Mein Kampf
Dust jacket of 1926–1928 edition
AuthorAdolf Hitler
CountryGerman Reich
Political manifesto
Political philosophy
PublisherFranz Eher Nachfolger GmbH
Publication date
18 July 1925
Published in English
13 October 1933 (abridged)
1939 (full)
Media typePrint
(hardcover and Paperback)
ISBN978-0395951057 (1998 trans. by Ralph Manheim)
LC ClassDD247.H5
Followed byZweites Buch 

Mein Kampf (German: [maɪn ˈkampf]; lit.'My Struggle') is a 1925 autobiographical manifesto by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler. The work describes the process by which Hitler became antisemitic and outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany. Volume 1 of Mein Kampf was published in 1925 and Volume 2 in 1926.[1] The book was edited first by Emil Maurice, then by Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess.[2][3]

Hitler began Mein Kampf while imprisoned following his failed coup in Munich in November 1923 and a trial in February 1924 for high treason, in which he received a sentence of five years. Although he received many visitors initially, he soon devoted himself entirely to the book. As he continued, he realized that it would have to be a two-volume work, with the first volume scheduled for release in early 1925. The governor of Landsberg noted at the time that "he [Hitler] hopes the book will run into many editions, thus enabling him to fulfill his financial obligations and to defray the expenses incurred at the time of his trial."[4][5] After slow initial sales, the book became a bestseller in Germany following Hitler's rise to power in 1933.[6]

After Hitler's death, copyright of Mein Kampf passed to the state government of Bavaria, which refused to allow any copying or printing of the book in Germany. In 2016, following the expiry of the copyright held by the Bavarian state government, Mein Kampf was republished in Germany for the first time since 1945, which prompted public debate and divided reactions from Jewish groups. A team of scholars from the Institute of Contemporary History in Munich published a German language two-volume almost 2,000-page edition annotated with about 3,500 notes. This was followed in 2021 by a 1,000-page French edition based on the German annotated version, with about twice as much commentary as text.[7]


Hitler originally wanted to call his forthcoming book Viereinhalb Jahre (des Kampfes) gegen Lüge, Dummheit und Feigheit (Four and a Half Years [of Struggle] Against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice).[8] Max Amann, head of the Franz Eher Verlag and Hitler's publisher, is said to have suggested[9] the much shorter "Mein Kampf" ("My Struggle").


The arrangement of chapters is as follows:


In Mein Kampf, Hitler used the main thesis of "the Jewish peril", which posits a Jewish conspiracy to gain world leadership.[10] The narrative describes the process by which he became increasingly antisemitic and militaristic, especially during his years in Vienna. He speaks of not having met a Jew until he arrived in Vienna, and that at first his attitude was liberal and tolerant. When he first encountered the antisemitic press, he says, he dismissed it as unworthy of serious consideration. Later he accepted the same antisemitic views, which became crucial to his program of national reconstruction of Germany.

Mein Kampf has also been studied as a work on political theory. For example, Hitler announces his hatred of what he believed to be the world's two evils: communism and Judaism.

In the book, Hitler blamed Germany's chief woes on the parliament of the Weimar Republic, the Jews, and Social Democrats, as well as Marxists, though he believed that Marxists, Social Democrats, and the parliament were all working for Jewish interests.[11] He announced that he wanted to destroy the parliamentary system completely, believing it to be corrupt in principle, as those who reach power are inherent opportunists.


While historians dispute the exact date Hitler decided to exterminate the Jewish people, few place the decision before the mid-1930s.[12] First published in 1925, Mein Kampf shows Hitler's personal grievances and his ambitions for creating a New Order. Hitler also wrote that The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a fabricated text that purported to expose a Jewish plot to control the world,[13] was an authentic document. This later became a part of the Nazi propaganda effort to justify persecution and annihilation of the Jews.[14][15]

The historian Ian Kershaw observed that several passages in Mein Kampf are undeniably of a genocidal nature.[16] Hitler wrote "the nationalization of our masses will succeed only when, aside from all the positive struggle for the soul of our people, their international poisoners are exterminated",[17] and he suggested that, "If at the beginning of the war and during the war twelve or fifteen thousand of these Hebrew corrupters of the nation had been subjected to poison gas, such as had to be endured in the field by hundreds of thousands of our very best German workers of all classes and professions, then the sacrifice of millions at the front would not have been in vain."[18]

The racial laws to which Hitler referred resonate directly with his ideas in Mein Kampf. In the first edition, Hitler stated that the destruction of the weak and sick is far more humane than their protection. Apart from this allusion to humane treatment, Hitler saw a purpose in destroying "the weak" in order to provide the proper space and purity for the "strong".[19]

Anti-Slavism and Lebensraum (living space)

Hitler described that, when he was in Vienna, it was repugnant for him to see the mixture of races "of Czechs, Poles, Hungarians, Ruthenians, Serbs and Croats, and always that infection which dissolves human society, the Jew, were all here and there and everywhere."[20]

He also wrote that he viewed the Japanese victory over the Russians in the Russo-Japanese War in 1904 as a "blow to Austrian Slavism".[21]

In the chapter "Eastern Orientation or Eastern Policy", Hitler argued that the Germans needed Lebensraum in the East, a "historic destiny" that would properly nurture the German people.[22] Hitler believed that "the organization of a Russian state formation was not the result of the political abilities of the Slavs in Russia, but only a wonderful example of the state-forming efficacy of the German element in an inferior race."[23]

In Mein Kampf, Hitler openly described his proposed future German expansion in the East, foreshadowing Generalplan Ost:

And so we National Socialists consciously draw a line beneath the foreign policy tendency of our pre-War period. We take up where we broke off six hundred years ago. We stop the endless German movement to the south and west, and turn our gaze toward the land in the east. At long last we break off the colonial and commercial policy of the pre-War period and shift to the soil policy of the future. If we speak of soil in Europe today, we can primarily have in mind only Russia and her vassal border states.[24]

