World consumption of primary energy by energy type.[1]
World consumption of primary energy by energy type.[1]
Energy consumption per capita per country (2001). Red hues indicate increase, green hues decrease of consumption during the 1990s.[2]
Energy consumption per capita per country (2001). Red hues indicate increase, green hues decrease of consumption during the 1990s.[2]

The environmental impact of the energy industry is significant, as energy and natural resource consumption are closely related. Producing, transporting, or consuming energy all have an environmental impact.[3] Energy has been harnessed by human beings for millennia. Initially it was with the use of fire for light, heat, cooking and for safety, and its use can be traced back at least 1.9 million years.[4] In recent years there has been a trend towards the increased commercialization of various renewable energy sources. Scientific consensus on some of the main human activities that contribute to global warming are considered to be increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, causing a warming effect, global changes to land surface, such as deforestation, for a warming effect, increasing concentrations of aerosols, mainly for a cooling effect.[5]

Rapidly advancing technologies can potentially achieve a transition of energy generation, water and waste management, and food production towards better environmental and energy usage practices using methods of systems ecology and industrial ecology.[6][7]

Issues

Climate change

Global average surface temperature datasets from various scientific organizations show the progress and extent of global warming.
Global average surface temperature datasets from various scientific organizations show the progress and extent of global warming.

Main article: Attribution of recent climate change

The warming influence (called radiative forcing) of long-lived greenhouse gases has nearly doubled in 40 years, with carbon dioxide and methane being the dominant drivers of global warming.[8]
The warming influence (called radiative forcing) of long-lived greenhouse gases has nearly doubled in 40 years, with carbon dioxide and methane being the dominant drivers of global warming.[8]

The scientific consensus on global warming and climate change is that it is caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, the majority of which comes from burning fossil fuels with deforestation and some agricultural practices being also major contributors.[9] A 2013 study showed that two thirds of the industrial greenhouse gas emissions are due to the fossil-fuel (and cement) production of just ninety companies around the world (between 1751 and 2010, with half emitted since 1986).[10][11]

Although there is a highly publicized denial of climate change, the vast majority of scientists working in climatology accept that it is due to human activity. The IPCC report Climate Change 2007: Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability predicts that climate change will cause shortages of food and water and increased risk of flooding that will affect billions of people, particularly those living in poverty.[12]

One measurement of greenhouse gas related and other Externality comparisons between energy sources can be found in the ExternE project by the Paul Scherrer Institut and the University of Stuttgart which was funded by the European Commission.[13] According to that study,[14] hydroelectric electricity produces the lowest CO2 emissions, wind produces the second-lowest, nuclear energy produces the third-lowest and solar photovoltaic produces the fourth-lowest.[14]

Similarly, the same research study (ExternE, Externalities of Energy), undertaken from 1995 to 2005 found that the cost of producing electricity from coal or oil would double over its present value, and the cost of electricity production from gas would increase by 30% if external costs such as damage to the environment and to human health, from the airborne particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, chromium VI and arsenic emissions produced by these sources, were taken into account. It was estimated in the study that these external, downstream, fossil fuel costs amount up to 1–2% of the EU's entire Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and this was before the external cost of global warming from these sources was even included.[15] The study also found that the environmental and health costs of nuclear power, per unit of energy delivered, was €0.0019/kWh, which was found to be lower than that of many renewable sources including that caused by biomass and photovoltaic solar panels, and was thirty times lower than coal at €0.06/kWh, or 6 cents/kWh, with the energy sources of the lowest external environmental and health costs associated with it being wind power at €0.0009/kWh.[16]

Biofuel use

Further information: Environmental impact of biofuels

Biofuel is defined as solid, liquid or gaseous fuel obtained from relatively recently lifeless or living biological material and is different from fossil fuels, which are derived from long-dead biological material. Various plants and plant-derived materials are used for biofuel manufacturing.

Bio-diesel

Main article: Environmental effects of biodiesel

See also: Indirect land use change impacts of biofuels and Sustainable biofuel

High use of bio-diesel leads to land use changes including deforestation.[17]

Firewood

Unsustainable firewood harvesting can lead to loss of biodiversity and erosion due to loss of forest cover. An example of this is a 40-year study done by the University of Leeds of African forests, which account for a third of the world's total tropical forest which demonstrates that Africa is a significant carbon sink. A climate change expert, Lee White states that "To get an idea of the value of the sink, the removal of nearly 5 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by intact tropical forests is at issue.

