Climate resilience is defined as the "capacity of social, economic and ecosystems to cope with a hazardous event or trend or disturbance".[1]: 7  This is done by "responding or reorganising in ways that maintain their essential function, identity and structure (as well as biodiversity in case of ecosystems) while also maintaining the capacity for adaptation, learning and transformation".[1]: 7  The key focus of increasing climate resilience is to reduce the climate vulnerability that communities, states, and countries currently have with regards to the many effects of climate change.[2] Efforts to build climate resilience encompass social, economic, technological, and political strategies that are being implemented at all scales of society. From local community action to global treaties, addressing climate resilience is becoming a priority, although it could be argued that a significant amount of the theory has yet to be translated into practice.[3]

Climate resilience is related to climate change adaptation efforts. It aims to reduce climate change vulnerability and includes considerations of climate justice and equity. Practical implementations include climate resilient infrastructure, climate resilient agriculture and climate resilient development. Most objective approaches to measuring climate resilience use fixed and transparent definitions of resilience, and allow for different groups of people to be compared through standardised metrics.

Definition

Climate resilience is generally considered to be the ability to recover from, or to mitigate vulnerability to, climate-related shocks such as floods and droughts.[4] It is a political process that strengthens the ability of all to mitigate vulnerability to risks from, and adapt to changing patterns in, climate hazards and variability.[4]

The IPCC Sixth Assessment Report defines climate resilience as follows: "Resilience [...] is defined as the capacity of social, economic and ecosystems to cope with a hazardous event or trend or disturbance, responding or reorganising in ways that maintain their essential function, identity and structure as well as biodiversity in case of ecosystems while also maintaining the capacity for adaptation, learning and transformation."[1]: 7 

Resilience is a useful concept because it speaks across sectors and disciplines but this also makes it open to interpretation resulting in differing, and at times competing, definitions.[4] The definition of climate resilience is heavily debated, in both conceptual and practical terms.[1]: 7 

Components

An aerial view of Delhi, India where urban forests are being developed to improve the weather resistance and climate resilience of the city

Currently, the majority of work regarding climate resilience has focused on actions taken to maintain existing systems and structures. This largely relates to the capacity of social-ecological systems to sustain shocks and maintain the integrity of functional relationships in the face of external forces. However, there is a growing consensus in the academic literature that actions taken to induce structural changes must also be recognized within the definition of resilience. The three basic capacities that are understood[5][6] under the common definition are absorptive, adaptive, and transformative, each of which contributes different factors to the efforts of resilience work. This includes the capacity of social-ecological systems to renew and develop, and to utilize disturbances as opportunities for innovation and evolution of new pathways that improve the system's ability to adapt to macroscopic changes.[7] [8][9]

Key aspects include: how resilience relates to climate change adaptation. The extent to which it should encompass actor-based versus systems-based approaches to improving stability; and its relationship with the balance of nature theory or homeostatic equilibrium view of ecological systems.[7]

The building of climate resilience is a highly comprehensive undertaking that involves of an eclectic array of actors and agents: individuals, community organizations, micropolitical bodies, corporations, governments at local, state, and national levels as well as international organizations. In essence, actions that bolster climate resilience are ones that will enhance the adaptive capacity of social, industrial, and environmental infrastructures that can mitigate the effects of climate change.[10] Currently, research indicates that the strongest indicator of successful climate resilience efforts at all scales is a well developed, existing network of social, political, economic and financial institutions that is already positioned to effectively take on the work of identifying and addressing the risks posed by climate change. Cities, states, and nations that have already developed such networks are, as expected, to generally have far higher net incomes and gross domestic product (GDP).[11]

By sector

Development

"Climate resilient development" has become a new (albeit contested) paradigm for sustainable development, influencing theory and practice across all sectors globally.[4][12] This is particularly true in the water sector, since water security is intimately connected to climate change. On every continent, governments are adopting policies for climate resilient economies, driven in part by international frameworks such as the Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals.[4]

Climate resilient development "integrates adaptation measures and their enabling conditions with mitigation to advance sustainable development for all".[1]: 28  It involves questions of equity and system transitions, and includes adaptations for human, ecosystem and planetary health.[1]: 7  Climate resilient development is facilitated by developing partnerships with traditionally marginalised groups, including women, youth, Indigenous Peoples, local communities and ethnic minorities.[1]: 29 

To achieve climate resilient development, the following actions are needed: increasing climate information, and financing and technical capacity for flexible and dynamic systems.[4] This needs to be coupled with greater consideration of the socio-ecological resilience and context-specific values of marginalised communities and meaningful engagement with the most vulnerable in decision making.[4] Consequently, resilience produces a range of challenges and opportunities when applied to sustainable development.[12]