Hitler wrote that he was against any attempts to Germanise Slavs and criticised the previous attempts at trying to Germanise the Austrian Slavs. He also criticised people in pan-German movements in Germany who thought that forcing ethnic Poles living in Germany to speak the German language would turn them into Germans; he believed that would have caused a "foreign race" by its own "inferiority" to damage the "dignity" and "nobility" of the German nation.[25]


Arabic edition of Mein Kampf

Although Hitler originally wrote Mein Kampf mostly for the followers of National Socialism, interest in the work grew after his rise to power. (Two other books written by party members, Gottfried Feder's Breaking The Interest Slavery and Alfred Rosenberg's The Myth of the Twentieth Century, have since lapsed into comparative literary obscurity.)[26] Hitler had made about 1.2 million ℛ︁ℳ︁ from the income of the book by 1933 (equivalent to €5,562,590 in 2021), when the average annual income of a teacher was about 4,800 ℛ︁ℳ︁ (equivalent to €22,250 in 2021).[26][27] He accumulated a tax debt of 405,500 ℛ︁ℳ︁ (very roughly, at 2015 values, £1.1 million, 1.4 million EUR, US$1.5 million) from the sale of about 240,000 copies before he became chancellor in 1933 (at which time his debt was waived).[26][27]

Hitler began to distance himself from the book after becoming chancellor of Germany in 1933. He dismissed it as "fantasies behind bars" that were little more than a series of articles for the Völkischer Beobachter, and later told Hans Frank that "If I had had any idea in 1924 that I would have become Reich chancellor, I never would have written the book."[28] Nevertheless, Mein Kampf was a bestseller in Germany during the 1930s.[29] During Hitler's years in power, the book was in high demand in libraries and often reviewed and quoted in other publications. It was given free to every newlywed couple and every soldier fighting at the front.[26] By 1939, it had sold 5.2 million copies in eleven languages.[30] By the end of the war, about 10 million copies of the book had been sold or distributed in Germany.[citation needed]

Contemporary observations

Mein Kampf, in essence, lays out the ideological program Hitler established for the Holocaust, by identifying the Jews and "Bolsheviks" as racially and ideologically inferior and threatening, and "Aryans" and National Socialists as racially superior and politically progressive. Hitler's revolutionary goals included expulsion of the Jews from Greater Germany and the unification of German peoples into one Greater Germany. Hitler desired to restore German lands to their greatest historical extent, real or imagined.

Due to its racist content and the historical effect of Nazism upon Europe during World War II and the Holocaust, it is considered a highly controversial book. Criticism has not come solely from opponents of Nazism. Italian fascist dictator and Nazi ally Benito Mussolini was also critical of the book, saying that it was "a boring tome that I have never been able to read" and remarking that Hitler's beliefs, as expressed in the book, were "little more than commonplace clichés".[31]

The German journalist Konrad Heiden, an early critic of the Nazi Party, observed that the content of Mein Kampf is essentially a political argument with other members of the Nazi Party who had appeared to be Hitler's friends, but whom he was actually denouncing in the book's content — sometimes by not even including references to them.[citation needed]

The American literary theorist and philosopher Kenneth Burke wrote a 1939 rhetorical analysis of the work, The Rhetoric of Hitler's "Battle", which revealed an underlying message of aggressive intent.[32]

The American journalist John Gunther said in 1940 that compared to autobiographies such as Leon Trotsky's My Life or Henry Adams's The Education of Henry Adams, Mein Kampf was "vapid, vain, rhetorical, diffuse, prolix." However, he added that "it is a powerful and moving book, the product of great passionate feeling". He suggested that the book exhausted curious German readers, but its "ceaseless repetition of the argument, left impregnably in their minds, fecund and germinating".[33]

In March 1940, British writer George Orwell reviewed a then-recently published uncensored translation of Mein Kampf for The New English Weekly. Orwell suggested that the force of Hitler's personality shone through the often "clumsy" writing, capturing the magnetic allure of Hitler for many Germans. In essence, Orwell notes, Hitler offers only visions of endless struggle and conflict in the creation of "a horrible brainless empire" that "stretch[es] to Afghanistan or thereabouts". He wrote, "Whereas Socialism, and even capitalism in a more grudging way, have said to people 'I offer you a good time,' Hitler has said to them, 'I offer you struggle, danger, and death,' and as a result a whole nation flings itself at his feet." Orwell's review was written in the aftermath of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, when Hitler made peace with the USSR after more than a decade of vitriolic rhetoric and threats between the two nations; with the pact in place, Orwell believed, England was now facing a risk of Nazi attack and the UK must not underestimate the appeal of Hitler's ideas.[34]

In his 1943 book The Menace of the Herd, Austrian scholar Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn[35] described Hitler's ideas in Mein Kampf and elsewhere as "a veritable reductio ad absurdum of 'progressive' thought"[36] and betraying "a curious lack of original thought" that shows Hitler offered no innovative or original ideas but was merely "a virtuoso of commonplaces which he may or may not repeat in the guise of a 'new discovery.'"[37] Hitler's stated aim, Kuehnelt-Leddihn writes, is to quash individualism in furtherance of political goals:

When Hitler and Mussolini attack the "western democracies" they insinuate that their "democracy" is not genuine. National Socialism envisages abolishing the difference in wealth, education, intellect, taste, philosophy, and habits by a leveling process which necessitates in turn a total control over the child and the adolescent. Every personal attitude will be branded — after communist pattern — as "bourgeois", and this in spite of the fact that the bourgeois is the representative of the most herdist class in the world, and that National Socialism is a basically bourgeois movement. In Mein Kampf, Hitler repeatedly speaks of the "masses" and the "herd" referring to the people. The German people should probably, in his view, remain a mass of identical "individuals" in an enormous sand heap or ant heap, identical even to the color of their shirts, the garment nearest to the body.[38]

