List of years in climate change

This article documents events, research findings, scientific and technological advances, and human actions to measure, predict, mitigate, and adapt to the effects of global warming and climate change—during the year 2023.


2023 saw the highest global average surface temperature in recorded history.[1]
Global boiling has arrived

     Climate change is here. It is terrifying. And it is just the beginning. The era of global warming has ended; the era of global boiling has arrived.

António Guterres, U.N. Secretary-General[2]
27 July 2023

Schematic overview on the central role of the Earth heat inventory and its linkages.[3]

Measurements and statistics

"Vital Signs of the Planet" as presented by NASA on 31 December 2023[9]
2023's June-July-August season was the warmest on record globally by a large margin, as El Niño conditions continued to develop.[16]
September 2023 was the warmest September on record globally, with an average surface air temperature 0.5 °C above the temperature of the previous warmest September (2020).[17]

Natural events and phenomena

Reporting on the reduced Antarctic sea ice extent in mid 2023, researchers concluded that a "regime shift" may be taking place "in which previously important relationships no longer dominate sea ice variability".[42]
The area burned by the 2023 Canadian wildfires was more than twice that of any prior year of record.[43]

Actions, and goal statements

Science and technology

Political, economic, legal, and cultural actions

Phasedown of fossil fuels

     The phasedown of fossil fuels is inevitable. The speed at which this happens depends on how quickly we can phase up zero carbon alternatives, while ensuring energy security, accessibility and affordability.

Sultan Ahmed al-Jaber, COP28 President
and CEO of Abu Dhabi National Oil Company[64]
June 2023

Joint action is essential for planetary and human health

     Over 200 health journals call on the United Nations, political leaders, and health professionals to recognise that climate change and biodiversity loss are one indivisible crisis and must be tackled together to preserve health and avoid catastrophe. This overall environmental crisis is now so severe as to be a global health emergency.

The BMJ medical journal[80]
October 2023

2023 U.N. Climate Change Conference (COP28)

     The Conference of the Parties... calls on Parties to contribute to the following global efforts:

     (a) Tripling renewable energy capacity globally and doubling the global average annual rate of energy efficiency improvements by 2030;
     (d) Transitioning away from fossil fuels in energy systems, in a just, orderly and equitable manner, accelerating action in this critical decade, so as to achieve net zero by 2050 in keeping with the science;

— Outcome of the first global stocktake, COP28[93]
13 December 2023

Mitigation goal statements

A rapidly narrowing window

     Key finding 4: global emissions are not in line with modelled global mitigation pathways consistent with the temperature goal of the Paris Agreement, and there is a rapidly narrowing window to raise ambition and implement existing commitments in order to limit warming to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels.

—U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change[97]
8 September 2023

Adaptation goal statements

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (January 2023)



Projections for different amounts of global warming: Melting of glacial mass, sea level rise, and loss of number of glaciers.[102]

      The consequences of (sea level rise) are unthinkable. Low-lying communities and entire countries could disappear forever. We would witness a mass exodus of entire populations on a biblical scale.

António Guterres, U.N. Secretary-General[103]
14 February 2023

Energy transition gathers pace

      The adoption of tighter efficiency standards by regulators, structural changes to the economy and the ever-accelerating penetration of EVs are expected to powerfully moderate annual growth in oil demand throughout the (2023–2028) forecast.

—International Energy Agency (IEA)[119]
14 June 2023

Regions and population densities exposed to unprecedented heat at different levels of global warming.[121]

Significant publications

Observed Changes and Impacts

     Human-caused climate change is already affecting many weather and climate extremes in every region across the globe. This has led to widespread adverse impacts and related losses and damages to nature and people (high confidence). Vulnerable communities who have historically contributed the least to current climate change are disproportionately affected (high confidence).

—"Headline Statement A2" in the AR6 Synthesis Report[133]

Entering uncharted territory

     We warn of potential collapse of natural and socioeconomic systems in such a world where we will face unbearable heat, frequent extreme weather events, food and fresh water shortages, rising seas, more emerging diseases, and increased social unrest and geopolitical conflict.

—2023 State of the Climate Report[7]
15,000 scientist signatories, 24 October 2023


  1. ^ Cislak et al. define National Narcissism as "a belief that one’s national group is exceptional and deserves external recognition underlain by unsatisfied psychological needs".
  2. ^ Cislak et al. define Secure National Identification as "reflect(ing) feelings of strong bonds and solidarity with one's ingroup members, and sense of satisfaction in group membership".