Infrastructure

Infrastructure failures can have broad-reaching consequences extending away from the site of the original event, and for a considerable duration after the immediate failure. Furthermore, increasing reliance infrastructure system interdependence, in combination with the effects of climate change and population growth all contribute to increasing vulnerability and exposure, and greater probability of catastrophic failures.[13] To reduce this vulnerability, and in recognition of limited resources and future uncertainty about climate projections, new and existing long-lasting infrastructure must undergo a risk-based engineering and economic analyses to properly allocate resources and design for climate resilience.[14]

Incorporating climate projections into building and infrastructure design standards, investment and appraisal criteria, and model building codes is currently not common.[15] Some resilience guidelines and risk-informed frameworks have been developed by public entities. Such manuals can offer guidance for adaptive design methods, characterization of extremes, development of flood design criteria, flood load calculation and the application of adaptive risk management principals account for more severe climate/weather extremes.[16] One example is the "Climate Resiliency Design Guidelines" by New York City.[17]

Agriculture

See also: Effects of climate change on agriculture and Climate change adaptation § Agriculture

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) (or climate resilient agriculture) is an integrated approach to managing land to help adapt agricultural methods, livestock and crops to the effects of climate change and, where possible, counteract it by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, while taking into account the growing world population to ensure food security.[18] The emphasis is not simply on carbon farming or sustainable agriculture, but also on increasing agricultural productivity.

CSA has three pillars: increasing agricultural productivity and incomes; adapting and building resilience to climate change; and reducing or removing greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.[19] There are different actions listed to counter the future challenges for crops and plants. For example, with regard to rising temperatures and heat stress, CSA recommends the production of heat tolerant crop varieties, mulching, water management, shade house, boundary trees, carbon sequestration,[20] and appropriate housing and spacing for cattle.[21] CSA seeks to stabilize crop production while mitigating the adverse impacts of climate change while maximizing food security.[22][23]

There are attempts to mainstream CSA into core government policies, expenditures and planning frameworks. In order for CSA policies to be effective, they must be able to contribute to broader economic growth, the sustainable development goals and poverty reduction. They must also be integrated with disaster risk management strategies, actions, and social safety net programmes.[24]

In addition to these efforts, CSA is increasingly embracing advanced internet technology to address future agricultural challenges. This digital shift aims to enhance the security and integration of agricultural information, thereby improving crop patterns and management techniques. The introduction of 'internet + weather' services and agricultural weather index-based insurance are examples of innovative tools being adopted to fine-tune the resilience and productivity of agricultural systems in the face of climate variability and water resource challenges. Such technological advancements are crucial for CSA's ongoing mission to ensure global food security in a changing climate.[25]

Water and sanitation

Climate-resilient water services (or climate-resilient WASH) are services that provide access to high quality drinking water during all seasons and even during extreme weather events.[26] Climate resilience in general is the ability to recover from, or to mitigate vulnerability to, climate-related shocks such as floods and droughts.[27] Climate resilient development has become the new paradigm for sustainable development. This concept thus influences theory and practice across all sectors globally.[27] This is particularly true in the water sector, since water security is closely connected to climate change. On every continent, governments are now adopting policies for climate resilient economies. International frameworks such as the Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals are drivers for such initiatives.[27]

Several activities can improve water security and increase resilience to climate risks: Carrying out a detailed analysis of climate risk to make climate information relevant to specific users; developing metrics for monitoring climate resilience in water systems (this will help to track progress and guide investments for water security); and using new institutional models that improve water security.[28]

Climate resilient policies can be useful for allocating water, keeping in mind that less water may be available in future. This requires a good understanding of the current and future hydroclimatic situation. For example, a better understanding of future changes in climate variability leads to a better response to their possible impacts.[29]

Tools

Climate resilience framework

A climate resilience framework can better equip governments and policymakers to develop sustainable solutions that combat the effects of climate change. To begin with, climate resilience establishes the idea of multi-stable socio-ecological systems (socio-ecological systems can actually stabilize around a multitude of possible states). Secondly, climate resilience has played a critical role in emphasizing the importance of preventive action when assessing the effects of climate change. Although adaptation is always going to be a key consideration, making changes after the fact has a limited capability to help communities and nations deal with climate change. By working to build climate resilience, policymakers and governments can take a more comprehensive stance that works to mitigate the harms of climate change impacts before they happen.[30][31] Finally, a climate resilience perspective encourages greater cross-scale connectedness of systems. Creating mechanisms of adaptation that occur in isolation at local, state, or national levels may leave the overall social-ecological system vulnerable. A resilience-based framework would require far more cross-talk, and the creation of environmental protections that are more holistically generated and implemented.[30][32]