In his The Second World War, published in several volumes in the late 1940s and early 1950s, Winston Churchill wrote that he felt that after Hitler's ascension to power, no other book than Mein Kampf deserved more intensive scrutiny.[39]

Later analysis

The critic George Steiner suggested that Mein Kampf can be seen as one of several books that resulted from the crisis of German culture following Germany's defeat in World War I, comparable in this respect to the philosopher Ernst Bloch's The Spirit of Utopia (1918), the historian Oswald Spengler's The Decline of the West (1918), the theologian Franz Rosenzweig's The Star of Redemption (1921), the theologian Karl Barth's The Epistle to the Romans (1922), and the philosopher Martin Heidegger's Being and Time (1927).[40]

Criticism by translators

A number of translators have commented on the poor quality of Hitler's use of language in writing Mein Kampf. Olivier Mannoni, who translated the 2021 French critical edition, said about the original German text that it was "An incoherent soup, one could become half-mad translating it," and said that previous translations had corrected the language, giving the false impression that Hitler was a "cultured man" with "coherent and grammatically correct reasoning". He added "To me, making this text elegant is a crime."[7] Mannoni's comments are similar to those made by Ralph Manheim, who did the first English-language translation in 1943. Mannheim wrote in the foreword to the edition "Where Hitler's formulations challenge the reader's credulity I have quoted the German original in the notes." This evaluation of the poor quality of Hitler's prose and his inability to express his opinions coherently was shared by William S. Schlamm, who reviewed Manheim's translation in The New York Times, writing that "there was not the faintest similarity to a thought and barely a trace of language."[41]

German publication history

While Hitler was in power (1933–1945), Mein Kampf came to be available in three common editions. The first, the Volksausgabe or People's Edition, featured the original cover on the dust jacket and was navy blue underneath with a gold swastika eagle embossed on the cover. The Hochzeitsausgabe, or Wedding Edition, in a slipcase with the seal of the province embossed in gold onto a parchment-like cover was given free to marrying couples. In 1940, the Tornister-Ausgabe, or Knapsack Edition, was released. This edition was a compact, but unabridged, version in a red cover and was released by the post office, available to be sent to loved ones fighting at the front. These three editions combined both volumes into the same book.

A special edition was published in 1939 in honour of Hitler's 50th birthday. This edition was known as the Jubiläumsausgabe, or Anniversary Issue. It came in both dark blue and bright red boards with a gold sword on the cover. This work contained both volumes one and two. It was considered a deluxe version, relative to the smaller and more common Volksausgabe.

The book could also be purchased as a two-volume set during Hitler's rule and was available in soft cover and hardcover. The soft cover edition contained the original cover (as pictured at the top of this article). The hardcover edition had a leather spine with cloth-covered boards. The cover and spine contained an image of three brown oak leaves.

2016 critical edition

Along with the rest of his wealth and property, Hitler left the rights to the book to the German state. As Hitler's official place of residence was in Munich, the copyright passed to the government of Bavaria, which refused to allow it to be republished. The copyright ran out on December 31, 2015.

On 3 February 2010, the Institute of Contemporary History (IfZ) in Munich announced plans to republish an annotated version of the text, for educational purposes in schools and universities, in 2015. The book had last been published in Germany in 1945.[42] The IfZ argued that a republication was necessary to get an authoritative annotated edition by the time the copyright ran out, which might open the way for neo-Nazi groups to publish their own versions.[43] The Bavarian Finance Ministry opposed the plan, citing respect for victims of the Holocaust. It stated that permits for reprints would not be issued, at home or abroad. This would also apply to a new annotated edition.

There was disagreement about the issue of whether the republished book might be banned as Nazi propaganda. The Bavarian government emphasized that even after expiration of the copyright, "the dissemination of Nazi ideologies will remain prohibited in Germany and is punishable under the penal code".[44] However, the Bavarian Science Minister Wolfgang Heubisch supported a critical edition, stating in 2010: "Once Bavaria's copyright expires, there is the danger of charlatans and neo-Nazis appropriating this infamous book for themselves."[43]

On 12 December 2013, the Bavarian government cancelled its financial support for an annotated edition. IfZ, which was preparing the translation, announced that it intended to proceed with publication after the copyright expired.[45] The IfZ scheduled an edition of Mein Kampf for release in 2016.[46]

Richard Verber, vice-president of the Board of Deputies of British Jews, stated in 2015 that the board trusted the academic and educational value of republishing. "We would, of course, be very wary of any attempt to glorify Hitler or to belittle the Holocaust in any way," Verber declared to The Observer. "But this is not that. I do understand how some Jewish groups could be upset and nervous, but it seems it is being done from a historical point of view and to put it in context."[47]

The annotated edition of Mein Kampf was published in Germany in January 2016 and sold out within hours on Amazon's German site. The two-volume edition included about 3,500 notes and was almost 2,000 pages long.[48] Usually, according to Gerhard Weinberg, the information in the annotated edition that accompanies a chapter is mostly about when the chapter was written, though "in some cases" there is commentary on the nature and argument of the chapter.[49]

The book's publication led to public debate in Germany, and divided reactions from Jewish groups, with some supporting, and others opposing, the decision to publish.[29] German officials had previously said they would limit public access to the text amid fears that its republication could stir neo-Nazi sentiment.[50] Some bookstores stated that they would not stock the book. Dussmann, a Berlin bookstore, stated that one copy was available on the shelves in the history section, but that it would not be advertised, and more copies would be available only on order.[51] By January 2017, the German annotated edition had sold over 85,000 copies.[52]

