The interaction of thinning, prescribed burns, eliminating invasive species, and new-growth development to contribute to reforestation

A forest, six years after reforestation efforts
Reforestation in progress: Direct-sowing of seed in a burned area (after a wildfire) in the Idaho Panhandle National Forest, United States.

Reforestation is the practice of restoring previously existing forests and woodlands that have been destroyed or damaged. The prior forest destruction might have happened through deforestation, clearcutting or wildfires. Two important purposes of reforestation programs are for harvesting of wood or for climate change mitigation purposes. Reforestation can also help with ecosystem restoration. One method for reforestation is to establish tree plantations, also called plantation forests. They cover about 131 million ha worldwide, which is 3 percent of the global forest area and 45 percent of the total area of planted forests.[1]

Globally, planted forests increased from 4.1% to 7.0% of the total forest area between 1990 and 2015.[2] Plantation forests made up 280 million ha (hectare) in 2015, an increase of about 40 million ha in the last ten years.[3] Globally, planted forests consist of about 18% exotic or introduced species while the rest are species native to the country where they are planted.

There are limitations and challenges with reforestation projects, especially if they are in the form of tree plantations. Firstly, there can be competition with other land uses and displacement risk. Secondly, tree plantations are often monocultures which comes with a set of disadvantages, for example biodiversity loss. Lastly, there is also the problem that stored carbon is released at some point.

The effects of reforestation and afforestation will be farther in the future than those of proforestation (the conservation of intact forests).[4] Instead of planting entirely new areas, it might be better to reconnect forested areas and restoring the edges of forest. This protects their mature core and makes them more resilient and longer-lasting.[5] It takes much longer − several decades − for the carbon sequestration benefits of reforestation to become similar to the those from mature trees in tropical forests. Therefore, reducing deforestation is usually more beneficial for climate change mitigation than reforestation.[6]

Many countries carry out reforestation programs. For example, in China, the Three Northern Protected Forest Development Program – informally known as the "Great Green Wall" – was launched in 1978 and scheduled to last until 2050. It aims to eventually plant nearly 90 million acres of new forest in a 2,800-mile stretch of northern China.[7]


Reforestation means the "conversion to forest of land that has previously contained forests but that has been converted to some other use".[8]: 1812 

According to FAO terminology any type of reforestation activity does not contribute to an increase in forest area.

Whereas, the term afforestation means establishing new forest on lands that were not forest before (for example, abandoned agriculture).[9]


Harvesting of wood

See also: Forestry, Forest management, and Tree plantation

Reforestation is not only used for recovery of accidentally destroyed forests. In some countries, such as Finland, many of the forests are managed by the wood products and pulp and paper industry. In such an arrangement, like other crops, trees are planted to replace those that have been cut. The Finnish Forest Act from 1996 obliges the forest to be replanted after felling.[10] In such circumstances, the industry can cut the trees in a way to allow easier reforestation. The wood products industry systematically replaces many of the trees it cuts, employing large numbers of summer workers for tree planting work. For example, in 2010, Weyerhaeuser reported planting 50 million seedlings.[11] However replanting an old-growth forest with a plantation is not replacing the old with the same characteristics in the new.[12]

In just 20 years, a teak plantation in Costa Rica can produce up to about 400 m3 of wood per hectare. As the natural teak forests of Asia become more scarce or difficult to obtain, the prices commanded by plantation-grown teak grows higher every year. Other species, such as mahogany, grow more slowly than teak in Tropical America but are also extremely valuable. Faster growers include pine, eucalyptus, and Gmelina.[13]

Reforestation, if several indigenous species are used, can provide other benefits in addition to financial returns, including restoration of the soil, rejuvenation of local flora and fauna, and the capturing and sequestering of 38 tons of carbon dioxide per hectare per year.[14]

The reestablishment of forests is not just simple tree planting. Forests are made up of a community of species and they build dead organic matter into soils over time. A major tree-planting program could enhance the local climate and reduce the demands of burning large amounts of fossil fuels for cooling in the summer.[15]

Climate change mitigation

See also: Deforestation and climate change

There are four primary ways in which reforestation and reducing deforestation can increase carbon sequestration and thus help with climate change mitigation. First, by increasing the volume of existing forest. Second, by increasing the carbon density of existing forests at a stand and landscape scale.[16] Third, by expanding the use of forest products that will sustainably replace fossil-fuel emissions. Fourth, by reducing carbon emissions that are caused from deforestation and degradation.[17]

Proportion of carbon stock in forest carbon pools, 2020[18]
Reforestation and reducing deforestation can increase carbon sequestration in several ways. Pandani (Richea pandanifolia) near Lake Dobson, Mount Field National Park, Tasmania, Australia
Transferring land rights to indigenous inhabitants is argued to efficiently conserve forests.