See also


  1. ^ "The 2023 Annual Climate Summary / Global Climate Highlights 2023". Copernicus Programme. 9 January 2024. Archived from the original on 9 January 2024.
  2. ^ "Secretary-General's opening remarks at press conference on climate". United Nations. 27 July 2023. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023.
  3. ^ a b von Schuckmann, Karina; Minière, Audrey; Gues, Flora; et al. (17 April 2023). "Heat stored in the Earth system 1960–2020: where does the energy go?". Earth System Science Data. 15 (4): 1675–1709. Bibcode:2023ESSD...15.1675V. doi:10.5194/essd-15-1675-2023. hdl:20.500.11850/619535. ISSN 1866-3508.
  4. ^ Nichols, Michelle (6 February 2023). "For 2023, U.N. chief amplifies warnings on Ukraine, climate". Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 February 2023.
  5. ^ "AR6 Synthesis Report: Climate Change 2023 — IPCC". Archived from the original on 2 May 2023. Retrieved 18 April 2023.
  6. ^ "Climate Breakdown Has Begun with Hottest Summer on Record, Secretary-General Warns, Calling on Leaders to 'Turn Up the Heat Now' for Climate Solutions". United Nations. 6 September 2023. Archived from the original on 8 September 2023.
  7. ^ a b Ripple, William J.; Wolf, Christopher; Gregg, Jillian W.; Rockström, Johan; et al. (24 October 2023). "The 2023 state of the climate report: Entering uncharted territory". BioScience. biad080. doi:10.1093/biosci/biad080.
  8. ^ ICN Staff (27 December 2023). "2023 in Climate News". Inside Climate News. Archived from the original on 27 December 2023.
  9. ^ "Vital Signs of the Planet / Understanding our planet to benefit humankind". NASA. 31 December 2023. Archived from the original on 31 December 2023.
  10. ^ "Ice down under". 3 January 2023. Archived from the original on 6 January 2023. Fig. 5a
  11. ^ "Global Low-Carbon Energy Technology Investment Surges Past $1 Trillion for the First Time". BloombergNEF. 26 January 2023. Archived from the original on 26 January 2023.
  12. ^ Harvey, Chelsea. "A Mysterious Rise in Banned Chemicals Is Warming the Planet". Scientific American. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  13. ^ Western, Luke M.; Vollmer, Martin K.; Krummel, Paul B.; Adcock, Karina E.; Crotwell, Molly; Fraser, Paul J.; Harth, Christina M.; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Mühle, Jens; O’Doherty, Simon; Oram, David E.; Reimann, Stefan; Rigby, Matt; Vimont, Isaac; Weiss, Ray F.; Young, Dickon; Laube, Johannes C. (April 2023). "Global increase of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons from 2010 to 2020". Nature Geoscience. 16 (4): 309–313. Bibcode:2023NatGe..16..309W. doi:10.1038/s41561-023-01147-w. hdl:1983/9e103fef-e61c-49c7-a1a3-902540ec1d7c. ISSN 1752-0908. S2CID 257941769.
  14. ^ "Wind powers Britain more than gas for first time". Drax. 10 May 2023. Archived from the original on 14 May 2023.
  15. ^ Yao, Fangfang; Livneh, Ben; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Wang, Jida; Crétaux, Jean-François; Wada, Yoshihide; Berge-Nguyen, Muriel (18 May 2023). "Satellites reveal widespread decline in global lake water storage". Science. 380 (6646): 743–749. Bibcode:2023Sci...380..743Y. doi:10.1126/science.abo2812. hdl:10754/691878. PMID 37200445. S2CID 258765167. Archived from the original on 5 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023. "The net volume loss in natural lakes is largely attributable to climate warming, increasing evaporative demand, and human water consumption, whereas sedimentation dominates storage losses in reservoirs."
  16. ^ "August Climate Bulletins / Summer 2023: the hottest on record". Copernicus Programme. 6 September 2023. Archived from the original on 8 September 2023.
  17. ^ "Copernicus: September 2023 – unprecedented temperature anomalies; 2023 on track to be the warmest year on record". Copernicus Programme. 5 October 2023. Archived from the original on 5 October 2023.
  18. ^ Rockström, Johan; Gupta, Joyeeta; et al. (31 May 2023). "Safe and just Earth system boundaries". Nature. 619 (7968): 102–111. Bibcode:2023Natur.619..102R. doi:10.1038/s41586-023-06083-8. ISSN 1476-4687. PMC 10322705. PMID 37258676.
  19. ^ "The world just blew past the Paris climate talks' maximum temperature threshold: 'I feel like I am watching a global train wreck in slow motion'". Fortune. Associated Press. 16 June 2023. Archived from the original on 21 June 2023.
  20. ^ Baisis, Laura (26 July 2023). "Mass coral reef bleaching in Florida as ocean temperatures hit 100 degrees". Popular Science. Archived from the original on 26 July 2023.
  21. ^ Livingston, Ian (9 August 2023). "Hot-tub-like Persian Gulf fuels 158-degree heat index in Iran". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 9 August 2023.
  22. ^ "Global power sector saved fuel costs of USD 520 billion last year thanks to renewables, says new IRENA report". International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). 29 August 2023. Archived from the original on 29 August 2023.