Gerhard Weinberg wrote a generally positive review of the annotated edition, praising the choice to include not only editors' comments but also changes of the original text. He said that notes such as those of chapters eight and nine "will be extremely helpful" about the situation in the time of Hitler's entry into politics and lauded the notes to chapter 11 ("People and Race") as "extensive and very helpful" as well. On the negative side, Weinberg observed that the editors make a false correction at one point; that they miss an informative book on German atrocities during World War I; that they include a survey of Nazi membership too late; and that all of his own work on Hitler goes unmentioned in the bibliography.[49]

English translations

Further information: Mein Kampf in English

Ever since the early 1930s, the history of Mein Kampf in English has been complicated and an occasion for controversy.[53][54] No fewer than four full translations were completed before 1945, as well as a number of extracts in newspapers, pamphlets, government documents and unpublished typescripts. Not all of these had official approval from his publishers, Eher Verlag. Since the war, the 1943 Ralph Manheim translation has been the most commonly published translation, though other versions have continued to circulate.

Current availability

At the time of his suicide, Hitler's official place of residence was in Munich, which led to his entire estate, including all rights to Mein Kampf, changing to the ownership of the state of Bavaria. The government of Bavaria, in agreement with the federal government of Germany, refused to allow any copying or printing of the book in Germany. It also opposed copying and printing in other countries, but with less success. Under German copyright law, the entire text entered the public domain on 1 January 2016, upon the expiration of the calendar year 70 years after the author's death.[55]

Owning and buying the book in Germany is not an offence. Trading in old copies is lawful as well, unless it is done in such a fashion as to "promote hatred or war." In particular, the unmodified edition is not covered by §86 StGB that forbids dissemination of means of propaganda of unconstitutional organizations, since it is a "pre-constitutional work" and as such cannot be opposed to the free and democratic basic order, according to a 1979 decision of the Federal Court of Justice of Germany.[56] Most German libraries carry heavily commented and excerpted versions of Mein Kampf. In 2008, Stephan Kramer, secretary-general of the Central Council of Jews in Germany, not only recommended lifting the ban, but volunteered the help of his organization in editing and annotating the text, saying that it is time for the book to be made available to all online.[57]

A variety of restrictions or special circumstances apply in other countries.


In 1934, the French government unofficially sponsored the publication of an unauthorized translation. It was meant as a warning and included a critical introduction by Marshal Lyautey ("Every Frenchman must read this book"). It was published by far-right publisher Fernand Sorlot in an agreement with the activists of LICRA who bought 5,000 copies to be offered to "influential people"; however, most of them treated the book as a casual gift and did not read it.[58] The Nazi regime unsuccessfully tried to have it forbidden. Hitler, as the author, and Eher-Verlag, his German publisher, had to sue for copyright infringement in the Commercial Court of France. Hitler's lawsuit succeeded in having all copies seized, the print broken up, and having an injunction against booksellers offering any copies. However, a large quantity of books had already been shipped and stayed available undercover by Sorlot.[59]

In 1938, Hitler licensed for France an authorized edition by Fayard, translated by François Dauture and Georges Blond, lacking the threatening tone against France of the original. The French edition was 347 pages long, while the original title was 687 pages, and it was titled Ma doctrine ("My doctrine").[60]

After the war, Fernand Sorlot re-edited, re-issued, and continued to sell the work, without permission from the state of Bavaria, to which the author's rights had defaulted.

In the 1970s, the rise of the extreme right in France along with the growing of Holocaust denial works, placed the Mein Kampf under judicial watch and in 1978, LICRA entered a complaint in the courts against the publisher for inciting antisemitism. Sorlot received a "substantial fine" but the court also granted him the right to continue publishing the work, provided certain warnings and qualifiers accompany the text.[59]

On 1 January 2016, 70 years after Hitler's death, Mein Kampf entered the public domain in France.[59]

A new edition was published in 2017 by Fayard, now part of the Groupe Hachette, with a critical introduction, just as the edition published in 2018 in Germany by the Institut für Zeitgeschichte, the Institute of Contemporary History based in Munich.[59]

In 2021, a 1,000-page critical edition, based on the German edition of 2016, was published in France. Titled Historiciser le mal: Une édition critique de Mein Kampf ("Historicizing Evil: A Critical Edition of Mein Kampf"), with almost twice as much commentary as text, it was edited by Florent Brayard and Andraes Wirsching, translated by Olivier Mannoni, and published by Fayard. The print run was deliberately kept small at 10,000 available only by special order, with copies set aside for public libraries. Proceeds from the sale of the edition are earmarked for the Auschwitz-Birkenau Foundation. Some critics who had objected in advance to the edition's publication had fewer objections upon publication. One historian noted that there were so many annotations that Hitler's text had become "secondary."[7]


Since its first publication in India in 1928, Mein Kampf has gone through hundreds of editions and sold over 100,000 copies.[61][62][63] Mein Kampf was translated into various Indian languages such as Hindi, Gujarati, Malayalam, Tamil, Marathi and Bengali.[64] Commenting on it, Balasaheb Thackeray in 1992 (weeks before the Mumbai riots) and allegedly Veer Savarkar in 1949 (four years after defeat of Nazi Germany during World War II) said, "If you take Mein Kampf and if you remove the word 'Jew' and put in the word 'Muslim', that is what I believe in." Even Lal Krishna Advani, in his confinement during the Emergency imposed by Indira Gandhi, mentioned Mein Kampf in his prison diary.[65][66][67]