Forests are an important part of the global carbon cycle because trees and plants absorb carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. Therefore, they play an important role in climate change mitigation.[19]: 37  By removing the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide from the air, forests function as terrestrial carbon sinks, meaning they store large amounts of carbon in the form of biomass, encompassing roots, stems, branches, and leaves. Throughout their lifespan, trees continue to sequester carbon, storing atmospheric CO2 long-term.[20] Sustainable forest management, afforestation, reforestation are therefore important contributions to climate change mitigation.

An important consideration in such efforts is that forests can turn from sinks to carbon sources.[21][22][23] In 2019 forests took up a third less carbon than they did in the 1990s, due to higher temperatures, droughts and deforestation. The typical tropical forest may become a carbon source by the 2060s.[24]

Researchers have found that, in terms of environmental services, it is better to avoid deforestation than to allow for deforestation to subsequently reforest, as the former leads to irreversible effects in terms of biodiversity loss and soil degradation.[25] Furthermore, the probability that legacy carbon will be released from soil is higher in younger boreal forest.[26] Global greenhouse gas emissions caused by damage to tropical rainforests may have been substantially underestimated until around 2019.[27] Additionally, the effects of af- or reforestation will be farther in the future than keeping existing forests intact.[28] It takes much longer − several decades − for the benefits for global warming to manifest to the same carbon sequestration benefits from mature trees in tropical forests and hence from limiting deforestation.[29] Therefore, scientists consider "the protection and recovery of carbon-rich and long-lived ecosystems, especially natural forests" to be "the major climate solution".[30]

The planting of trees on marginal crop and pasture lands helps to incorporate carbon from atmospheric CO
into biomass.[31][32] For this carbon sequestration process to succeed the carbon must not return to the atmosphere from biomass burning or rotting when the trees die.[33] To this end, land allotted to the trees must not be converted to other uses. Alternatively, the wood from them must itself be sequestered, e.g., via biochar, bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, landfill or stored by use in construction.

Financial incentives

See also: REDD and REDD+

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2019)

Policies that promote reforestation for incentives in return have shown promising results of being an effective and motivative concept to re-plant globally on a mass scale.[34]

Some incentives for reforestation can be as simple as a financial compensation. Streck and Scholz (2006) explain how a group of scientists from various institutions have developed a compensated reduction of deforestation approach which would reward developing countries that disrupt any further act of deforestation. Countries that participate and take the option to reduce their emissions from deforestation during a committed period of time would receive financial compensation for the carbon dioxide emissions that they avoided.[35]: 875  To raise the payments, the host country would issue government bonds or negotiate some kind of loan with a financial institution that would want to take part in the compensation promised to the other country. The funds received by the country could be invested to help find alternatives to the extensive cutdown of forests. This whole process of cutting emissions would be voluntary, but once the country has agreed to lower their emissions they would be obligated to reduce their emissions. However, if a country was not able to meet their obligation, their target would get added to their next commitment period. The authors of these proposals see this as a solely government-to-government agreement; private entities would not participate in the compensation trades.[35]: 876 

Another emerging revenue source to fund reforestation projects deals with the sale of carbon sequestration credits, which can be sold to companies and individuals looking to compensate their carbon footprint. This approach allows for private landowners and farmers to gain a revenue from the reforestation of their lands, while simultaneously benefiting from improved soil health and increased productivity.[36]

Alongside past financial incentive strategies, reforestation tax benefits have been another way the government has encouraged companies to promote reforestation tactics through the promises of a tax break.[37]

As many landholders seek to earn carbon credits through sequestration, their participation also encourages biodiversity and provides ecosystem services for crops and livestock.[38]

Ecosystem restoration

Plantation forests are intensively managed, composed of one or two species, even-aged, planted with regular spacing, and established mainly for productive purposes. Other planted forests, which comprise 55 percent of all planted forests, are not intensively managed, and they may resemble natural forests at stand maturity. The purposes of other planted forests may include ecosystem restoration and the protection of soil and water values.[1]


Forest plantations

Plantation forests cover about 131 million ha, which is 3 percent of the global forest area and 45 percent of the total area of planted forests.[1]

Over 90% of the world's forests regenerate organically, and more than half are covered by forest management plans or equivalents.[39][40]

Globally, planted forests increased from 4.1% to 7.0% of the total forest area between 1990 and 2015.[2] Plantation forests made up 280 million ha (hectare) in 2015, an increase of about 40 million ha in the last ten years.[3] Globally, planted forests consist of about 18% exotic or introduced species while the rest are species native to the country where they are planted.