Disaster preparedness protocols

Main article: Disaster risk reduction

At larger governmental levels, general programs to improve climate resiliency through greater disaster preparedness are being implemented. For example, in cases such as Norway, this includes the development of more sensitive and far-reaching early warning systems for extreme weather events, creation of emergency electricity power sources, enhanced public transportation systems, and more.[33]

Measurements

Governments and development agencies are spending increasing amounts of finance to support resilience-building interventions. Resilience measurement can make valuable contributions in guiding resource allocations towards resilience-building. This includes targeted identification of vulnerability hotspots, a better understanding of the drivers of resilience, and tools to infer the impact and effectiveness of resilience-building interventions. In recent years, a large number of resilience measurement tools have emerged, offering ways to track and measure resilience at a range of scales - from individuals and households to communities and nations.[34]

Efforts to measure climate resilience currently face several technical challenges. Firstly, the definition of resilience is heavily contested, making it difficult to choose appropriate characteristics and indicators to track. Secondly, the resilience or households or communities cannot be measured using a single observable metric. Resilience is made up of a range of processes and characteristics, many of which are intangible and difficult to observe (such as social capital).[35] As a result, many resilience toolkits resort to using large lists of proxy indicators.[36]

Most of the recent initiatives to measure resilience in rural development contexts share two shortcomings: complexity and high cost.[37] USAID published a field guide for assessing climate resilience in smallholder supply chains.[38]

Most objective approaches use fixed and transparent definitions of resilience and allow for different groups of people to be compared through standardized metrics. However, as many resilience processes and capacities are intangible, objective approaches are heavily reliant on crude proxies. Examples of commonly used objective measures include the Resilience Index Measurement and Analysis (RIMA) and the Livelihoods Change Over Time (LCOT).[39][36]

Subjective approaches to resilience measurement take a contrasting view. They assume that people have a valid understanding of their resilience and seek to factor perceptions into the measurement process.[35] They challenge the notion that experts are best placed to evaluate other people's lives. Subjective approaches use people's menu of what constitutes resilience and allow them to self-evaluate accordingly. An example is the Subjectively-Evaluated Resilience Score (SERS)[40]

Related concepts

Climate change adaptation

Climate change adaptation is the process of adjusting to the effects of climate change. These can be both current or expected impacts.[41] Adaptation aims to moderate or avoid harm for people. It also aims to exploit opportunities. Humans may also intervene to help adjustment for natural systems.[41] There are many adaptation strategies or options. They can help manage impacts and risks to people and nature. Adaptation actions can be classified in four ways: infrastructural and technological; institutional; behavioural and cultural; and nature-based options.[42]: fig. 16.5 

The need for adaptation varies from place to place. It depends on the risk to human or ecological systems.[clarification needed] Adaptation is particularly important in developing countries because they are most vulnerable to climate change,[43] bearing the brunt of its effects.[44][45] Adaptation needs are high for food, water and other sectors important for economic output, jobs and incomes.

Climate change vulnerability

Climate change vulnerability (or climate vulnerability or climate risk vulnerability) is a concept that describes how strongly people or ecosystems are likely to be affected by climate change. It is defined as the "propensity or predisposition to be adversely affected" by climate change. It can apply to humans and also to natural systems (or ecosystems).[46]: 12  Related concepts include climate sensitivity and the ability, or lack thereof, to cope and adapt.[46]: 5  Vulnerability is a component of climate risk. Vulnerability differs within communities and across societies, regions, and countries, and can increase or decrease over time.[46]: 12 

Vulnerability of people and ecosystems with regards to climate change effects is driven by certain unsustainable development patterns such as "unsustainable ocean and land use, inequity, marginalization, historical and ongoing patterns of inequity such as colonialism, and governance".[46]: 12  Therefore, vulnerability is higher in some locations than in others. Certain aspects within a region increase vulnerability, for example poverty, bad governance and violent conflict. Some types of livelihoods are regarded as particularly climate-sensitive, resulting in a higher level of climate change vulnerability. These include for example smallholder farmers, pastoralists and fishing communities.[46]: 12 