  23. ^ Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Edward; Cox, Tyler; Espinosa, Zachary I.; Donohoe, Aaron (31 August 2023). "The Largest Ever Recorded Heatwave—Characteristics and Attribution of the Antarctic Heatwave of March 2022". Geophysical Research Letters. 50 (17). Bibcode:2023GeoRL..5004910B. doi:10.1029/2023GL104910. S2CID 261457147.
  24. ^ Newman, Rebecca; Noy, Ilan (29 September 2023). "The global costs of extreme weather that are attributable to climate change". Nature Communications. 14 (6103): 6103. Bibcode:2023NatCo..14.6103N. doi:10.1038/s41467-023-41888-1. PMC 10541421. PMID 37775690.
  25. ^ Garner, Andra J. (19 October 2023). "Observed increases in North Atlantic tropical cyclone peak intensification rates". Scientific Reports. 13 (1): 16299. doi:10.1038/s41598-023-42669-y. PMC 10587146. PMID 37857635.
  26. ^ "ERA5 data from CopernicusECMWF indicates that 17 November was the first day that the global temperature exceeded 2°C above pre-industrial levels". Copernicus European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). 20 November 2023. Archived from the original on 25 November 2023.
  27. ^ Lelieveld, Jos; Haines, Andy; Burnett, Richard; Tonne, Cathryn; Klingmueller, Klaus; Munzel, Thomas; Pozzer, Andrea (29 November 2023). "Air pollution deaths attributable to fossil fuels: observational and modelling study". The BMJ. 383: e077784. doi:10.1136/bmj-2023-077784. PMC 10686100.
  28. ^ a b Taylor, Caroline; Robinson, Tom R.; Dunning, Stuart; Carr, J. Rachel; Westoby, Matthew (7 February 2023). "Glacial lake outburst floods threaten millions globally". Nature Communications. 14 (487): 1805. Bibcode:2023NatCo..14..487T. doi:10.1038/s41467-023-36033-x. PMC 9905510. PMID 36750561. S2CID 256631924.
  29. ^ Palacio-Castro, Ana M.; Smith, Tyler B.; Brandtneris, Viktor; Baker, Andrew C. (13 February 2023). "Increased dominance of heat-tolerant symbionts creates resilient coral reefs in near-term ocean warming". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 120 (8): e2202388120. Bibcode:2023PNAS..12002388P. doi:10.1073/pnas.2202388120. PMC 9974440. PMID 36780524. S2CID 256844633.
  30. ^ a b Zheng, Bo; Ciais, Philippe; Chevallier, Frederic; Yang, Hui; et al. (2 March 2023). "Record-high CO2 emissions from boreal fires in 2021". Science. 379 (6635): 912–917. Bibcode:2023Sci...379..912Z. doi:10.1126/science.ade0805. PMID 36862792. S2CID 257283260. Archived from the original on 5 March 2023. Retrieved 5 March 2023.
  31. ^ Rodell, Matthew; Li, Bailing (13 March 2023). "Changing intensity of hydroclimatic extreme events revealed by GRACE and GRACE-FO". Nature Water. 1 (3): 241–248. doi:10.1038/s44221-023-00040-5. S2CID 257525498. Archived from the original on 17 March 2023. Retrieved 17 March 2023.
  32. ^ "Vast glacier at mercy of sea warmth increases". BBC News. 15 February 2023. Archived from the original on 15 February 2023. Retrieved 15 February 2023.
  33. ^ Schmidt, B. E.; Washam, P.; Davis, P. E. D.; Nicholls, K. W.; Holland, D. M.; Lawrence, J. D.; Riverman, K. L.; Smith, J. A.; Spears, A.; Dichek, D. J. G.; Mullen, A. D.; Clyne, E.; Yeager, B.; Anker, P.; Meister, M. R.; Hurwitz, B. C.; Quartini, E. S.; Bryson, F. E.; Basinski-Ferris, A.; Thomas, C.; Wake, J.; Vaughan, D. G.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Rignot, E.; Paden, J.; Makinson, K. (February 2023). "Heterogeneous melting near the Thwaites Glacier grounding line". Nature. 614 (7948): 471–478. Bibcode:2023Natur.614..471S. doi:10.1038/s41586-022-05691-0. ISSN 1476-4687. PMC 9931587. PMID 36792738.
  34. ^ Davis, Peter E. D.; Nicholls, Keith W.; Holland, David M.; Schmidt, Britney E.; Washam, Peter; Riverman, Kiya L.; Arthern, Robert J.; Vaňková, Irena; Eayrs, Clare; Smith, James A.; Anker, Paul G. D.; Mullen, Andrew D.; Dichek, Daniel; Lawrence, Justin D.; Meister, Matthew M.; Clyne, Elisabeth; Basinski-Ferris, Aurora; Rignot, Eric; Queste, Bastien Y.; Boehme, Lars; Heywood, Karen J.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Makinson, Keith (February 2023). "Suppressed basal melting in the eastern Thwaites Glacier grounding zone". Nature. 614 (7948): 479–485. Bibcode:2023Natur.614..479D. doi:10.1038/s41586-022-05586-0. ISSN 1476-4687. PMC 9931584. PMID 36792735.
  35. ^ "Antarctic sea ice extent sets a new record low". National Snow and Ice Data Center. 14 February 2023. Archived from the original on 15 February 2023. Retrieved 15 February 2023.
  36. ^ "'Extreme situation': Antarctic sea ice hits record low". The Guardian. 15 February 2023. Archived from the original on 15 February 2023. Retrieved 15 February 2023.
  37. ^ a b Li, Qian; England, Matthew H.; Hogg, Andrew McC.; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Morrison, Adele K. (29 March 2023). "Abyssal ocean overturning slowdown and warming driven by Antarctic meltwater". Nature. 615 (7954): 841–847. Bibcode:2023Natur.615..841L. doi:10.1038/s41586-023-05762-w. PMID 36991191. S2CID 257807573.