According to the U.N. the African continent is losing forest twice as fast as the rest of the world. "Once upon a time, Africa boasted seven million square kilometers of forest but a third of that has been lost, most of it to charcoal."[18]

Fossil fuel use

Global fossil carbon emission by fuel type, 1800–2007 AD.
Global fossil carbon emission by fuel type, 1800–2007 AD.

The three fossil fuel types are coal, petroleum and natural gas. It was estimated by the Energy Information Administration that in 2006 primary sources of energy consisted of petroleum 36.8%, coal 26.6%, natural gas 22.9%, amounting to an 86% share for fossil fuels in primary energy production in the world.[19]

In 2013 the burning of fossil fuels produced around 32 billion tonnes (32 gigatonnes) of carbon dioxide and additional air pollution. This caused negative externalities of $4.9 trillion due to global warming and health problems (> 150 $/ton carbon dioxide).[20] Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases that enhances radiative forcing and contributes to global warming, causing the average surface temperature of the Earth to rise in response, which climate scientists agree will cause major adverse effects.

Coal

A coal surface mining site in Bihar, India
A coal surface mining site in Bihar, India
A mountaintop removal mining operation in the United States
A mountaintop removal mining operation in the United States

The health and environmental impact of the coal industry includes issues such as land use, waste management, water and air pollution, caused by the coal mining, processing and the use of its products. In addition to atmospheric pollution, coal burning produces hundreds of millions of tons of solid waste products annually, including fly ash,[21] bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization sludge, that contain mercury, uranium, thorium, arsenic, and other heavy metals. Coal is the largest contributor to the human-made increase of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere.

There are severe health effects caused by burning coal.[22][23] According to a report by the World Health Organization in 2008, coal particulates pollution are estimated to shorten approximately 10,000 lives annually worldwide.[24] A 2004 study commissioned by environmental groups, but contested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, concluded that coal burning costs 24,000 lives a year in the United States.[25] More recently, an academic study estimated that the premature deaths from coal related air pollution was about 52,000.[26] When compared to electricity produced from natural gas via hydraulic fracturing, coal electricity is 10–100 times more toxic, largely due to the amount of particulate matter emitted during combustion.[27] When coal is compared to solar photovoltaic generation, the latter could save 51,999 American lives per year if solar were to replace coal-based energy generation in the U.S.[28][29] Due to the decline of jobs related to coal mining a study found that approximately one American suffers a premature death from coal pollution for every job remaining in coal mining.[30]

In addition, the list of historical coal mining disasters is a long one, although work related coal deaths has declined substantially as safety measures have been enacted and underground mining has given up market share to surface mining. Underground mining hazards include suffocation, gas poisoning, roof collapse and gas explosions. Open cut hazards are principally mine wall failures and vehicle collisions. In the United States, an average of 26 coal miners per year died in the decade 2005–2014.[31]

Petroleum

Flaring of gas from offshore oil extraction platforms
Flaring of gas from offshore oil extraction platforms
A beach after an oil spill.
A beach after an oil spill.
Accumulation of plastic waste on a beach.
Accumulation of plastic waste on a beach.

The environmental impact of the petroleum industry is extensive and expansive due to petroleum having many uses. Crude oil and natural gas are primary energy and raw material sources that enable numerous aspects of modern daily life and the world economy. Their supply has grown quickly over the last 150 years to meet the demands of rapidly increasing human population, creativity, and consumerism.[32]

Substantial quantities of toxic and non-toxic waste are generated during the extraction, refinement, and transportation stages of oil and gas. Some industry by-products, such as volatile organic compounds, nitrogen & sulfur compounds, and spilled oil can pollute air, water, and soil at levels that are harmful to life where improperly managed.[33][34][35][36] Climate warming, ocean acidification, and sea level rise are global changes enhanced by the industry's emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane, and micro-particulate aerosols like black carbon.[37][38][39]

Among all human activities, fossil fuel combustion is the largest contributor to the ongoing buildup of carbon in the earth's biosphere.[40] The International Energy Agency and others report that oil & gas use comprised over 55% (18 Billion Tons) of the record 32.8 Billion Tons (BT) of CO2 released into the atmosphere from all energy sources during year 2017.[41][42] Coal use comprised most of the remaining 45%. Total emissions continue to rise nearly every year: up another 1.7% to 33.1 BT in 2018.[43]