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g IPCC, 2022: Summary for Policymakers [H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, E.S. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, M. Tignor, A. Alegría, M. Craig, S. Langsdorf, S. Löschke, V. Möller, A. Okem (eds.)]. In: Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, M. Tignor, E.S. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegría, M. Craig, S. Langsdorf, S. Löschke, V. Möller, A. Okem, B. Rama (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, pp. 3–33, doi:10.1017/9781009325844.001.
  2. ^ "Building a Climate-Resilient City: The built environment". International Institute for Sustainable Development. Retrieved 2023-11-03.
  3. ^ Milstein, T. & Castro-Sotomayor, J. (2020). Routledge Handbook of Ecocultural Identity. London, UK: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351068840
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Grasham, Catherine Fallon; Calow, Roger; Casey, Vincent; Charles, Katrina J.; de Wit, Sara; Dyer, Ellen; Fullwood-Thomas, Jess; Hirons, Mark; Hope, Robert; Hoque, Sonia Ferdous; Jepson, Wendy; Korzenevica, Marina; Murphy, Rebecca; Plastow, John; Ross, Ian (2021). "Engaging with the politics of climate resilience towards clean water and sanitation for all". npj Clean Water. 4 (1): 42. Bibcode:2021npjCW...4...42G. doi:10.1038/s41545-021-00133-2. ISSN 2059-7037. Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
  5. ^ "Gender Justice in Resilience: Enabling the full performance of the system". Oxfam.
  6. ^ "An Introduction to Assessing Climate Resilience in Smallholder Supply Chains" (PDF). The COSA.
  7. ^ a b Folke, C (2006). "Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analyses". Global Environmental Change. 16 (3): 253–267. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.04.002.
  8. ^ Tompkins, Emma L., and W. Neil Adger. 2004. "Does Adaptive Management of Natural Resources Enhance Resilience to Climate Change?" Ecology and Society. http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/202863/
  9. ^ Sharifi, Ayyoob (October 2016). "A critical review of selected tools for assessing community resilience". Ecological Indicators. 69: 629–647. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.05.023.
  10. ^ Adger, W. N.; Arnell, N. W.; Tompkins, E. L. (2005). "Successful adaptation to climate change across scales". Global Environmental Change. 15 (2): 77–86. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.12.005.
  11. ^ Satterthwaite, D (2013). "The political underpinnings of cities' accumulated resilience to climate change". Environment and Urbanization. 25 (2): 381–391. Bibcode:2013EnUrb..25..381S. doi:10.1177/0956247813500902.
  12. ^ a b Park, Albert Sanghoon (2023). "Understanding resilience in sustainable development: Rallying call or siren song?". Sustainable Development: 1–15. doi:10.1002/sd.2645.
  13. ^ Chang, Stephanie E. (2016-10-26). "Socioeconomic Impacts of Infrastructure Disruptions". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Natural Hazard Science. 1. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199389407.013.66. ISBN 9780199389407.
  14. ^ Ayyub, Bilal (2014-03-20). Risk Analysis in Engineering and Economics, Second Edition. doi:10.1201/b16663. ISBN 978-1-4665-1825-4.
  15. ^ Maxwell, Keely B.; Julius, Susan Herrod; Grambsch, Anne E.; Kosmal, Ann R.; Larson, Elisabeth; Sonti, Nancy (2018). "Built Environment, Urban Systems, and Cities". The Fourth National Climate Assessment. Vol. II. doi:10.7930/nca4.2018.ch11.
  16. ^ Ayyub, Bilal M, ed. (2018-10-04). Climate-Resilient Infrastructure. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers. doi:10.1061/9780784415191. ISBN 9780784415191. S2CID 219884545.
  17. ^ New York City (2020) Climate Resiliency Design Guidelines
  18. ^ "Climate-Smart Agriculture". World Bank. Retrieved 2019-07-26.
  19. ^ "Climate-Smart Agriculture". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2019-06-19. Retrieved 2019-07-26.
  20. ^ Das, Sharmistha; Chatterjee, Soumendu; Rajbanshi, Joy (2022-01-20). "Responses of soil organic carbon to conservation practices including climate-smart agriculture in tropical and subtropical regions: A meta-analysis". Science of the Total Environment. 805: 150428. Bibcode:2022ScTEn.805o0428D. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150428. ISSN 0048-9697. PMID 34818818. S2CID 240584637.