  38. ^ Gunn, Kathryn L.; Rintoul, Stephen R.; England, Matthew H.; Bowen, Melissa M. (June 2023). "Recent reduced abyssal overturning and ventilation in the Australian Antarctic Basin". Nature Climate Change. 13 (6): 537–544. Bibcode:2023NatCC..13..537G. doi:10.1038/s41558-023-01667-8. ISSN 1758-6798.
  39. ^ Callahan, Christopher W.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.; DeSilva, Jeremy M.; Mankin, Justin S. (7 April 2023). "Global warming, home runs, and the future of America's pastime". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. -1 (aop): E1006–E1016. Bibcode:2023BAMS..104E1006C. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-22-0235.1. S2CID 258034979. Archived from the original on 12 April 2023. Retrieved 12 April 2023.
  40. ^ Hawkins, Heidi-Jayne; Cargill, Rachael I.M.; Van Nuland, Michael E.; Sheldrake, Merlin; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A.; Kiers, E. Toby (5 June 2023). "Mycorrhizal mycelium as a global carbon pool". Current Biology. 33 (11): PR560–R573. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2023.02.027. hdl:1942/40689. PMID 37279689. S2CID 259078574.
  41. ^ Becker, Emily (8 June 2023). "June 2023 ENSO update: El Niño is here". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Archived from the original on 10 June 2023. The circus is in town / El Niño conditions are present when we have met all the criteria of our decision tree.
  42. ^ a b Purich, Ariaan; Doddridge, Edward W. (13 September 2023). "Record low Antarctic sea ice coverage indicates a new sea ice state". Communications Earth & Environment. 4 (1): 314. Bibcode:2023ComEE...4..314P. doi:10.1038/s43247-023-00961-9. S2CID 261855193.
  43. ^ "Fire Statistics". Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre (CIFFC). October 2023. Archived from the original on 25 October 2023. Retrieved 25 October 2023. ● Cited by Livingston, Ian (24 October 2023). "Earth's climate shatters heat records. These 5 charts show how". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 24 October 2023.
  44. ^ Gabay, Aimee (26 June 2023). "Climate change causes a mountain peak frozen for thousands of years to collapse". Live Science. Archived from the original on 26 June 2023.
  45. ^ Paris, Costas (20 June 2023). "How the Worst Drought in a Century Is Changing the Panama Canal". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 20 June 2023. (WSJ direct)
  46. ^ "World Meteorological Organization declares onset of El Niño conditions". World Meteorological Organization. 4 July 2023. Press Release Number: 04072023
  47. ^ Rotta Loria, Alessandro F. (11 July 2023). "The silent impact of underground climate change on civil infrastructure". Communications Engineering. 2 (44): 44. Bibcode:2023CmEng...2...44R. doi:10.1038/s44172-023-00092-1.
  48. ^ "It's Not Just Climate Change: Three Other Factors Driving This Summer's Extreme Heat". Yale Environment 360. 28 July 2023. Archived from the original on 28 July 2023.
  49. ^ Tracy, Ben; Novak, Analisa (23 August 2023). "Drought affecting Panama Canal threatens 40% of world's cargo ship traffic". CBS News. Archived from the original on 29 August 2023.
  50. ^ Li, Yi; Tang, Youmin; Wang, Shuai; Toumi, Ralf; Song, Xiangzhou; Wang, Qiang (24 August 2023). "Recent increases in tropical cyclone rapid intensification events in global offshore regions". Nature Communications. 14 (1): 5167. Bibcode:2023NatCo..14.5167L. doi:10.1038/s41467-023-40605-2. PMC 10449825. PMID 37620321.
  51. ^ Livingston, Ian; Samenow, Jason (8 September 2023). "A first: Category 5 storms have formed in every ocean basin this year". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 8 September 2023.
  52. ^ a b Richardson, Katherine; Steffen, Will; Lucht, Wolfgang; Bendtsen, Jorgen; et al. (13 September 2023). "Earth beyond six of nine planetary boundaries". Science Advances. 9 (37): eadh2458. Bibcode:2023SciA....9H2458R. doi:10.1126/sciadv.adh2458. PMC 10499318. PMID 37703365.
  53. ^ a b Shan, Kiayue; Lin, Yanluan; Chu, Pao-Shin; Yu, Xiping; Song, Fengfei (27 September 2023). "Seasonal advance of intense tropical cyclones in a warming climate". Nature. 623 (7985): 83–89. doi:10.1038/s41586-023-06544-0. PMC 10620083. PMID 37758952. S2CID 263125198.
  54. ^ Davies, Richard J.; Yang, Jinxiu; Ireland, Mark T.; Berndt, Christian; Maqueda, Miguel A. M.; Huuse, Mads (6 December 2023). "Long-distance migration and venting of methane from the base of the hydrate stability zone". Nature Geoscience. doi:10.1038/s41561-023-01333-w.
  55. ^ "Can shooting clouds of Moon dust towards the Sun combat global warming?". Firstpost. 8 February 2023. Archived from the original on 11 February 2023. Retrieved 11 February 2023.