Through its own operations, the petroleum industry directly contributed about 8% (2.7 BT) of the 32.8 BT in 2017.[41][44][45] Also, due to its intentional and other releases of natural gas, the industry directly contributed at least[46] 79 Million Tons of methane (2.4 BT CO2-equivalent) that same year; an amount equal to about 14% of all known anthropogenic and natural emissions of the potent warming gas.[45][47][48]

Along with fuels like gasoline and liquified natural gas, petroleum enables many consumer chemicals and products, such as fertilizers and plastics. Most alternative technologies for energy generation, transportation, and storage can only be realized at this time because of its diverse usefulness.[49]

Conservation, efficiency, and minimizing waste impacts of petroleum products are effective industry and consumer actions toward achieving better environmental sustainability.[50]

Gas

Further information: Environmental_impact_of_hydraulic_fracturing

Natural gas is often described as the cleanest fossil fuel, producing less carbon dioxide per joule delivered than either coal or oil,[51] and far fewer pollutants than other fossil fuels. However, in absolute terms, it does contribute substantially to global carbon emissions, and this contribution is projected to grow. According to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report,[52] in 2004 natural gas produced about 5,300 Mt/yr of CO2 emissions, while coal and oil produced 10,600 and 10,200 respectively (Figure 4.4); but by 2030, according to an updated version of the SRES B2 emissions scenario, natural gas would be the source of 11,000 Mt/yr, with coal and oil now 8,400 and 17,200 respectively. (Total global emissions for 2004 were estimated at over 27,200 Mt.)

In addition, natural gas itself is a greenhouse gas far more potent than carbon dioxide when released into the atmosphere but is released in smaller amounts. The environmental impacts of Natural gas also vary substantially on their extraction processes, much natural gas is a byproduct of heavily polluting petroleum extraction and newer techniques for hydraulic fracturing have made natural gas reserves that were previously unaccusable available, but with many more negative environmental and health impacts that traditional natural gas extraction.

Electricity generation

Main article: Environmental impact of electricity generation

The environmental impact of electricity generation is significant because modern society uses large amounts of electrical power. This power is normally generated at power plants that convert some other kind of energy into electrical power. Each such system has advantages and disadvantages, but many of them pose environmental concerns.

[53]

Reservoirs

The Wachusett Dam in Clinton, Massachusetts.
The Wachusett Dam in Clinton, Massachusetts.

The environmental impact of reservoirs comes under ever-increasing scrutiny as the global demand for water and energy increases and the number and size of reservoirs increases.

Dams and reservoirs can be used to supply drinking water, generate hydroelectric power, increase the water supply for irrigation, provide recreational opportunities, and flood control. In 1960 the construction of Llyn Celyn and the flooding of Capel Celyn provoked political uproar which continues to this day. More recently, the construction of Three Gorges Dam and other similar projects throughout Asia, Africa and Latin America have generated considerable environmental and political debate. Currently, 48 percent of rivers and their hydro-ecological systems are affected by reservoirs and dams.[54]

Nuclear power

Main article: Environmental impact of nuclear power

Nuclear power activities involving the environment; mining, enrichment, generation and geological disposal.
Nuclear power activities involving the environment; mining, enrichment, generation and geological disposal.

The environmental impact of nuclear power results from the nuclear fuel cycle, operation, and the effects of nuclear accidents.

The routine health risks and greenhouse gas emissions from nuclear fission power are significantly smaller than those associated with coal, oil and gas. However, there is a "catastrophic risk" potential if containment fails,[55] which in nuclear reactors can be brought about by over-heated fuels melting and releasing large quantities of fission products into the environment. The most long-lived radioactive wastes, including spent nuclear fuel, must be contained and isolated from humans and the environment for hundreds of thousands of years. The public is sensitive to these risks and there has been considerable public opposition to nuclear power. Despite this potential for disaster, normal fossil fuel related pollution is still considerably more harmful than any previous nuclear disaster.

The 1979 Three Mile Island accident and 1986 Chernobyl disaster, along with high construction costs, ended the rapid growth of global nuclear power capacity.[55] A further disastrous release of radioactive materials followed the 2011 Japanese tsunami which damaged the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, resulting in hydrogen gas explosions and partial meltdowns classified as a Level 7 event. The large-scale release of radioactivity resulted in people being evacuated from a 20 km exclusion zone set up around the power plant, similar to the 30 km radius Chernobyl Exclusion Zone still in effect.

Wind power

Main article: Environmental impact of wind power

Livestock grazing near a wind turbine.
Livestock grazing near a wind turbine.

