A khanate or khaganate is the name for a type of historic polity ruled by a khan, khagan, khatun, or khanum.[1][2] Khanates were typically nomadic Turkic, Mongol and Tatar societies located on the Eurasian Steppe,[3][4][5] politically equivalent in status to kinship-based chiefdoms and feudal monarchies.[2] Khanates and khaganates were organised tribally, where leaders gained power on the support and loyalty of their warrior subjects,[3] gaining tribute from subordinates as realm funding.[6] In comparison to a khanate, a khaganate, the realm of a khagan, was a large nomadic state maintaining subjugation over numerous smaller khanates.[7] The title of khagan, translating as "Khan of the Khans", roughly corresponds in status to that of an emperor.[2][4]

Mongol khanates

Flag of the Chagatai Khanate
Flag of the Ilkhanate

Mongol Empire (1206–1368)

Main article: Mongol Empire

Mongol Empire was the largest steppe nomadic Khaganate as well as second largest empire and the largest contiguous empire[8] in history. After Genghis Khan established appanages for his family in the Mongol Empire during his rule (1206–1227), his sons, daughters, and grandsons inherited separate sections of the empire. The Mongol Empire and Mongolian khanates that emerged from those appanages are listed below.

Turkic khanates

Possible Proto-Turkic or Turkic khaganates

Hunnic Empire of Attila in c. 450 CE

Turkic khaganates

Khanate is located in Continental Asia
First Turkic Khaganate in 576 CE
Khazar Khaganate, 650–850 CE
Cumania, c. 1200 CE
Tamgha of the Bulgar Turkic Dulo clan which ruled the First Bulgarian Empire

Central Asian Turkic khanates

Khanates in Iran

See also: Khanates of the Caucasus

Other khanates

See also


  1. ^ "Definition of KHANATE". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2023-04-21.
  2. ^ a b c "khagan in Old Turkish - English-Old Turkish Dictionary | Glosbe". glosbe.com. Retrieved 2023-04-21.
  3. ^ a b "khanate". Oxford Reference. Retrieved 2023-04-21.
  4. ^ a b "What Is a Khan?". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 2023-04-21.
  5. ^ "The Mongol Khans". education.nationalgeographic.org. Retrieved 2023-04-21.
  6. ^ Cartwright, Mark. "Genghis Khan". World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2023-04-21.
  7. ^ Królikowska-Jedlińska, Natalia. Law and Division of Power in the Crimean Khanate (1532-1774).
  8. ^ Morgan. The Mongols. p. 5.
  9. ^ The Yenching Journal of Social Studies, Volumes 4-5. 1948. p. 68.