A khanate or khaganate is the name for a type of historic polity ruled by a khan, khagan, khatun, or khanum.[1][2] Khanates were typically nomadic Turkic, Mongol and Tatar societies located on the Eurasian Steppe,[3][4][5] politically equivalent in status to kinship-based chiefdoms and feudal monarchies.[2] Khanates and khaganates were organised tribally, where leaders gained power on the support and loyalty of their warrior subjects,[3] gaining tribute from subordinates as realm funding.[6] In comparison to a khanate, a khaganate, the realm of a khagan, was a large nomadic state maintaining subjugation over numerous smaller khanates.[7] The title of khagan, translating as "Khan of the Khans", roughly corresponds in status to that of an emperor.[2][4]

Mongol-ruled khanates

Flag of the Chagatai Khanate
Flag of the Ilkhanate

Chagatai Khanate (1226–1347)

Main article: Chagatai Khanate

After Genghis Khan established appanages for his family in the Mongol Empire during his rule (1206–1227), his sons, daughters, and grandsons inherited separate sections of the empire. The Mongol Empire and Mongolian khanates that emerged from those appanages are listed below.

In 1226, the second son of Genghis Khan, Chagatai Khan established the Chagatai Khanate. At its height in the late 13th century, the khanate extended from the Amu Darya south of the Aral Sea to the Altai Mountains in the border of modern-day Mongolia and China, roughly corresponding to the defunct Qara Khitai Empire. Initially the rulers of the Chagatai Khanate recognized the supremacy of the Great Khan, but by the reign of Kublai Khan, Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq no longer obeyed the emperor's orders.

Il-Khanate (1252–1335)

Main article: Ilkhanate

In 1256, Il-Khanate was established by the grandson of Genghis Khan, Hulagu Khan. Its core territory lies in what is now part of the countries of Iran, Azerbaijan, and Turkey. At its greatest extent, the Ilkhanate also included parts of modern Iraq, Syria, Armenia, Georgia, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, part of modern Dagestan, and part of modern Tajikistan. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, converted to Islam. In the 1330s, the Ilkhanate was ravaged by the Black Death. Its last khan Abu Sa'id died in 1335, after which the khanate disintegrated. The Ilkhanid rulers, although of non-Iranian origin, tried to advertise their authority by tying themselves to the Iranian past, and they recruited historians in order to present the Mongols as heirs to the Sasanians (224–651 AD) of pre-Islamic Iran.

Turkic khanates

Possible Proto-Turkic or Turkic khaganates

Hunnic Empire of Attila in c. 450 CE

Turkic khaganates

Khanate is located in Continental Asia
First Turkic Khaganate in 576 CE
Khazar Khaganate, 650–850 CE
Cumania, c. 1200 CE
Tamgha of the Bulgar Turkic Dulo clan which ruled the First Bulgarian Empire

Central Asian Turkic khanates

18th- to early-19th-century Khanates of the Caucasus in the Qajar Empire

Main article: Khanates of the Caucasus

Manchu-ruled khanate

Other khanates

See also


  1. ^ "Definition of KHANATE". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2023-04-21.
  2. ^ a b c "khagan in Old Turkish - English-Old Turkish Dictionary | Glosbe". glosbe.com. Retrieved 2023-04-21.
  3. ^ a b "khanate". Oxford Reference. Retrieved 2023-04-21.
  4. ^ a b "What Is a Khan?". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 2023-04-21.
  5. ^ "The Mongol Khans". education.nationalgeographic.org. Retrieved 2023-04-21.
  6. ^ Cartwright, Mark. "Genghis Khan". World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2023-04-21.
  7. ^ Królikowska-Jedlińska, Natalia. Law and Division of Power in the Crimean Khanate (1532-1774).