Also, in India, over the time with slow emergence of Adolf Hitler as a "role model" for aspiring business leaders and B-schools,[68] it is considered as a "self-improvement book", "management guru", "business strategy role model" and a "management strategy guide", sometimes "with comparison to Spencer Johnson's Who Moved My Cheese".[69][70][71] In fact, due to demand from the Indian business students (which for them, was "inspiring"),[72] there was a surge in its sales.[73][74][75] J Kuruvachira, Professor of Philosophy of Salesian College of Higher Education in Dimapur, Nagaland; who in his words, had said, "It is a source of inspiration to the Hindu nationalist BJP", also said that "the book's popularity was due to political reasons", especially at railway stations and bookstores of New Delhi during the tenure of BJP under Narendra Modi since 2014.[69][70][62][76][72]

Though, a few cite "pure iconophilia" prevalent in India as the reason for popularity of the book.[77]


An extract of Mein Kampf in Hebrew was first published[9][5][4][3] in 1992 by Akadamon in a run of 400 copies.[78] The complete translation of the book in Hebrew was published by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1995. The translator was Dan Yaron, a Vienna-born retired teacher and Holocaust survivor.[79]


On 5 May 1995, a translation of Mein Kampf released by a small Latvian publishing house Vizītkarte began appearing in bookstores, provoking a reaction from Latvian authorities, who confiscated the approximately 2,000 copies that had made their way to the bookstores and charged director of the publishing house Pēteris Lauva with offences under anti-racism law.[80] Currently the publication of Mein Kampf is forbidden in Latvia.[80][81]

In April 2018, multiple Russian-language news sites (Baltnews, Zvezda, Sputnik, Komsomolskaya Pravda and Komprava among others) reported that Adolf Hitler had allegedly become more popular in Latvia than Harry Potter, referring to a Latvian online book trading platform, where Mein Kampf had appeared at the No. 1 position in "The Most Current Books in 7 Days" list.[82][83][84]

In research done by who called the claim "false", was only the 878th most popular website and 149th most popular shopping site in Latvia at the time, according to Alexa Internet. In addition to that, the website only had 4 copies on sale by individual users and no users wishing to purchase the book.[83] Owner of pointed out that the book list is not based on actual deals, but rather page views, of which 70% in the case of Mein Kampf had come from anonymous and unregistered users she believed could be fake users.[84] Ambassador of Latvia to the Russian Federation Māris Riekstiņš responded to the story by tweeting "everyone, who wishes to know what books are actually bought and read in Latvia, are advised to address the largest book stores @JanisRoze; @valtersunrapa; @zvaigzneabc".[82] The BBC also acknowledged the story was fake news, adding that in the last three years Mein Kampf had been requested for borrowing for only 139 times across all libraries in Latvia, in comparison with around 25,000 requests for books about Harry Potter.[84]


In the Netherlands, Mein Kampf was not available for sale for years following World War II.[85][86] Sale has been prohibited since a court ruling in the 1980s. In September 2018, however, Dutch publisher Prometheus officially released an academic edition of the 2016 German translation with comprehensive introductions and annotations by Dutch historians.[87] The book is widely available to the general public in the Netherlands for the first time since World War II.


On 20 April 1993, under the sponsorship of the vice-president of the Democratic Agrarian Party of Romania, Sibiu-based Pacific publishers began issuing a Romanian edition of Mein Kampf. The local authorities promptly banned the sale and confiscated the copies, citing Article 166 of the Penal Code. Nevertheless, the ban was overturned on appeal by the Prosecutor General on 27 May 1993. Chief Rabbi Moses Rosen protested, and on 10 July 1993 President Ion Iliescu asked the Prosecutor General in writing to reinstate the ban of further printing and have the book withdrawn from the market. On 8 November 1993, the Prosecutor General rebuffed Iliescu, stating that the publication of the book was an act of spreading information, not conducting fascist propaganda. Although Iliescu deplored this answer "in strictly judicial terms", this was the end of the matter.[88][89]


In the Soviet Union, Mein Kampf was published in 1933 in a translation by Grigory Zinoviev.[90] In the Russian Federation, Mein Kampf has been published at least three times since 1992; the Russian text is also available on websites. In 2006 the Public Chamber of Russia proposed banning the book. In 2009, St. Petersburg's branch of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs requested to remove an annotated and hyper-linked Russian translation of the book from a historiography website.[91][92][93] On 13 April 2010, it was announced that Mein Kampf is outlawed on grounds of extremism promotion.[94]


Mein Kampf has been reprinted several times since 1945; in 1970, 1992, 2002 and 2010. In 1992 the Government of Bavaria tried to stop the publication of the book, and the case went to the Supreme Court of Sweden which ruled in favour of the publisher, stating that the book is protected by copyright, but that the copyright holder is unidentified (and not the State of Bavaria) and that the original Swedish publishing firm from 1934 was no longer in existence. It therefore refused the Government of Bavaria's claim.[95] The only translation changes came in the 1970 edition, but they were only linguistic, based on a new Swedish standard.[citation needed]


Mein Kampf (Turkish: Kavgam) was widely available in Turkey selling up to 100,000 copies in just two months in 2005. Analysts and commentators believe the sales of the book to be related to a rise in nationalism and anti-U.S. sentiment. İvo Molinas [tr] of Şalom stated this was a result of "what is happening in the Middle East, the Israeli-Palestinian problem and the war in Iraq."[96] Doğu Ergil, a political scientist at Ankara University, said both far-right ultranationalists and extremist Islamists had found common ground – "not on a common agenda for the future, but on their anxieties, fears and hate".[97]

United States

In the United States, Mein Kampf can be found at many community libraries and can be bought, sold, and traded: it is protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution as a matter of the freedom of speech and of the freedom of the press.[98] The U.S. government seized the copyright in September 1942[99] during the Second World War under the Trading with the Enemy Act and in 1979, Houghton Mifflin, the U.S. publisher of the book, bought the rights from the government pursuant to 28 CFR 0.47.[100] More than 15,000 copies are sold a year.[98] In 2016, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt reported that it was having difficulty finding a charity that would accept profits from the sales of its version of Mein Kampf, which it had promised to donate.[101]

