuza.
Scythians Protohistoric
c. 7th–3rd century BCE
Tribe Nomadic Iranian equestrian people.
Migrated from Central Asia to modern Ukraine and Southern Russia.
Scytho-Siberian world Protohistoric
c. 900 BCE–200 CE
Archaeological horizon Includes the Sarmatians.
Severians Protohistoric Tribe
Khanate of Sibir Khanate To Russia in 1598. Origin of the name "Siberia".
Principality of Smolensk Principality (to Lithuania at 1404)
Soviet Union (USSR,
Union of Socialist Soviet Republics)
1922–1991 Soviet republic
Totalitarian dictatorship
Union of 15 Soviet republics which emerged out of the October Revolution, including the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (UkrSSR), and the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR). During its existence, the Soviet Union was the largest state in the world by territory, and the leading communist power during the Cold War (see also Eastern Bloc and Second World). The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred in 1988–1991, during which the Russian Federation, Ukraine, and the Republic of Belarus established their independence.
Srubna culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Sredny Stog culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Principality of Starodub Principality (to Lithuania at 1406)
Principality of Suzdal—Nizhny Novgorod Principality (since 1341)(to Moscow at 1425)
Principality of Tarusa Principality (to Moscow at 1395)
Principality of Terebovlia 1084–1141 Principality Established as appanage of Kievan Rus'. Incorporated into Principality of Halych.
State of the Teutonic Order 1226–1561 Elective monarchy
German Crusader state in the Baltic region and East Prussia based in Königsberg (modern Kaliningrad Oblast, since 1991 part of the Russian Federation).
Tivertsi Protohistoric Tribe
Principality of Tmutarakan Principality (destroyed by Cumans at 1097)
Principality of Toropets Principality (since 1126; personal union with Smolensk; to Lithuania at 1362)
Trzciniec culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Principality of Turov and Pinsk Principality (to Lithuania at 1336)
Empire of Trebizond 1204–1461 Empire Controlled parts of Crimea (the former Cherson (theme)) and Kuban.
Principality of Trubetsk Principality (since 1357)(to Russia at 1566)
Principality of Tver Principality (since 1246) (to Moscow at 1485)
Principality of Uglich Principality (since 1216)
Ukraine 1991–present Republic Established when the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic proclaimed independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Signed the European Union–Ukraine Association Agreement in 2014.
Ukrainian People's Republic
1917–1921 Republic Breakaway revolutionary anti-Soviet republic, received some diplomatic recognition. Briefly interrupted by the Ukrainian State.
Allied with Second Polish Republic with the Treaty of Warsaw (1920), but defeated by Soviet Russia. Largely to Soviet Ukraine in 1921.
Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets 1917–1918 Unrecognised state Emerged out of the October Revolution. Member state of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Briefly renamed Ukrainian Soviet Republic. To Ukrainian People's Republic in 1918.
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Soviet Ukraine, UkrSSR) 1919–1991 Soviet republic Established (initially at Kharkov) by Bolshevik forces from Soviet Russia during the Ukrainian–Soviet War. Subdued the Ukrainian People's Republic in 1921. Joined the Soviet Union in 1922. Proclaimed independence in 1991 as Ukraine.
Ukrainian State 1918 Republic Client state of the German Empire briefly interrupting the revolutionary Ukrainian People's Republic.
Ulichs Protohistoric Tribe
Usatove culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Veleti Protohistoric Tribe
Vistula Veneti Protohistoric Tribe
Principality of Vitebsk Principality (since 1101; to Lithuania at 1320)
Vladimir-Suzdal (Vladimir, Vladimir-Sudzalia[16]) 1157–c. 14th century Principality/duchy
Grand duchy/principality
Emerged out of Principality of Rostov. Since 1157 Principality/Duchy of Vladimir-Suzdal. After sacking Kiev in 1169, it claimed to be a grand principality/duchy. In the 14th century, Vladimir-Suzdal had splintered into various appanage principalities including Nizhny Novgorod (Novogord-Suzdal), Tver and Moscow (Muscovy) who all claimed the title of Grand Prince of Vladimir, and sought to gain the favour of the Tatar-Mongol khan of the Golden Horde to secure it.[c] In the early 14th century, the khan awarded the title to Yury of Moscow to counterbalance the strength of Tver; and after the Tver Uprising of 1327, which the Muscovites helped put down, Özbeg Khan named Ivan "Kalita" of Moscow the new grand prince of Vladimir.[18] By the mid-14th century and especially during the 1360s "Great Troubles" for the Golden Horde, the khan's alliance with Moscow made the latter militarily and administratively powerful enough to economically and demographically devastate its rivals, notably Tver.[19] The khans therefore started awarding the grand princely title to Moscow's rivals;[20] in 1353, Konstantin Vasilyevich [ru; uk] of Nizhny Novgorod-Suzdal was given the title of grand prince of Vladimir,[21] and in 1371 it was Mikhail II of Tver.[21] But by that time it was too late for the Golden Horde to curb the rise of Muscovy.[22]
Volga Bulgaria late 9th century–1240s Khanate, Emirate Destroyed by Mongol invasion.
Principality of Volhynia (Volodymyr) 987–1198 Principality Established as appanage of Kievan Rus'. Merged into Principality (later Kingdom) of Galicia–Volhynia (Ruthenia).
Principality of Vorotynsk Principality (to Lithuania at 1407)
Principality of Vshchizh Principality (since 1156)
Qing dynasty Until 1858/60 Empire Outer Manchuria was part of the Chinese Empire under the Qing until the 1858/60 Amur Annexation to the Russian Empire. Thereafter known as Green Ukraine.
Vyatichs Protohistoric Tribe
Vyatka Land Protohistoric
c. 11th–1489
Tribal society Originally inhabited by Permians, settled by Rus' people. To Moscow in 1489.
Weimar Republic 1918–1933 Federal republic Successor to the abolished German Empire, dominated by the Free State of Prussia (including modern Kaliningrad Oblast, part of the Russian Federation since 1991). Transformed into Nazi Germany when Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party passed the Enabling Act of 1933.
West Ukrainian People's Republic 1918–1919 Republic Breakaway revolutionary anti-Habsburg republic, partially recognised. Disputed autonomous region of the Ukrainian People's Republic (1919), then to Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Romania.
Western Turkic Khaganate 581–742 Khanate
White Croats Protohistoric
c. 6th–20th century
Tribe Migrated to Croatia or assimilated with other Slavs
Yamna culture Prehistoric Archaeological culture
Principality of Yaroslavl Principality (since 1218)(to Moscow at 1471)
Zaporozhian Sich (Free lands of
the Zaporozhian Host the Lower)
1552–1775 Republic
Stratocratic Cossack proto-state. Within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Cossack Hetmanate, and the Russian Empire, it functioned as an autonomous polity until annexed by the last in 1775.