The environmental impact of wind power when compared to the environmental impacts of fossil fuels, is relatively minor. According to the IPCC, in assessments of the life-cycle global warming potential of energy sources, wind turbines have a median value of between 12 and 11 (gCO2eq/kWh) depending, respectively, on if offshore or onshore turbines are being assessed.[56][57] Compared with other low carbon power sources, wind turbines have some of the lowest global warming potential per unit of electrical energy generated.[58]

While a wind farm may cover a large area of land, many land uses such as agriculture are compatible with it, as only small areas of turbine foundations and infrastructure are made unavailable for use.[59][60]

There are reports of bird and bat mortality at wind turbines as there are around other artificial structures. The scale of the ecological impact may or may not be significant, depending on specific circumstances. Prevention and mitigation of wildlife fatalities, and protection of peat bogs, affect the siting and operation of wind turbines.

There are anecdotal reports of negative health effects from noise on people who live very close to wind turbines.[61] Peer-reviewed research has generally not supported these claims.[62]

Aesthetic aspects of wind turbines and resulting changes of the visual landscape are significant.[63] Conflicts arise especially in scenic and heritage protected landscapes.

Mitigation

Energy conservation

Main article: Energy conservation

Energy conservation refers to efforts made to reduce energy consumption. Energy conservation can be achieved through increased efficient energy use, in conjunction with decreased energy consumption and/or reduced consumption from conventional energy sources.

Energy conservation can result in increased financial capital, environmental quality, national security, personal security, and human comfort.[64] Individuals and organizations that are direct consumers of energy choose to conserve energy to reduce energy costs and promote economic security. Industrial and commercial users can increase energy use efficiency to maximize profit.

The increase of global energy use can also be slowed by tackling human population growth, by using non-coercive measures such as better provision of family planning services and by empowering (educating) women in developing countries.

Energy policy

Main article: Energy policy

Energy policy is the manner in which a given entity (often governmental) has decided to address issues of energy development including energy production, distribution and consumption. The attributes of energy policy may include legislation, international treaties, incentives to investment, guidelines for energy conservation, taxation and other public policy techniques.