  56. ^ Bromley, Benjamin C.; Khan, Sameer H.; Kenyon, Scott J. (8 February 2023). "Dust as a solar shield". PLOS Climate. 2 (2): e0000133. doi:10.1371/journal.pclm.0000133. ISSN 2767-3200. — Research institute press release: "Could space dust help protect the earth from climate change?". Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics via EurekAlert. 8 February 2023. Archived from the original on 11 February 2023. Retrieved 11 February 2023.
  57. ^ Gabbatiss, Josh (23 February 2023). "Heat pumps 'up to three times cheaper' than green hydrogen in Europe, study finds". Carbon Brief. Archived from the original on 21 April 2023. Retrieved 21 April 2023.
  58. ^ Weidner, Till; Guillén-Gosálbez, Gonzalo (15 February 2023). "Planetary boundaries assessment of deep decarbonisation options for building heating in the European Union". Energy Conversion and Management. 278: 116602. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2022.116602. hdl:20.500.11850/599236. ISSN 0196-8904.
  59. ^ Altermatt, Pietro P.; Clausen, Jens; Brendel, Heiko; Breyer, Christian; Gerhards, Christoph; Kemfert, Claudia; Weber, Urban; Wright, Matthew (3 March 2023). "Replacing gas boilers with heat pumps is the fastest way to cut German gas consumption". Communications Earth & Environment. 4 (1): 56. Bibcode:2023ComEE...4...56A. doi:10.1038/s43247-023-00715-7. ISSN 2662-4435.
  60. ^ "New study shows Earth energy imbalance". 19 April 2023. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
  61. ^ Santer, Benjamin D.; Po-Chedley, Stephen; Zhao, Lilong; Taylor, Karl E. (8 May 2023). "Exceptional stratospheric contribution to human fingerprints on atmospheric temperature". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 120 (20): e2300758120. Bibcode:2023PNAS..12000758S. doi:10.1073/pnas.2300758120. PMC 10193933. PMID 37155871.
  62. ^ Davies, Brittany (3 August 2023). "These State-of-the-Art Floating Turbines Could Revolutionize Wind Power - and They Look Like Something Out of a Sci-Fi Movie". The Cool Down. Archived from the original on 1 October 2023.
  63. ^ Nijsse, Femke J. M. M.; Mercure, Jean-Francois; Ameli, Nadia; Larosa, Francesca; Kothari, Sumit; Rickman, Jamie; Vercoulen, Pim; Pollitt, Hector (17 October 2023). "The momentum of the solar energy transition". Nature Communications. 14 (1): 6542. doi:10.1038/s41467-023-41971-7. PMC 10582067. PMID 37848437.
  64. ^ Alkousaa, Riham (8 June 2023). "COP28 president says fossil fuels phasedown is inevitable". Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 June 2023.
  65. ^ "Climate Group Extinction Rebellion Suspends 'Public Disruption' Tactics". Voice of America. 1 January 2023. Archived from the original on 1 January 2023.
  66. ^ "Studie sieht EU-weit 87 Milliarden Euro Mehrbedarf bei Erneuerbaren und E-Verkehr | MDR.DE". (in German). Archived from the original on 17 February 2023. Retrieved 17 February 2023.
  67. ^ Klaaßen, Lena; Steffen, Bjarne (January 2023). "Meta-analysis on necessary investment shifts to reach net zero pathways in Europe". Nature Climate Change. 13 (1): 58–66. Bibcode:2023NatCC..13...58K. doi:10.1038/s41558-022-01549-5. ISSN 1758-6798. S2CID 255624692. — Expert reviews of the study: "Notwendige Investitionen auf dem Weg zu Netto-Null-Emissionen". Archived from the original on 17 February 2023. Retrieved 17 February 2023.
  68. ^ "French parliament votes to make solar panels compulsory on large car parks". Radio France Internationale. 11 January 2023. Archived from the original on 12 January 2023.
  69. ^ Harvey, Fiona (12 January 2023). "Fossil fuel producers must be forced to 'take back' carbon, say scientists". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 February 2023. Retrieved 17 February 2023.
  70. ^ Jenkins, Stuart; Kuijper, Margriet; Helferty, Hugh; Girardin, Cécile; Allen, Myles (1 January 2023). "Extended producer responsibility for fossil fuels". Environmental Research Letters. 18 (1): 011005. Bibcode:2023ERL....18a1005J. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aca4e8. ISSN 1748-9326.
  71. ^ Kahn, Brian (22 March 2023). "New climate paper calls for charging big US oil firms with homicide". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 April 2023. Retrieved 22 April 2023.
  72. ^ Arkush, David; Braman, Donald (23 January 2023). "Climate Homicide: Prosecuting Big Oil For Climate Deaths". Harvard Environmental Law Review. doi:10.2139/ssrn.4335779. S2CID 256447850.
  73. ^ Abnett, Kate (14 February 2023). "EU lawmakers approve effective 2035 ban on new fossil fuel cars". Reuters. Archived from the original on 15 February 2023.
  74. ^ "Rationing could be an effective way to fight climate change". Archived from the original on 25 March 2023. Retrieved 25 March 2023.
  75. ^ Wood, Nathan; Lawlor, Rob; Freear, Josie (19 February 2023). "Rationing and Climate Change Mitigation*". Ethics, Policy & Environment: 1–29. doi:10.1080/21550085.2023.2166342. ISSN 2155-0085. — * University press release: "Rationing: A fairer way to fight climate change?". University of Leeds via Archived from the original on 25 March 2023. Retrieved 25 March 2023.