A pine plantation in the United States

A tree plantation, forest plantation, plantation forest, timber plantation or tree farm is a forest planted for high volume production of wood, usually by planting one type of tree as a monoculture forest. The term tree farm also is used to refer to tree nurseries and Christmas tree farms.

Plantation forestry can produce a high volume of wood in a short period of time. Plantations are grown by state forestry authorities (for example, the Forestry Commission in Britain) and/or the paper and wood industries and other private landowners (such as Weyerhaeuser, Rayonier and Sierra Pacific Industries in the United States or Asia Pulp & Paper in Indonesia). Christmas trees are often grown on plantations, and in southern and southeastern Asia, teak plantations have recently replaced the natural forest.
A plantation of Douglas-fir in Washington, U.S.

Industrial plantations are actively managed for the commercial production of forest products. Industrial plantations are usually large-scale. Individual blocks are usually even-aged and often consist of just one or two species. These species can be exotic or indigenous. The plants used for the plantation are often genetically altered for desired traits such as growth and resistance to pests and diseases in general and specific traits, for example in the case of timber species, volumic wood production and stem straightness. Forest genetic resources are the basis for genetic alteration. Selected individuals grown in seed orchards are a good source for seeds to develop adequate planting material.

Wood production on a tree plantation is generally higher than that of natural forests. While forests managed for wood production commonly yield between 1 and 3 cubic meters per hectare per year, plantations of fast-growing species commonly yield between 20 and 30 cubic meters or more per hectare annually; a Grand Fir plantation in Scotland has a growth rate of 34 cubic meters per hectare per year,[41] and Monterey Pine plantations in southern Australia can yield up to 40 cubic meters per hectare per year.[42] In 2000, while plantations accounted for 5% of global forest, it is estimated that they supplied about 35% of the world's roundwood.[43]

The highest share of plantation forest is in South America, where this forest type represents 99 percent of the total planted-forest area and 2 percent of the total forest area. The lowest share of plantation forest is in Europe, where it represents 6 percent of the planted forest estate and 0.4 percent of the total forest area. Globally, 44 percent of plantation forests are composed mainly of introduced species. There are large differences between regions: for example, plantation forests in North and Central America mostly comprise native species and those in South America consist almost entirely of introduced species.[44]

Using existing trees and roots

Planting new trees often leads to up to 90% of seedlings failing. However, even in deforested areas, existing root systems often exist. Growth can be accelerated by pruning and coppicing where a few branches of new shoots are cut and often used for charcoal, itself a major driver of deforestation. Since new seeds are not planted, it is cheaper. Additionally, they are much more likely to survive as their root systems already exist and can tap into groundwater during harsher seasons with no rain.[45] While this method has existed for centuries, it is now sometimes referred to as farmer-managed natural regeneration[46] or assisted natural regeneration.[47][48]

Related concepts

A similar concept, afforestation, refers to the process of restoring and recreating areas of woodlands or forests that may have existed long ago but were deforested or otherwise removed at some point in the past or lacked it naturally (for example, natural grasslands). Sometimes the term "re-afforestation" is used to distinguish between the original forest cover and the later re-growth of forest to an area.[49] Special tools, for example, tree planting bars, are used to make planting of trees easier and faster.

Another alternative strategy, proforestation, is similar as it can be used to counteract the negative environmental and ecological effects of deforestation through growing an existing forest intact to its full ecological potential.[50]


See also: Tree plantations § Problems

There is often insufficient integration between the different purposes of reforestation, namely economic utilization, enhancement of biodiversity and carbon sequestration.[51] This can lead to a range of different challenges.