See also

References

  1. ^ BP: Workbook of historical data (xlsx)[permanent dead link], London, 2012
  2. ^ "Energy Consumption: Total energy consumption per capita". Earth trends Database. World Resources Institute. Archived from the original on 12 December 2004. Retrieved 2011-04-21.
  3. ^ "environmental impact of energy". European Environment Agency. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  4. ^ Bowman, D. M. J. S; Balch, J. K; Artaxo, P; Bond, W. J; Carlson, J. M; Cochrane, M. A; d'Antonio, C. M; Defries, R. S; Doyle, J. C; Harrison, S. P; Johnston, F. H; Keeley, J. E; Krawchuk, M. A; Kull, C. A; Marston, J. B; Moritz, M. A; Prentice, I. C; Roos, C. I; Scott, A. C; Swetnam, T. W; Van Der Werf, G. R; Pyne, S. J (2009). "Fire in the Earth System". Science. 324 (5926): 481–4. Bibcode:2009Sci...324..481B. doi:10.1126/science.1163886. PMID 19390038. S2CID 22389421.
  5. ^ "AR4 Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis — IPCC". Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  6. ^ Kay, J. (2002). Kay, J.J. "On Complexity Theory, Exergy and Industrial Ecology: Some Implications for Construction Ecology." Archived 6 January 2006 at the Wayback Machine In: Kibert C., Sendzimir J., Guy, B. (eds.) Construction Ecology: Nature as the Basis for Green Buildings, pp. 72–107. London: Spon Press. Retrieved on: 2009-04-01.
  7. ^ Baksh B., Fiksel J. (2003). "The Quest for Sustainability: Challenges for Process Systems Engineering" (PDF). American Institute of Chemical Engineers Journal. 49 (6): 1355. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2009.
  8. ^ "Climate Change Indicators: Climate Forcing". EPA.gov. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2021. Archived from the original on 9 May 2021.
    ● EPA credits data from "NOAA's Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (An Introduction)". NOAA.gov. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (Global Monitoring Laboratory, Earth System Research Laboratories). December 2020. Archived from the original on 13 May 2021.
  9. ^ "Help finding information | US EPA".
  10. ^ Douglas Starr, "The carbon accountant. Richard Heede pins much of the responsibility for climate change on just 90 companies. Others say that's a cop-out", Science, volume 353, issue 6302, 26 August 2016, pages 858–861.
  11. ^ Richard Heede, "Tracing anthropogenic carbon dioxide and methane emissions to fossil fuel and cement producers, 1854–2010", Climatic Change, January 2014, volume 122, issue 1, pages 229–241 doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0986-y.
  12. ^ "Billions face climate change risk". BBC NEWS Science/Nature. 6 April 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  13. ^ Rabl A.; et al. (August 2005). "Final Technical Report, Version 2" (PDF). Externalities of Energy: Extension of Accounting Framework and Policy Applications. European Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2012.
  14. ^ a b "External costs of electricity systems (graph format)". ExternE-Pol. Technology Assessment / GaBE (Paul Scherrer Institut). 2005. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013.
  15. ^ "New research reveals the real costs of electricity in Europe" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  16. ^ ExternE-Pol, External costs of current and advanced electricity systems, associated with emissions from the operation of power plants and with the rest of the energy chain, final technical report. Archived 15 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine See figure 9, 9b and figure 11
  17. ^ Gao, Yan (2011). "Working paper. A global analysis of deforestation due to biofuel development" (PDF). Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  18. ^ Rowan, Anthea (25 September 2009). "Africa's burning charcoal problem". BBC NEWS Africa. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  19. ^ "International Energy Annual 2006". Archived from the original on 5 February 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2009.
  20. ^ Ottmar Edenhofer, King Coal and the queen of subsidies. In: Science 349, Issue 6254, (2015), 1286, doi:10.1126/science.aad0674.
  21. ^ RadTown USA | US EPA
  22. ^ Toxic Air: The Case for Cleaning Up Coal-fired Power Plants (PDF) (Report). American Lung Association. March 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  23. ^ "Environmental impacts of coal power: air pollution". Union of Concerned Scientists. Archived from the original on 11 November 2005. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  24. ^ Deaths per TWH by Energy Source Archived 24 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Next Big Future, March 2011. Quote: "The World Health Organization and other sources attribute about 1 million deaths/year to coal air pollution."
  25. ^ "Deadly Power Plants? Study Fuels Debate". NBC News. 9 June 2004. Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
  26. ^ Caiazzo, F., Ashok, A., Waitz, I.A., Yim, S.H. and Barrett, S.R., 2013. Air pollution and early deaths in the United States. Part I: Quantifying the impact of major sectors in 2005. Atmospheric Environment, 79, pp.198–208.
  27. ^ Chen, Lu; Miller, Shelie A.; Ellis, Brian R. (2017). "Comparative Human Toxicity Impact of Electricity Produced from Shale Gas and Coal". Environmental Science & Technology. 51 (21): 13018–13027. Bibcode:2017EnST...5113018C. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b03546. PMID 29016130.
  28. ^ USA Today. The US could prevent a lot of deaths by switching from coal to solar https://www.usatoday.com/videos/money/2017/06/01/-us-could-prevent-lot-deaths-switching-coal-solar/102405132/ Archived 20 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ Prehoda, Emily W.; Pearce, Joshua M. (2017), "Potential lives saved by replacing coal with solar photovoltaic electricity production in the U.S" (PDF), Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 80: 710–715, doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.119, archived (PDF) from the original on 15 October 2019, retrieved 15 October 2019
  30. ^ "These Two Industries Kill More People Than They Employ". IFLScience. Archived from the original on 29 July 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  31. ^ "Coal Fatalities for 1900 Through 2016". Arlington, VA: U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Archived from the original on 3 October 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  32. ^ The Library of Congress (2006). "History of the Oil and Gas Industry". Business and Economics Research Advisor (5/6).