  76. ^ "UN 2023 Water Conference". UN Water. 3 February 2022. Archived from the original on 31 December 2022. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  77. ^ a b van Valkengoed, Anne M.; Steg, Linda; Perlaviciute, Goda (21 April 2023). "The psychological distance of climate change is overestimated". One Earth. 6 (4): 362–391. Bibcode:2023OEart...6..362V. doi:10.1016/j.oneear.2023.03.006. S2CID 258281951. Archived from the original on 5 May 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
  78. ^ Borges, Anelise (21 April 2021). "'More people displaced because of climate change than because of conflicts,' says UN migration chief". Euronews. Archived from the original on 30 April 2023.
  79. ^ Winkler, Lisa; Pearce, Drew; Nelson, Jenny; Babacan, Oytun (24 April 2023). "The effect of sustainable mobility transition policies on cumulative urban transport emissions and energy demand". Nature Communications. 14 (1): 2357. Bibcode:2023NatCo..14.2357W. doi:10.1038/s41467-023-37728-x. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 10125996. PMID 37095105.
  80. ^ a b Abbasi, Kamran; Ali, Parveen; Barbour, Virginia; Benfield, Thomas; et al. (25 October 2023). "Time to treat the climate and nature crisis as one indivisible global health emergency". The BMJ. 383: 2355. doi:10.1136/bmj.p2355.
  81. ^ Grasso, Marco; Heede, Richard (19 May 2023). "Time to pay the piper: Fossil fuel companies' reparations for climate damages". One Earth. 6 (5): 459–463. Bibcode:2023OEart...6..459G. doi:10.1016/j.oneear.2023.04.012. hdl:10281/416137. S2CID 258809532.
  82. ^ a b Noor, Dharna (12 June 2023). "Young Montana residents bring climate change case to court for first time ever". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 June 2023.
  83. ^ Hanson, Amy Beth; Brown, Matthew (14 August 2023). "Young environmental activists prevail in first-of-its-kind climate change trial in Montana". AP News. Archived from the original on 17 August 2023.
  84. ^ Churn, Philip Andrew (23 June 2023). "Global climate summit in Paris fails to agree ambitious plans". Euronews. Archived from the original on 24 June 2023.
  85. ^ "Could a carbon tax on luxury items be fairer and more effective?". euronews. 12 July 2023. Retrieved 29 August 2023.
  86. ^ Oswald, Yannick; Millward-Hopkins, Joel; Steinberger, Julia K.; Owen, Anne; Ivanova, Diana (July 2023). "Luxury-focused carbon taxation improves fairness of climate policy". One Earth. 6 (7): 884–898. Bibcode:2023OEart...6..884O. doi:10.1016/j.oneear.2023.05.027. S2CID 259852986.
  87. ^ Niranjan, Ajit (17 July 2023). "Europe should cap 'luxury' energy use to meet emissions targets, study says". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 August 2023.
  88. ^ Büchs, Milena; Cass, Noel; Mullen, Caroline; Lucas, Karen; Ivanova, Diana (July 2023). "Emissions savings from equitable energy demand reduction". Nature Energy. 8 (7): 758–769. Bibcode:2023NatEn...8..758B. doi:10.1038/s41560-023-01283-y. ISSN 2058-7546.
  89. ^ "G20 ministers fail to reach agreement on key climate issues". EuroNews, with AP. 29 July 2023. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023.
  90. ^ "Climate change/ Fossil fuel subsidies / Size of Fossil Fuel Subsidies". International Monetary Fund. August 2023. Archived from the original on 29 August 2023.
  91. ^ Starr, Jared; Nicolson, Craig; Ash, Michael; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Moran, Daniel (17 August 2023). "Income-based U.S. household carbon footprints (1990–2019) offer new insights on emissions inequality and climate finance". PLOS Climate. 2 (8): e0000190. doi:10.1371/journal.pclm.0000190. hdl:11250/3101168. ISSN 2767-3200.
  92. ^ Vallone, Simona; Lambin, Eric F. (September 2023). "Public policies and vested interests preserve the animal farming status quo at the expense of animal product analogs". One Earth. 6 (9): 1213–1226. doi:10.1016/j.oneear.2023.07.013. S2CID 261010773.
  93. ^ a b c "Outcome of the first global stocktake" (PDF). United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 13 December 2023. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2023. Section II.A.28.
  94. ^ Prisco, Jacopo (7 September 2023). "$23 billion pledged at Africa Climate Summit, but leaders warn of need 'to act with urgency'". CNN. Archived from the original on 8 September 2023.
  95. ^ Almaraz, Maya; Houlton, Benjamin Z.; Clark, Michael; Holzer, Iris; Zhou, Yanqiu; Rasmussen, Laura; Moberg, Emily; Manaigo, Erin; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Scarborough, Courtney; Lei, Xin Gen; Ho, Melissa; Allison, Edward; Sibanda, Lindiwe; Salter, Andrew (6 September 2023). "Model-based scenarios for achieving net negative emissions in the food system". PLOS Climate. 2 (9): e0000181. doi:10.1371/journal.pclm.0000181. ISSN 2767-3200.
  96. ^ Plumer, Brad; Bearak, Max (13 December 2023). "In a First, Nations at Climate Summit Agree to Move Away From Fossil Fuels". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 December 2023.