Competition with other land uses and displacement risk

Reforestation can compete with other land uses, such as food production, livestock grazing, and living space, for further economic growth.[52][53] Reforestation can also divert large amounts of water from other activities.[54] A map created by the World Resources Institute in collaboration with the IUCN identifies 2 billion hectares for potential forest restoration and is criticized for including 900 million hectares of grasslands.[55][56] An assessment of the pledges of governments for reforestation found that the sum of global pledges translates to a required land area of 1.2bn hectares, until 2060, which is equal to a tenth of the global land area und thus deemed unrealistic without a significant encroachment on non-forest areas.[57] Experts are calling for a better integration of social data, such as the dependence of livelihoods on specific land uses, into restoration efforts.[58] Possible solutions include the integration of other land uses into forests through agroforestry, such as growing coffee plants under trees, reducing the delineation between forests and other land uses.[57]

A study found that almost 300 million people live on tropical forest restoration opportunity land in the Global South, constituting a large share of low-income countries' populations, and argues for prioritized inclusion of "local communities" in forest restoration projects.[59][60][61]

There are calls for a more selective approach to identifying reforestation areas, taking into account the possible displacement of customary land uses.[62]

Biodiversity loss

Reforestation can also reduce biodiversity leading to severe soil erosion, which if done improperly will lead to loss of water resources.[full citation needed]

Reforesting sometimes results in extensive canopy creation that prevents growth of diverse vegetation in the shadowed areas and generating soil conditions that hamper other types of vegetation. Trees used in some reforesting efforts (for example, Eucalyptus globulus) tend to extract large amounts of moisture from the soil, preventing the growth of other plants. The European Commission found that, in terms of environmental services, it is better to avoid deforestation than to allow for deforestation to subsequently reforest, as the former leads to irreversible effects in terms of biodiversity loss and soil degradation.[63]

The effects reforestation has on biodiversity is not limited to just other forms of vegetation, it can affect all forms of living organisms all contained in the present ecosystem.[64] Due to the major role trees have on ecosystems it is important to better understand components like the ecosystem, waterways, and species present in areas that are being re-planted. Prior research helps limit the depletion of biodiversity which can hinder medicinal discoveries, and alter gene flow in organisms.[53]

A debated issue in managed reforestation is whether the succeeding forest will have the same biodiversity as the original forest. If the forest is replaced with only one species of tree and all other vegetation is prevented from growing back, a monoculture forest similar to agricultural crops would be the result. However, most reforestation involves the planting of different selections of seedlings taken from the area, often of multiple species.[65][66]

Reforestation often has the tendency to create large fuel loads, resulting in significantly hotter combustion than fires involving low brush or grasses.[12] Reduced harvesting rates and fire suppression have caused an increase in the forest biomass in the western United States over the past century. This causes an increase of about a factor of four in the frequency of fires due to longer and hotter dry seasons.[67]

Stored carbon being released

There is also the risk that, through a forest fire or insect outbreak, much of the stored carbon in a reforested area could make its way back to the atmosphere.[67] Furthermore, the probability that legacy carbon will be released from soil is higher in younger boreal forests.[68] An example of this can be seen in the peatlands in Central Africa, which house an abundance of carbon in the mud called peat. Much like the forest fire or insect outbreak which can harm tropical rainforests, money can also be seen an incentive to harm forests and be paid off to protect it.[69] The global greenhouse gas emissions caused by damage to tropical rainforests may be underestimated by a factor of six.[70]

Also the possible harvesting and utilization of wood from reforested areas, limits the permanence of carbon sequestered through reforestation. For example, it was found that nearly half of the pledges under the Bonn Challenge were areas earmarked for commercial wood use.[71]

Additionally the effects of afforestation and reforestation will be farther in the future than those of proforestation (the conservation of intact forests).[4] It takes much longer − several decades − for the benefits for global warming to manifest to the same carbon sequestration benefits from mature trees in tropical forests and hence from limiting deforestation.[6]

Some researchers note that instead of planting entirely new areas, reconnecting forested areas and restoring the edges of forest, to protect their mature core and make them more resilient and longer-lasting, should be prioritized.[5]

Implementation challenges

There are some implementation challenges

By country

See also: Afforestation § Examples, and Tree planting § By country



In China, where large scale destruction of forests has occurred, the government has in the past required that every able-bodied citizen between the ages of 11 and 60 plant three to five trees per year or do the equivalent amount of work in other forest services. The government claims that at least 1 billion trees have been planted in China every year since 1982. This is no longer required today, but 12 March of every year in China is the Planting Holiday. Also, it has introduced the Green Wall of China project, which aims to halt the expansion of the Gobi desert through the planting of trees. However, due to the large percentage of trees dying off after planting (up to 75%), the project is not very successful.[74] There has been a 47-million-hectare increase in forest area in China since the 1970s.[75] The total number of trees amounted to be about 35 billion and 4.55% of China's land mass increased in forest coverage. The forest coverage was 12% two decades ago and now is 16.55%.[76]