  33. ^ "EPA enforcement targets flaring efficiency violations" (PDF). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1 August 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  34. ^ "Frequent, routine flaring may cause excessive, uncontrolled sulfur dioxide releases" (PDF). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1 October 2000. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  35. ^ Bautista, H.; Rahman, K.M.M. (25 January 2016). "Review On the Sundarbans Delta Oil Spill: Effects On Wildlife and Habitats". International Research Journal. 1 (43): 93–96. doi:10.18454/IRJ.2016.43.143.
  36. ^ Bautista, H.; Rahman, K. M. M. (2016). "Effects of Crude Oil Pollution in the Tropical Rainforest Biodiversity of Ecuadorian Amazon Region". Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences. 8 (2): 249–254.
  37. ^ Eggleton, Tony (2013). A Short Introduction to Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. p. 52. ISBN 9781107618763.
  38. ^ Stohl, A.; Klimont, Z.; Eckhardt, S.; Kupiainen, K.; Chevchenko, V.P.; Kopeikin, V.M.; Novigatsky, A.N. (2013), "Black carbon in the Arctic: the underestimated role of gas flaring and residential combustion emissions", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13 (17): 8833–8855, Bibcode:2013ACP....13.8833S, doi:10.5194/acp-13-8833-2013
  39. ^ Michael Stanley (10 December 2018). "Gas flaring: An industry practice faces increasing global attention" (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  40. ^ Heede, R. (2014). "Tracing anthropogenic carbon dioxide and methane emissions to fossil fuel and cement producers, 1854–2010". Climatic Change. 122 (1–2): 229–241. Bibcode:2014ClCh..122..229H. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0986-y.
  41. ^ a b "Data and Statistics: CO₂ emissions by energy source, World 1990-2017". International Energy Agency (Paris). Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  42. ^ Hannah Ritchie and Max Roser (2020). "CO₂ and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: CO₂ Emissions by Fuel". Our World in Data. Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  43. ^ "Global Energy & CO2 Status Report 2019: The latest trends in energy and emissions in 2018". International Energy Agency (Paris). 1 March 2019. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  44. ^ "Methane Tracker - Methane from oil and gas". International Energy Agency (Paris). 1 January 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  45. ^ a b "Tracking Fuel Supply - Methane emissions from oil and gas". International Energy Agency (Paris). 1 November 2019. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  46. ^ Alvarez, R.A.; et al. (13 July 2018). "Assessment of methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas supply chain". Science. 361 (6398): 186–188. Bibcode:2018Sci...361..186A. doi:10.1126/science.aar7204. PMC 6223263. PMID 29930092.
  47. ^ "Methane Tracker - Country and regional estimates". International Energy Agency (Paris). 1 November 2019. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  48. ^ "Methane Tracker - Analysis". International Energy Agency (Paris). 1 November 2019. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  49. ^ Vaclav Smil (29 February 2016). "To Get Wind Power You Need Oil". IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  50. ^ Amory Lovins (18 September 2018). "How big is the energy efficiency resource?". Environmental Research Letters. IOP Science. 13 (9): 090401. Bibcode:2018ERL....13i0401L. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aad965.
  51. ^ Natural Gas and the Environment Archived 3 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (Working Group III Report, Chapter 4)
  53. ^ Poulakis, Evangelos; Philippopoulos, Constantine (2017). "Photocatalytic treatment of automotive exhaust emissions". Chemical Engineering Journal. 309: 178–186. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2016.10.030.
  54. ^ Schmutz, Stefan; Moog, Otto (2018), Schmutz, Stefan; Sendzimir, Jan (eds.), "Dams: Ecological Impacts and Management", Riverine Ecosystem Management, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 111–127, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-73250-3_6, ISBN 978-3-319-73249-7
  55. ^ a b International Panel on Fissile Materials (September 2010). "The Uncertain Future of Nuclear Energy" (PDF). Research Report 9. p. 1.
  56. ^ "IPCC Working Group III – Mitigation of Climate Change, Annex II I: Technology - specific cost and performance parameters" (PDF). IPCC. 2014. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
  57. ^ "IPCC Working Group III – Mitigation of Climate Change, Annex II Metrics and Methodology. pg 37 to 40,41" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2014.
  58. ^ Begoña Guezuraga, Rudolf Zauner, Werner Pölz, Life cycle assessment of two different 2 MW class wind turbines, Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 37–44, p 37. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2011.05.008
  59. ^ Why Australia needs wind power Archived 1 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  60. ^ "Wind energy Frequently Asked Questions". British Wind Energy Association. Archived from the original on 19 April 2006. Retrieved 21 April 2006.
  61. ^ Gohlke, Julia M; Hrynkow, Sharon H; Portier, Christopher J (2008). "Health, Economy, and Environment: Sustainable Energy Choices for a Nation". Environmental Health Perspectives. 116 (6): A236–7. doi:10.1289/ehp.11602. PMC 2430245. PMID 18560493.
  62. ^ Hamilton, Tyler (15 December 2009). "Wind Gets Clean Bill of Health". Toronto Star. Toronto. pp. B1–B2. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
  63. ^ Thomas Kirchhoff (2014): Energiewende und Landschaftsästhetik. Versachlichung ästhetischer Bewertungen von Energieanlagen durch Bezugnahme auf drei intersubjektive Landschaftsideale, in: Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung 46 (1), 10–16.
  64. ^ "Importance of Saving Energy. Energy Conservation Benefits". TRVST. 23 November 2019. Retrieved 27 November 2020.