Palestinian territories

In 1999, Mein Kampf was rated the sixth bestseller in the Palestinian territories as reported by Al-Hayat Al-Jadida.[102][103] The Arabic translation was distributed by Al-Shurouq, a Ramallah-based book distributor.[104]


In Egypt, the book was first translated into Arabic in 1937. It had a new translation in 1963 which was reprinted in 1995.[105] The book was also displayed for sale in Cairo's state-run book fairs in 2007, 2021, and 2023.[106][107][108]

Online availability

In 1999, the Simon Wiesenthal Center documented that the book was available in Germany via major online booksellers such as Amazon and Barnes & Noble. After a public outcry, both companies agreed to end these sales to addresses in Germany.[109] In March 2020, Amazon banned sales of new and second-hand copies of Mein Kampf, and several other Nazi publications, on its platform.[110] The book remains available on Barnes and Noble's website.[111] It is also available in multiple languages, including German, at the Internet Archive.[112] One of the first complete English translations was published by James Vincent Murphy in 1939.[113] The Murphy translation of the book is freely available on Project Gutenberg Australia.[114]


Main article: Zweites Buch

After the party's poor showing in the 1928 elections, Hitler believed that the reason for his loss was the public's misunderstanding of his ideas. He then retired to Munich to dictate a sequel to Mein Kampf to expand on its ideas, with more focus on foreign policy.

Only two copies of the 200-page manuscript were originally made, and only one of these was ever made public. The document was neither edited nor published during the Nazi era and remains known as Zweites Buch, or "Second Book". To keep the document strictly secret, in 1935 Hitler ordered that it be placed in a safe in an air raid shelter. It remained there until being discovered by an American officer in 1945.

The authenticity of the document found in 1945 has been verified by Josef Berg, a former employee of the Nazi publishing house Eher Verlag, and Telford Taylor, a former brigadier general of the United States Army Reserve and Chief Counsel at the Nuremberg war-crimes trials.

In 1958, the Zweites Buch was found in the archives of the United States by American historian Gerhard Weinberg. Unable to find an American publisher, Weinberg turned to his mentor – Hans Rothfels at the Institute of Contemporary History in Munich, and his associate Martin Broszat – who published Zweites Buch in 1961. A pirated edition was published in English in New York in 1962. The first authoritative English edition was not published until 2003 (Hitler's Second Book: The Unpublished Sequel to Mein Kampf, ISBN 1-929631-16-2).