China announced two large reforestation programs, the Natural Forest Protection Program and the Returning Farmland to Forest program, in late 1998.[77]: 183  The programs were piloted in Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu in 1999.[77]: 183  They became widely implemented in 2000.[77]: 183  The Natural Forest Protection Program called for major reductions in timber harvest, forest conservation, and instituted logging bans in most of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Tibet.[77]: 183  The program provided for alternative employment opportunities for former logging industry workers, including hiring them for reforestation work.[77]: 183  The Returning Farmland to Forest program paid farmers to plant trees on less productive farmland and provided them with a yearly subsidy for lost income.[77]: 183  In 2015 China announced a plan to plant 26 billion trees by the year 2025; that is, two trees for every Chinese citizen per year.[78]

Between 2013 and 2018, China planted 338,000 square kilometres of forests, at a cost of $82.88 billion.[79] By 2018, 21.7% of China's territory was covered by forests, a figure the government wants to increase to 26% by 2035. The total area of China is 9,596,961 square kilometres (see China), so 412,669 square kilometres more needs to be planted.[80] According to the government's plan, by 2050, 30% of China's territory should be covered by forests.[81]

In 2017, the Saihanba Afforestation Community won the UN Champions of the Earth Award in the Inspiration and Action category for their successful reforestation efforts,[82] which began upon discovering the survival of a single tree.[83]

From 2016 to 2021, 3976 square kilometers of forests were planted in the Tibet Autonomous Region, with plans for 20 million trees to be planted before 2023.[84]

In the years 2012–2022 China restored more than 70 million hectares (700,000 km2) of forests. China committed to plant and conserve 70 billion trees by the year 2030 as part of the Trillion Tree Campaign.[85]

The Jane Goodall Institute launched the Million Tree Project in Kulun Qi, Inner Mongolia to plant one million trees.[86][87] China used 24 million hectares of new forest to offset 21% of Chinese fossil fuel emissions in 2000.[67]: 1456 

Launched in 1978 and scheduled to last until 2050, the Three Northern Protected Forest Development Program – informally known as the "Great Green Wall" – aims to eventually plant nearly 90 million acres of new forest in a 2,800-mile stretch of northern China.[7]


Jadav Payeng had received national awards for reforestation efforts, known as the "Molai forest". He planted 1400 hectares of forest on the bank of river Brahmaputra alone.[88] There are active reforestation efforts throughout the country. In 2016, India had more than 50 million trees planted in Uttar Pradesh and in 2017, more than 66 million trees planted in Madhya Pradesh.[89] In addition to this and individual efforts, there are startup companies, such as Afforest,[90] that are being created over the country working on reforestation.[91] Lots of plantation are being carried out in the Indian continent but the survivability is very poor especially for massive plantations, with less than 20% survivability rate. To improve the forest cover and to achieve the national mission of forest cover of 33%, there is a need to improve the methods of plantation. Rather than mass planting, there is a need to work on performance measurement & tracking of trees growth. Taking this into consideration, a non-profit organization Ek Kadam Sansthan in Jaipur is leading the development of a module of mass tracking for plantations. The pilot has been done successfully and the organization is hoping to implement nationwide by the end of 2021.[92]


The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery explain that about two-thirds of Japanese land is covered with forests,[93] and it was almost unchanged from 1966 to 2012.[94] Japan needs to reduce 26% of green house gas emission from 2013 by 2030 to accomplish Paris Agreement and is trying to reduce 2% of them by forestry.[95]

Mass environmental and human-body pollution along with relating deforestation, water pollution, smoke damage, and loss of soils caused by mining operations in Ashio, Tochigi became the first environmental social issue in Japan, efforts by Shōzō Tanaka had grown to large campaigns against copper operation. This led to the creation of 'Watarase Yusuichi Pond', to settle the pollution which is a Ramsar site today. Reforestation was conducted as a part of afforestation due to inabilities of self-recovering by the natural land itself due to serious soil pollution and loss of woods consequence in loss of soils for plants to grow, thus needing artificial efforts involving introducing of healthy soils from outside. Starting from around 1897, about 50% of once bald mountains are now back to green.[96]


The Billion Tree Tsunami was launched in 2014 by planting 10 billion trees, by the provincial government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) and Imran Khan, as a response to the challenge of global warming. Pakistan's Billion Tree Tsunami restored 350,000 hectares of forests and degraded land to surpass its Bonn Challenge commitment.[97]