  97. ^ "Technical dialogue of the first global stocktake" (PDF). United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). 8 September 2023. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 September 2023.
  98. ^ a b Golubkov, Katya; Obayashi, Yuka (15 April 2023). "G7 ministers set big new targets for solar and wind capacity". Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 April 2023.
  99. ^ Olczak, Maria; Piebalgs, Andris; Balcombe, Paul (May 2023). "A global review of methane policies reveals that only 13% of emissions are covered with unclear effectiveness". One Earth. 6 (5): 519–535. Bibcode:2023OEart...6..519O. doi:10.1016/j.oneear.2023.04.009.
  100. ^ a b c Cislak, Aleksandra; Wójcik, Adrian D.; Borkowska, Julia; Milfont, Taciano (8 June 2023). "Secure and defensive forms of national identity and public support for climate policies". PLOS Climate. 2 (6): e0000146. doi:10.1371/journal.pclm.0000146.
  101. ^ King, Lewis C.; Savin, Ivan; Drews, Stefan (7 August 2023). "Shades of green growth scepticism among climate policy researchers". Nature Sustainability: 1–5. doi:10.1038/s41893-023-01198-2. ISSN 2398-9629.
  102. ^ a b Rounce, David R.; Hock, Regine; Maussion, Fabien; Hugonnet, Romain; et al. (5 January 2023). "Global glacier change in the 21st century: Every increase in temperature matters". Science. 379 (6627): 78–83. Bibcode:2023Sci...379...78R. doi:10.1126/science.abo1324. PMID 36603094. S2CID 255441012. Archived from the original on 12 January 2023. Retrieved 12 January 2023.
  103. ^ "Stressing Rising Seas Already Creating Instability, Conflict, Secretary-General Says Security Council Has Critical Role in Addressing Devastating Challenges". United Nations. 14 February 2023. Archived from the original on 15 February 2023.
  104. ^ a b Vernimmen, Ronald; Hooijer, Aljosja (2 January 2023). "New LiDAR-Based Elevation Model Shows Greatest Increase in Global Coastal Exposure to Flooding to Be Caused by Early-Stage Sea-Level Rise". Earth's Future. American Geophysical Union. 11 (1). Bibcode:2023EaFut..1102880V. doi:10.1029/2022EF002880. S2CID 255699293.
  105. ^ "Earth is on track to exceed 1.5C warming in the next decade, study using AI finds". The Guardian. 30 January 2023. Archived from the original on 31 January 2023. Retrieved 31 January 2023.
  106. ^ Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Barnes, Elizabeth A. (7 February 2023). "Data-driven predictions of the time remaining until critical global warming thresholds are reached". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 120 (6): e2207183120. Bibcode:2023PNAS..12007183D. doi:10.1073/pnas.2207183120. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 9963891. PMID 36716375. S2CID 256414790.
  107. ^ Bergero, Candelaria; et al. (30 January 2023). "Pathways to net-zero emissions from aviation". Nature Sustainability. 6 (4): 404–414. doi:10.1038/s41893-022-01046-9. S2CID 256449498. — News article about the study: Calma, Justine (31 January 2023). "We can't afford to offset our aviation emissions". The Verge. Archived from the original on 15 February 2023. Retrieved 24 February 2023.
  108. ^ Marris, Emma (8 February 2023). "Fighting Climate Change Was Costly. Now It's Profitable". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 28 March 2023. Retrieved 28 March 2023.
  109. ^ Bi, Stephen L.; Bauer, Nico; Jewell, Jessica (February 2023). "Coal-exit alliance must confront freeriding sectors to propel Paris-aligned momentum". Nature Climate Change. 13 (2): 130–139. Bibcode:2023NatCC..13..130B. doi:10.1038/s41558-022-01570-8. ISSN 1758-6798. S2CID 256659280. — Research institute press release: "Coal exit can happen only with stronger policies, and with China cooperating, says study". Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research via Archived from the original on 28 March 2023. Retrieved 28 March 2023.
  110. ^ "Electricity Market Report 2023" (PDF). International Energy Agency. February 2023. pp. 6, 7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 February 2023.
  111. ^ Carrington, Damian (6 March 2023). "Meat, dairy and rice production will bust 1.5C climate target, shows study". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 April 2023. Retrieved 21 April 2023.
  112. ^ Ivanovich, Catherine C.; Sun, Tianyi; Gordon, Doria R.; Ocko, Ilissa B. (March 2023). "Future warming from global food consumption". Nature Climate Change. 13 (3): 297–302. Bibcode:2023NatCC..13..297I. doi:10.1038/s41558-023-01605-8. ISSN 1758-6798.
  113. ^ Jin, Yubin; Hu, Shijie; Ziegler, Alan D.; Gibson, Luke; et al. (13 March 2023). "Energy production and water savings from floating solar photovoltaics on global reservoirs". Nature Sustainability. 6 (7): 865–874. doi:10.1038/s41893-023-01089-6. S2CID 257514885. Archived from the original on 20 March 2023. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  114. ^ Timmer, John (13 March 2023). "Floating solar panels could provide over a third of global electricity". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 17 March 2023.