See also



  1. ^ Mein Kampf ("My Struggle"), Adolf Hitler (originally 1925–1926), Reissue edition (15 September 1998), Publisher: Mariner Books, Language: English, paperback, 720 pages, ISBN 978-1495333347
  2. ^ Shirer 1960, p. 85.
  3. ^ a b Robert G.L. Waite, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler, Basic Books, 1977, pp. 237–243
  4. ^ a b Heinz, Heinz (1934). Germany's Hitler. Hurst & Blackett. p. 191.
  5. ^ a b Payne, Robert (1973). The Life and Death of Adolf Hitler. Popular Library. p. 203.
  6. ^ Shirer 1960, pp. 80–81.
  7. ^ a b c Bredeen, Aurelien (2 June 2021). "Hitler's 'Mein Kampf' Gets New French Edition, With Each Lie Annotated". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  8. ^ Bullock 1999, p. 121.
  9. ^ a b Cohen, Richard (28 June 1998). "Guess Who's on the Backlist". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 September 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2008.
  10. ^ Carr, Robert (March 2007). "Mein Kampf – The Text, its Themes and Hitler's Vision". History Review – via History Today.[permanent dead link]
  11. ^ "Mein Kampf". Internet Archive. 1941.
  12. ^ Browning, Christopher R. (2003). Initiating the Final Solution: The Fateful Months of September–October 1941. Washington, D.C.: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies. p. 12. OCLC 53343660.
  13. ^ Graves, Philip (1921). "The truth about 'The Protocols': a literary forgery" (pamphlet). The Times of London (articles collection). Archived from the original on 10 May 2013.
  14. ^ Hitler, Adolf. "XI: Nation and Race". Mein Kampf. Vol. I. pp. 307–308.
  15. ^ Levin, Nora (1973). The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry 1933–1945. New York City: Schocken. ISBN 978-0805203769.
  16. ^ Kershaw, Ian (1999). Hitler 1889–1936 Hubris. New York City: W.W. Norton and Company. p. 258. ISBN 978-0393320350.
  17. ^ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Volume One – A Reckoning, Chapter XII: The First Period of Development of the National Socialist German Workers' Party
  18. ^ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Volume Two – A Reckoning, Chapter XV: The Right of Emergency Defense, p. 984, quoted in Yahlil, Leni (1991). "2. Hitler Implements Twentieth-Century Anti-Semitism". The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, 1932–1945. Oxford University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-19-504523-9. OCLC 20169748. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  19. ^ A. Hitler. Mein Kampf (Munich: Franz Eher Nachfolger, 1930), p. 478
  20. ^ Joachim Fest, Hitler, p. 60
  21. ^ Bethencourt, Francisco (2015). Racisms: From the Crusades to the Twentieth Century. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 325. ISBN 978-0691169750.
  22. ^ "Hitler's expansionist aims > Professor Sir Ian Kershaw >". Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  23. ^ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Eastern Orientation or Eastern policy
  24. ^ Fest, Joachim C. (2013). Hitler. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-544-19554-7.
  25. ^ Richard Weikart, Hitler's Ethnic, p. 73
  26. ^ a b c d "Mythos Ladenhüter" Archived 2 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine Spiegel Online
  27. ^ a b "Hitler dodged taxes, expert finds" Archived 29 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine BBC News
  28. ^ Timothy W. Ryback (6 July 2010). Hitler's Private Library: The Books that Shaped his Life. Random House. pp. 92–93. ISBN 978-1-4090-7578-3.
  29. ^ a b "High demand for reprint of Hitler's Mein Kampf takes publisher by surprise". The Guardian. 8 January 2016. Archived from the original on 4 January 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  30. ^ "Mein Kampf work by Hitler". Encyclopædia Britannica. Last updated 19 February 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2015 from Archived 18 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ Smith, Denis Mack. 1983. Mussolini: A Biography. New York: Vintage Books. p. 172. London: Paladin, p. 200
  32. ^ Archived 25 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ Gunther, John (1940). Inside Europe. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 31.
  34. ^ Orwell, George. "Mein Kampf" review, reprinted in The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell, Vol 2., Sonia Orwell and Ian Angus, eds., Harourt Brace Jovanovich 1968
  35. ^ Francis Stuart Campbell, pen name of Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn (1943), Menace of the Herd, or, Procrustes at Large, Milwaukee, WI: The Bruce Publishing Company
  36. ^ Kuehnelt-Leddihn, p. 159
  37. ^ Kuehnelt-Leddihn, p. 201
  38. ^ Kuehnelt-Leddihn, pp. 202–203
  39. ^ Winston Churchill: The Second World War. Volume 1, Houghton Mifflin Books 1986, S. 50. "Here was the new Koran of faith and war: turgid, verbose, shapeless, but pregnant with its message."
  40. ^ Steiner, George (1991). Martin Heidegger. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. pp. vii–viii. ISBN 0-226-77232-2.
  41. ^ Schlamm, William S. (October 17, 1943) "German Best Seller; MEIN KAMPF. By Adolf Hitler. Translated by Ralph Manheim. 694 pp. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. $3.50." Archived 3 June 2021 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times
  42. ^ "'Mein Kampf' to see its first post-WWII publication in Germany". The Independent. 6 February 2010. Archived from the original on 12 February 2010.
  43. ^ a b Baetz, Juergen (5 February 2010). "Historians Hope to Publish 'Mein Kampf' in Germany". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  44. ^ Kulish, Nicholas (4 February 2010). "Rebuffing Scholars, Germany Vows to Keep Hitler Out of Print". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 September 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  45. ^ "Bavaria abandons plans for new edition of Mein Kampf". BBC News. 12 December 2013. Archived from the original on 17 November 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  46. ^ Smale, Alison (1 December 2015). "Scholars Unveil New Edition of Hitler's 'Mein Kampf'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 January 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  47. ^ Thorpe, Vanessa (26 December 2015). "British Jews give wary approval to the return of Hitler's Mein Kampf". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  48. ^ Eddy, Melissa (8 January 2016). "'Mein Kampf,' Hitler's Manifesto, Returns to German Shelves". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  49. ^ a b Weinberg, Gerhard L. (25 April 2017). Hartmann, Christian; Vordermayer, Thomas; Plöckinger, Othmar; Töppel, Roman; Raim, Edith (eds.). "Hitler, Mein Kampf: Eine kritische Edition". Archived from the original on 27 March 2022. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  50. ^ "Copyright of Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf expires". BBC News. 1 January 2016. Archived from the original on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  51. ^ "Mein Kampf hits stores in tense Germany". BBC News. 8 January 2016. Archived from the original on 1 June 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  52. ^ "The annotated version of Hitler's 'Mein Kampf' is a hit in Germany". Business Insider. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 4 January 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  53. ^ "HOUGHTON-MIFFLIN, BEWARE!". The Sentinel. 14 September 1933.[permanent dead link]
  54. ^ "Hitler Aberration". The Sentinel. 8 June 1939.[permanent dead link]
  55. ^ § 64 Allgemeines Archived 5 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine, German Copyright Law. The copyright has been relinquished for the Dutch and Swedish editions and some English ones (though not in the U.S., see below).
  56. ^ Judgement of 25 July 1979 – 3 StR 182/79 (S); BGHSt 29, 73 ff.
  57. ^ "Jewish Leader Urges Book Ban End". Dateline World Jewry. World Jewish Congress. July–August 2008.
  58. ^ Bleustein-Blanchet, Marcel (1990). Les mots de ma vie [The words of my life] (in French). Paris: Robert Laffont. p. 271. ISBN 2221067959..
  59. ^ a b c d Braganca, Manu (10 June 2016). "La curieuse histoire de Mein Kampf en version française" [The curious history of Mein Kampf in the french version]. Le Point (in French). Archived from the original on 4 June 2019. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  60. ^ Barnes, James J.; Barnes, Patience P. (2008). Hitler's Mein Kampf in Britain and America: A Publishing History 1930–39. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 271. ISBN 978-0521072670..