In 2018, Pakistan's prime minister Imran Khan declared that the country will plant 10 billion trees in the next five years.[98]

In 2020, the Pakistani government launched an initiative to hire 63,600 laborers to plant trees in the northern Punjab region, with indigenous species such as acacia, mulberry and moringa. This initiative was meant to alleviate unemployment caused by lockdowns to mitigate the spread of COVID-19.[99][100]


In 2011, the Philippines established the National Greening Program as a priority program to help reduce poverty, promote food security, environmental stability, and biodiversity conservation, as well as enhance climate change mitigation and adaptation in the country. The program paved the way for the planting of almost 1.4 billion seedlings in about 1.66 million hectares nationwide during the 2011–2016 period. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ranked the Philippines fifth among countries reporting the greatest annual forest area gain, which reached 240,000 hectares during the 2010–2015 period.[101][102]


Efforts are being made in Thailand to restore the land after 800,000 hectares of forest have been destroyed in exchange for cash crop land to grow maize.[103] Agroforestry has become part of the solution to fix the damage caused by deforestation. Agroforestry would affect the agriculture and atmosphere in Thailand in numerous ways. By planting a combination of different tree species, these trees are able to change the microclimatic conditions.[103] Nutrient cycling also occurs when trees are incorporated in the agricultural system.[103] It is also probable that the soil erosion that occurred as a result of deforestation can be mediated when these trees are planted.[103]


A 15-year-old reforested plot of land


The Armenia Tree Project was founded in 1994 to address environmental and economic concerns related to Armenia's dwindling forests. Since its founding, the organization has planted more than 6.5 million trees in communities throughout Armenia.[104]

My Forest Armenia was founded in 2019 and has since planted 910,000 trees in Armenia.[105]


Prior to the deforestation of Iceland in the Middle Ages, some 40% of the land was forested.[106] Today, the country is about 2% forested, with the Icelandic Forest Service aiming to increase that share to 10% through reforestation and natural regrowth.[107]


In 2019 the government of Ireland decided to plant 440 million trees by 2040. The decision is part of the government's plan to make Ireland carbon neutral by 2050 with renewable energy, land use change and carbon tax.[108]

Ireland is also driven to increase sustainable timber consumption while also adding more eco friendly work positions.[109] They also have taken efforts to limit the use of methane emissions by signing a pledge to draw back methane use by 30%.[110]


By the 14th century, forests in heavily populated areas had been devastated by industry, many of which required wood for their activities.[111] Peter Stromer (1310–1388), lord of the Stromer trading and commercial company, was spurred by this shortage to "conduct forest culture experiments".[111] In 1368 he successfully sowed fir and pine seeds in the Nuremberg Reichswald, which over time ended the wood shortage and established the "triumph of the pine in the Nuremberg Reichswald" (at the expense of other deciduous trees).[111] The "doctrine of coniferous sowing" spread widely through forestry regulations and other writing at the time.[111]

Reforestation is required as part of the federal forest law. 31% of Germany is forested, according to the second forest inventory of 2001–2003. The size of the forest area in Germany increased between the first and the second forest inventory due to forestation of degenerated bogs and agricultural areas.[112]

United Kingdom

Since the 1980s, 8.5 million trees have been planted in the United Kingdom in an area of the Midlands around the villages of Moira and Donisthorpe, close to Leicester. The area is called The National Forest.[113] An even larger reforestation project, called The Northern Forest, is beginning in South Yorkshire. It aims to plant 50 million trees.[114] Despite this, the UK government has been criticized for not achieving its tree planting goals.[115][116] There have also been concerns of non-native tree planting disturbing the ecological integrity and processes of what would be a native habitat restoration.[117]

Middle East


Since 1948, large reforestation and afforestation projects were accomplished in Israel. 240 million trees have been planted. The carbon sequestration rate in these forests is similar to the European temperate forests.[118]

Israel and only one other country was documented to have a net increase of forestation in the 2000s. This type of progress could be attributed to the social practices that Israel incorporates into their society.[119][dubiousdiscuss]


For thousands of years Lebanon was covered by forests; one particular species of interest, Cedrus libani was exceptionally valuable and was almost eliminated due to lumbering operations.[120] Many ancient cultures along the Mediterranean Sea harvested these trees including the Phoenicians who used cedar, pine and juniper for boat building, the Romans, who cut them down for lime-burning kilns, and the Ottomans, who used much of the remaining cedar forests of Lebanon as fuel in steam trains in the early 20th century.[121] Despite two millennia of deforestation, forests in Lebanon still cover 13.6% of the country, and other wooded lands represent 11%.[122]