  115. ^ Dixit, Mrigakshi (28 March 2023). "Greenland ice sheet close to point of no return, reveals computer model". Archived from the original on 23 April 2023. Retrieved 23 April 2023.
  116. ^ Höning, Dennis; Willeit, Matteo; Calov, Reinhard; Klemann, Volker; Bagge, Meike; Ganopolski, Andrey (28 March 2023). "Multistability and Transient Response of the Greenland Ice Sheet to Anthropogenic CO 2 Emissions". Geophysical Research Letters. 50 (6): e2022GL101827. Bibcode:2023GeoRL..5001827H. doi:10.1029/2022GL101827. ISSN 0094-8276.
  117. ^ a b Shared attribution: Global Energy Monitor, CREA, E3G, Reclaim Finance, Sierra Club, SFOC, Kiko Network, CAN Europe, Bangladesh Groups, ACJCE, Chile Sustentable (5 April 2023). "Boom and Bust Coal / Tracking the Global Coal Plant Pipeline" (PDF). Global Energy Monitor. pp. 13–14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 April 2023.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  118. ^ "WMO Global Annual to Decadal Climate Update". World Meteorological Organization. 17 May 2023. p. 2. Archived from the original on 17 May 2023.
  119. ^ a b "Oil 2023: Analysis and forecast to 2028" (PDF). International Energy Agency (IEA). 14 June 2023. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 June 2023.
  120. ^ Minor, Kelton; Bjerre-Nielsen, Andreas; Jonasdottir, Sigga Svala; Lehmann, Sune; Obradovich, Nick (20 May 2023). "Rising temperatures erode human sleep globally". One Earth. 5 (5): 534–549. doi:10.1016/j.oneear.2022.04.008. S2CID 248956215.
  121. ^ a b c Lenton, Timothy M.; Xu, Chi; Abrams, Jesse F.; Ghadiali, Ashish; et al. (22 May 2023). "Quantifying the human cost of global warming". Nature Sustainability. 2023. Archived from the original on 3 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
  122. ^ Kim, Yeon-Hee; Min, Seung-Ki; Gillet, Nathan P.; Notz, Dirk; Malinina, Elizaveta (6 June 2023). "Observationally-constrained projections of an ice-free Arctic even under a low emission scenario". Nature Communications. 14 (3139): 3139. Bibcode:2023NatCo..14.3139K. doi:10.1038/s41467-023-38511-8. PMC 10244426. PMID 37280196. S2CID 259097482.
  123. ^ "Driving to Clean Air: Health Benefits of Zero-Emission Cars and Electricity" (PDF). American Lung Association. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 June 2023.
  124. ^ a b Ditlevsen, Peter; Ditlevsen, Susanne (25 July 2023). "Warning of a forthcoming collapse of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation". Nature Communications. 14 (1): 4254. arXiv:2304.09160. Bibcode:2023NatCo..14.4254D. doi:10.1038/s41467-023-39810-w. PMC 10368695. PMID 37491344.
  125. ^ a b Pearce, Joshua M.; Parncutt, Richard (19 August 2023). "Quantifying Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Human Deaths to Guide Energy Policy". Energies. 16 (16): 6074. doi:10.3390/en16166074.
  126. ^ Francois, Hugues; Samacoits, Rahaelle; BIrd, David neil; Koberl, Judith; Prettenthaler, Franz; Morin, Samual (28 August 2023). "Climate change exacerbates snow-water-energy challenges for European ski tourism". Nature Climate Change. 13 (9): 935–942. Bibcode:2023NatCC..13..935F. doi:10.1038/s41558-023-01759-5. S2CID 261326672.
  127. ^ Vogel, Jefim; Hickel, Jason (September 2023). "Is green growth happening? An empirical analysis of achieved versus Paris-compliant CO2–GDP decoupling in high-income countries" (PDF). The Lancet Planetary Health. 7 (9): e759–e769. doi:10.1016/S2542-5196(23)00174-2. PMID 37673546. S2CID 261551290.
  128. ^ a b Hao, Dalei; Bisht, Gautam; Wang, Hailong; Xu, Donghui; Huilin, Huang; Qian, Yun; Leung, L. Ruby (2 October 2023). "A cleaner snow future mitigates Northern Hemisphere snowpack loss from warming". Nature Communications. 14 (1): 6074. Bibcode:2023NatCo..14.6074H. doi:10.1038/s41467-023-41732-6. PMC 10545800. PMID 37783678.
  129. ^ Naughten, Kaitlin A.; Holland, Paul R.; De Rydt, Jan (23 October 2023). "Unavoidable future increase in West Antarctic ice-shelf melting over the twenty-first century". Nature Climate Change: 1–7. doi:10.1038/s41558-023-01818-x. S2CID 264476246.
  130. ^ "World Energy Outlook 2023 / Executive summary". International Energy Agency (IEA). 24 October 2023. Archived from the original on 27 October 2023.
  131. ^ Hansen, James E.; Sato, Makiko; Simons, Leon; Nazarenko, Larissa S.; et al. (2 November 2023). "Global warming in the pipeline". Oxford Open Climate Change. 3 (1). doi:10.1093/oxfclm/kgad008.
  132. ^ "Key measures could slash predicted 2050 emissions from cooling sector". United Nations Environment Programme. 5 December 2023. Archived from the original on 5 December 2023.
  133. ^ "AR6 Synthesis Report / Headline Statements". Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. March 2023. p. A2 Observed Changes and Impacts. Archived from the original on 22 March 2023.


Surveys, summaries and report lists