See also


  1. ^ "The Rus’ principalities in the fourteenth century were not ‘Russia’, although their history in this century is often subsumed into that rubric. The state centred at Moscow that became Russia emerged from one of the Rus’ principalities over the course of the century. During the 1300s political and cultural diversity was the dominant feature of these lands in the eastern reaches of the forested European plain. (...) What gives this area its historical cohesion was the shared common political heritage of the Kiev Rus' state, whose Rurikide dynasty had controlled most of these lands (not the Baltic littoral or the farthest northern lands) from the tenth to twelfth centuries. By the beginnin of the fourteenth, however, the grand principality had evolved into many different principalities, all descended from the Kievan ruling family."[4]
  2. ^ The Nowogródek, Polesia, Volhynia, Ternopil and Stanisławów (Ivano-Frankivsk) voivodeships of the Second Polish Republic contained areas that since 1991 have been part of Belarus (such as parts of the former Imperial Russian Minsk Governorate) or Ukraine (the former Imperial Austrian Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and former Imperial Russian Volhynian Governorate). Carpathian Ruthenia (part of Ukraine since 1991) was part of interwar Czechoslovakia, while northern Bukovina (part of Ukraine since 1991) and Bessarabia (divided between Ukraine and Moldova since 1991) were part of the interwar Kingdom of Romania.[10]
  3. ^ During the 14th century, "political history is dominated by the vicious struggle between Moscow and Tver' for supremacy in Vladimir-Suzdalia. In the drive for power, both states had to address Sarai, for the Golden Horde had the uncontested prerogative of determining succession to the symbolic throne of the grand prince of Vladimir. In this new political climate, the Mongols abandoned the now obsolete policy of respecting the traditional Russian lines of succession."[17]
  4. ^ Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia in 1829–56.


  1. ^ Barford (2001, p. vii, Preface)
  2. ^ Martin 2004, p. 1–5.
  3. ^ a b Martin 2004, p. 163–165.
  4. ^ Kollmann 1995, p. 764.
  5. ^ Martin 2004, p. 163–164.
  6. ^ a b Martin 2004, p. 207–208.
  7. ^ a b Halperin 1987, p. 9.
  8. ^ a b Kollmann 1995, p. 793–794.
  9. ^ "Rusland. §5.2 Catharina II". Encarta Encyclopedie Winkler Prins (in Dutch). Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum. 2002.
  10. ^ "Oekraïne §5.4 De Oekraïense SSR". Encarta Encyclopedie Winkler Prins (in Dutch). Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum. 2002.
  11. ^ Hopper, Tristin (May 26, 2021). "The world's oldest government-in-exile is in Ottawa". National Post. Retrieved 2021-07-26.
  12. ^ Parpola, Asko, (2012). "Formation of the Indo-European and Uralic (Finno-Ugric) language families in the light of archaeology: Revised and integrated ‘total’ correlations", in Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne, Helsinki, p. 138.
  13. ^ Beckerman, Sandra Mariët (2015). Corded Ware Coastal Communities: Using ceramic analysis to reconstruct third millennium BC societies in the Netherlands. Leiden: Sidestone Press.
  14. ^ "7,000 years ago, Neolithic optical art flourished – Technology & science – Science –". NBC News. 2008-09-22. Archived from the original on 2015-12-24. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
  15. ^ Martin 2009, pp. 1–5.
  16. ^ Halperin 1987, p. 25.
  17. ^ Halperin 1987, p. 68, 71.
  18. ^ Halperin 1987, p. 71–72.
  19. ^ Halperin 1987, p. 99–100, 109.
  20. ^ Halperin 1987, p. 99–100.
  21. ^ a b Halperin 1987, p. 68.
  22. ^ Halperin 1987, p. 100, 109.