Law No. 558, which was ratified by the Lebanese Parliament on April 19, 1996, aims to protect and expand existing forests, classifying all forests of cedar, fir, high juniper, evergreen cypress and other trees, whether diverse or homogeneous, whether state-owned or not as conserved forests.[123]

Since 2011 more than 600,000 trees, including cedars and other native species, have been planted throughout Lebanon as part of the Lebanon Reforestation Initiative, which aims to restore Lebanon's native forests.[124] Projects financed locally and by international charity are performing extensive reforestation of cedar being carried out in the Mediterranean region, particularly in Lebanon and Turkey, where over 50 million young cedars are being planted annually.

The Lebanon Reforestation Initiative has been working with tree nurseries throughout Lebanon since 2012 to grow stronger seedlings with higher survival rates.[125]


Of the country's 78 million hectares of land in total, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry aims to increase Turkey's forest cover to 30% by 2023.[126]

Four thousand years ago, Anatolia was 60% to 70% forested.[127] Although the flora of Turkey remains more biodiverse than many European countries, deforestation occurred during both prehistoric[128] and historic times, including the Roman[129] and Ottoman[130] periods.

Since the first forest code of 1937, the official government definition of 'forest' has varied.[131] According to the current definition, 21 million hectares are forested, an increase of about 1 million hectares over the past thirty years, but only about half is 'productive'.[132] However, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization definition of forest,[133] about 12 million hectares was forested in 2015,[134] about 15% of the land surface.[needs update]

The amount of greenhouse gas emissions by Turkey removed by forests is very uncertain.[135]: 489 As of 2019, however, a new assessment is being made with the help of satellites and new soil measurements and better information should be available by 2020.[135] According to the World Resources Institute "Atlas of Forest Landscape Restoration Opportunities", 50 million hectares are potential forest land, a similar area to the ancient Anatolian forest mentioned above.[136] This could help limit climate change in Turkey. To help preserve the biodiversity of Turkey, more sustainable forestry has been suggested.[127] Improved rangeland management is also needed.[137]

National Forestation Day is on 11 November but, according to the agriculture and forestry trade union, although volunteers planted a record number of trees in 2019, most had died by 2020 in part due to lack of rainfall.[138]

North America


A 21-year-old plantation of red pine in southern Ontario

Natural Resources Canada (The Department of Natural Resources) states that the national forest cover was decreased by 0.34% from 1990 to 2015, and Canada has the lowest deforestation rate in the world.[139] The forest industry is one of the main industries in Canada, which contributes about 7% of Canadian economy,[140] and about 9% of the forests on Earth are in Canada.[141] Therefore, Canada has many policies and laws to commit to sustainable forest management. For example, 94% of Canadian forests are public land, and the government obligates planting trees after harvesting to public forests.[142]

United States

Forest regrowth in Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Washington state, US

It is the stated goal of the United States Forest Service (USFS) to manage forest resources sustainably. This includes reforestation after timber harvest, among other programs.[143]

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) data shows that forest occupied about 46% of total U.S. land in 1630 (when European settlers began to arrive in large numbers), but had decreased to 34% by 1910. After 1910, forest area has remained almost constant although the U.S. population has increased substantially.[144] In the late 19th century, the USFS was established in part to address the concern of natural disasters due to deforestation, and new reforestation programs and federal laws such as the Knutson-Vandenberg Act (1930) were implemented. The USFS states that human-directed reforestation is required to support natural regeneration and the agency engages in ongoing research into effective ways to restore forests.[145]

As for the year 2020, the U.S. planted 2.5 billion trees per year. At the beginning of the year 2020, a bill that will increase the number to 3.3 billion, was proposed by the Republican Party, after President Donald Trump joined the Trillion Tree Campaign.[146]

Latin America

Tropical tree nursery at Planeta Verde Reforestación S.A.'s plantation in Vichada Department, Colombia


Training in reforestation for young people in Bolivia has been provided by Oxfam Intermón.[147]

Costa Rica

Main article: Reforestation in Costa Rica

Through reforestation and environmental conservation, Costa Rica doubled its forest cover in 30 years.[148]

Costa Rica has a long-standing commitment to the environment. The country is now one of the leaders of sustainability, biodiversity, and other protections. It wants to be completely fossil fuel free by 2050.[149] The country has generated all of its electric power from renewable sources for three years as of 2019. It has committed to be carbon-free and plastic-free by 2021.[150]

As of 2019, half of the country's land surface is covered with forests. They absorb a huge amount of carbon dioxide, combating climate change.[151]

In the 1940s, more than 75% of the country was covered in mostly tropical rainforests and other indigenous woodlands. Between the 1940s and 1980s, extensive, uncontrolled logging led to severe deforestation. By 1983, only 26% of the country had forest cover. Realizing the devastation, policymakers took a stand. Through a continued environmental focus they were able to turn things around to the point that today forest cover has increased to 52%, two times more than 1983 levels.