  61. ^ "Archiv – 33/2013 – Dschungel – Über die Wahrnehmung von Faschismus und Nationalsozialismus in Indien". Archived from the original on 17 August 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
  62. ^ a b Gupta, Suman (17 November 2012). "On the Indian Readers of Hitler's Mein Kampf" (PDF). Economic & Political Weekly. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  63. ^ "In fact: What Mein Kampf tells us about the now and here". The Indian Express. 28 December 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  64. ^ Noman, Natasha (12 June 2015). "The Strange History of How Hitler's 'Mein Kampf' Became a Bestseller in India". Mic. Archived from the original on 12 February 2021. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  65. ^ D’Souza, Dilip (30 November 2012). "Hitler's Strange Afterlife in India". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 12 March 2024.
  66. ^ "It's hardly a struggle selling Hitler's story in India". The Times of India. 1 February 2009. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 12 March 2024.
  67. ^ Rao, Shrenik (14 December 2017). "Hitler's Hindus: The rise and rise of India's Nazi-loving nationalists". Haaretz. Retrieved 12 March 2024.
  68. ^ "Hitler fame in B-schools prompts Holocaust exhibit". The Times of India. 6 November 2012. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  69. ^ a b "Indian business students snap up copies of Mein Kampf". The Telegraph. 20 April 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  70. ^ a b "Hitler as management guru?". Hindustan Times. 5 May 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  71. ^ Lowrey, Annie (14 March 2024). "Adolf Hitler: Management guru". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  72. ^ a b "Hitler Film Reveals India's Nazi Fascination - CBS News". 2 July 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2024.
  73. ^ "Hitler's Mein Kampf on Indian curriculum". Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  74. ^ Jain, Akshai (21 June 2010). "The fall and rise of Hitler's popularity". Mint. Retrieved 13 March 2024. Interestingly, most of the young readers are engineering and management students.
  75. ^ "Hitler as management guru in India sparks row -". Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  76. ^ "Mein Kampf struggles free". Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  77. ^ "The real reason Indians are buying Mein Kampf". Quartz. 24 October 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  78. ^ "Israeli Publisher Issues Parts Of 'Mein Kampf' in Hebrew". The New York Times. 5 August 1992. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  79. ^ "Hebrew Translation Of Hitler Book To Be Printed". The Spokesman-Review. 16 February 1995. Archived from the original on 7 February 2021.
  80. ^ a b "Latvia Calls Halt to Sale of 'Mein Kampf'". Los Angeles Times. 21 May 1995. Archived from the original on 9 October 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  81. ^ Bowcott, Owen (18 June 2001). "Charity returns £250,000 royalties for Hitler's credo". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 11 October 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019. Portugal, Sweden, Norway, Latvia, Switzerland and Hungary have also all forbidden publication.
  82. ^ a b Sprūde, Viesturs. "Fake News: In Latvia Hitler's "Mein Kampf" is more popular than Harry Potter". Museum of the Occupation of Latvia. Archived from the original on 20 September 2022. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  83. ^ a b "Sputnik and Zvezda Falsely Claim Hitler's Mein Kampf is more popular than Harry Potter in Latvia". 13 April 2018. Archived from the original on 9 October 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  84. ^ a b c "Do Latvians really read more Hitler than Harry Potter?". BBC News. 9 October 2019. Archived from the original on 9 October 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  85. ^ "Shop owner cleared of spreading hatred for selling Mein Kampf". 14 February 2017. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  86. ^ " cookie consent". Archived from the original on 28 December 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
  87. ^ "De wetenschappelijke editie van Mein Kampf". Uitgeverij Prometheus (in Dutch). 23 August 2018. Archived from the original on 5 September 2018. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
  88. ^ Dinstein, Yoram (June 1996). Yoram Dinstein, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1 iun. 1996, Israel Yearbook on Human Rights: 1995, pp. 414–415. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 90-411-0258-2. Archived from the original on 7 March 2024. Retrieved 14 March 2023.
  89. ^ Solomon, Daniela (14 December 2015). "Cum a fost tipărit și ars la Sibiu volumul 'Mein Kampf' al lui Hitler". Turnul Sfatului. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  90. ^ Alexander Watlin. "Mein Kampf". What to do? Archived 28 January 2022 at the Wayback Machine Gefter (December 24, 2014).
  91. ^ "A well-known historiography web site shut down over publishing Hitler's book" Archived 11 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine,, 8 July 2009.
  92. ^ "Моя борьба". 2009. Archived from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
  93. ^ Adolf Hitler, annotated and hyper-linked ed. by Vyacheslav Rumyantsev, archived from the original Archived 18 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine 12 February 2008; an abridged version Archived 8 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine remained intact.
  94. ^ "Radio Netherlands Worldwide". Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  95. ^ "Hägglunds förlag". Archived from the original on 31 March 2012.
  96. ^ Smith, Helena (29 March 2005). "Mein Kampf sales soar in Turkey". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 22 September 2023. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  97. ^ "Hitler book bestseller in Turkey". BBC News. 18 March 2005. Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
  98. ^ a b Pascal, Julia (25 June 2001). "Unbanning Hitler". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 29 September 2018. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  99. ^ "The Milwaukee Journal" – via Google News Archive Search.[dead link]
  100. ^ 28 CFR 0.47
  101. ^ "Boston publisher grapples with 'Mein Kampf' profits" Archived 3 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine The Boston Globe Retrieved 3 May 2016.
  102. ^ "Mein Kampf, Palestinian best seller | PMW Translations". Archived from the original on 15 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  103. ^ "Mein Kampf for sale, in Arabic". The Telegraph. 19 March 2002. Archived from the original on 10 May 2019. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  104. ^ "Hitler's Mein Kampf In East Jerusalem And PA Territories". MEMRI. Archived from the original on 28 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  105. ^ "Mein Kampf for sale, in Arabic". The Telegraph. 19 March 2002. Archived from the original on 10 May 2019. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  106. ^ "Massive Cairo book fair sets religious tone-Etisalat News". 30 March 2012. Archived from the original on 30 March 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  107. ^ "Reading 'Mein Kampf' in Cairo". The Jerusalem Post | 13 October 2007. Archived from the original on 13 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  108. ^ Berman, Lazar. "As Cairo book fair opens, Israel expresses concern over persistent antisemitism". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 16 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  109. ^ Beyette, Beverly (5 January 2000). "Is hate for sale?". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
  110. ^ Waterson, Jim (16 March 2020). "Amazon bans sale of most editions of Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  111. ^ "Mein Kampf". Barnes & Noble. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  112. ^ "Internet Archive Search: Mein Kampf".
  113. ^ Murphy, John (14 January 2015). "Why did my grandfather translate Mein Kampf?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  114. ^ "Mein Kampf – Project Gutenberg Australia". Archived from the original on 18 July 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2016.


Further reading


Online versions of Mein Kampf