An honorable world leader for ecotourism and conservation, Costa Rica has pioneered the development of payments for environmental services. Costa Rica's extensive system of environmental protection has been encouraging conservation and reforestation of the land by providing grants for environmental services. The system is not just advanced for its time but is also unparalleled in the world. It received great international attention.

Costa Rica doubled its forest cover in 30 years using its system of grants and other payments for environmental services, including compensation for landowners. One of the main programs established in Costa Rica was the Forest Promotion Certificate in 1979 and is funded by international donations and nationwide taxes.[152][153] The initiative is helping to protect the forests in the country, and is now helped pass both the Forest Law in 1986 and FONAFIFO in 1990 which insures the continuity of the conservation programs.[152]

Costa Rica's ambitious reforestation initiatives have transformed the landscape, fostering biodiversity, carbon sequestration, and sustainable land management practices.[154]


Approximately 59% of Peru is covered by forest.[155] A history of political turmoil and the government's inability to enforce environmental regulations has led to the degradation of the forest and environment in Peru. A military coup in 1968 caused a loss of economic mobility in the Talara region and sparked a boom in illegal logging due to the lack of alternative economic opportunities.[156] Illegal mining and logging operations are responsible for a great deal of Peru's deforestation and environmental damage.[157] The Peruvian government has not been able to enforce an environmentally conscious mining formalization plan to protect the Amazon forest in the Madre de Dios region. The 1980s were known in Peru as the "lost decade" due to a nationwide internal conflict and severe economic crisis almost destroying the country and resulting in the state losing control over several regions.[157] Many areas in Peru, including Madre de Dios, had no state presence until the government initiated a movement to 'conquer and populate the Amazon,' with the hopes of minimizing illegal and informal mining operations that had expanded in the region and were polluting the Amazonian rivers and the destroying of its forests.[157]

Reforestation initiatives have expanded in the country since. In Peru, reforestation is essential to preserving the livelihoods of rural communities because much of the population relies on the forest in some way.[158] Deforestation also disproportionally affects indigenous communities in Peru, which is why reforestation efforts are essential for the protection of many communities' livelihoods.

Sub-Saharan Africa

See also: Great Green Wall (Africa)

One plan in this region involves planting a nine-mile width of trees on the Southern Border of the Sahara Desert for stopping its expansion to the south.[159] The Great Green Wall initiative is a pan-African proposal to "green" the continent from west to east in order to battle desertification. It aims at tackling poverty (through employment of workers required for the project) and the degradation of soils in the Sahel-Saharan region, focusing on a strip of land that is 15 km (9.3 mi) wide and 7,500 km (4,700 mi) long from Dakar to Djibouti.[160] As of May 2020, 21 countries joined the project, many of them are directly affected by the expansion of the Sahara desert. It should create 10 millions green jobs by 2030.[161][162]

In 2019, Ethiopia begun a massive tree planting campaign "Green Legacy" with a target to plant 4 billion trees in one year. In one day only, over 350 million trees were planted.[163]


Forest nursery located in the compound of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta
Reforestation in Nigeria employs both natural and artificial methods. Reforestation involves the deliberate planting of trees and restoring forested areas that have been depleted or destroyed. It involves a planned restocking of the forest to ensure sustainable supply of timber and other forest products.[164][165] Reforestation, in essence, involves replenishing forests to guarantee a consistent and sustainable supply of timber and various other forest resources. This objective can be accomplished through either natural regeneration techniques or artificial regeneration methods.[164] Both of these approaches have been utilized in the reforestation efforts within Nigeria's forests.[164] At the initiation of the reforestation program in Nigeria, the natural regeneration approach was chosen for two primary reasons.[164] Firstly, it aimed to preserve the rainforest in its original state by allowing it to regenerate naturally from the existing seed bank in the soil. Secondly, and of significant importance, this method was selected due to budgetary constraints, as there were insufficient funds available to establish plantations through direct means.[164]

Organizations and programs

See also


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