  21. ^ Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). "What is Climate Smart Agriculture?" (PDF). Retrieved 2022-06-04.
  22. ^ Gupta, Debaditya; Gujre, Nihal; Singha, Siddhartha; Mitra, Sudip (2022-11-01). "Role of existing and emerging technologies in advancing climate-smart agriculture through modeling: A review". Ecological Informatics. 71: 101805. doi:10.1016/j.ecoinf.2022.101805. ISSN 1574-9541. S2CID 252148026.
  23. ^ Lipper, Leslie; McCarthy, Nancy; Zilberman, David; Asfaw, Solomon; Branca, Giacomo (2018). Climate Smart Agriculture Building Resilience to Climate Change. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. p. 13. ISBN 978-3-319-61193-8.
  24. ^ "Climate-Smart Agriculture Policies and planning". Archived from the original on 2016-03-31.
  25. ^ Zhao, Junfang; Liu, Dongsheng; Huang, Ruixi (January 2023). "A Review of Climate-Smart Agriculture: Recent Advancements, Challenges, and Future Directions". Sustainability. 15 (4): 3404. doi:10.3390/su15043404. ISSN 2071-1050.
  26. ^ Charles, Katrina J.; Howard, Guy; Villalobos Prats, Elena; Gruber, Joshua; Alam, Sadekul; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Baidya, Manish; Flora, Meerjady Sabrina; Haque, Farhana; Hassan, S.M. Quamrul; Islam, Saiful (2022). "Infrastructure alone cannot ensure resilience to weather events in drinking water supplies". Science of the Total Environment. 813: 151876. Bibcode:2022ScTEn.813o1876C. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151876. hdl:1983/92cc5791-168b-457a-93c7-458890f1bf26. PMID 34826465.
  27. ^ a b c Grasham, Catherine Fallon; Calow, Roger; Casey, Vincent; Charles, Katrina J.; de Wit, Sara; Dyer, Ellen; Fullwood-Thomas, Jess; Hirons, Mark; Hope, Robert; Hoque, Sonia Ferdous; Jepson, Wendy; Korzenevica, Marina; Murphy, Rebecca; Plastow, John; Ross, Ian (2021). "Engaging with the politics of climate resilience towards clean water and sanitation for all". npj Clean Water. 4 (1): 42. doi:10.1038/s41545-021-00133-2. ISSN 2059-7037. Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
  28. ^ Murgatroyd A, Charles KJ, Chautard A, Dyer E, Grasham C, Hope R, et al. (2021). Water Security for Climate Resilience Report: A synthesis of research from the Oxford University REACH programme (Report). University of Oxford, UK. Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
  29. ^ Taye, Meron Teferi; Dyer, Ellen (22 August 2019). "Ethiopia's future is tied to water -- a vital yet threatened resource in a changing climate". The Conversation. Retrieved 4 August 2022.
  30. ^ a b Nelson, Donald R.; Adger, W. Neil; Brown, Katrina (2007). "Adaptation to Environmental Change: Contributions of a Resilience Framework". Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 32: 395–419. doi:10.1146/annurev.energy.32.051807.090348.
  31. ^ Tschakert, P; Dietrich, K A (2010). "Anticipatory Learning for Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience". Ecology and Society. 15 (2): 11. doi:10.5751/es-03335-150211. hdl:10535/6243.
  32. ^ Malhi, Yadvinder; Roberts, J Timmons; Betts, Richard A; Killeen, Timothy J; Li, Wenhong; Nobre, Carlos A (2008). "Climate Change, Deforestation, and the Fate of the Amazon". Science. 319 (5860): 169–72. Bibcode:2008Sci...319..169M. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.389.7410. doi:10.1126/science.1146961. PMID 18048654. S2CID 33966731.
  33. ^ O'Brien, Karen; Eriksen, Siri; Sygna, Linda; Otto Naess, Lars (2006). "Questioning Complacency: Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability, and Adaptation in Norway". Ambio. 35 (2): 50–56. doi:10.1579/0044-7447(2006)35[50:qccciv]2.0.co;2. PMID 16722249. S2CID 19749797.
  34. ^ Schipper, Lisa (2015). "A comparative overview of resilience measurement frameworks analyzing indicators and approaches" (PDF). Overseas Development Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2021-01-30. Retrieved 2019-08-08.
  35. ^ a b Jones, Lindsey (2019). "Resilience isn't the same for all: Comparing subjective and objective approaches to resilience measurement". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change. 10 (1): e552. Bibcode:2019WIRCC..10E.552J. doi:10.1002/wcc.552. ISSN 1757-7799.
  36. ^ a b FSIN (2014). "A Common Analytical Model for Resilience Measurement" (PDF). Food Security Information Network.
  37. ^ COSA. 2017. Elena Serfilippi and Daniele Giovannucci, Simpler Resilience Measurement: Tools to Diagnose and Improve How Households Fare in Difficult Circumstances from Conflict to Climate Change. Philadelphia, PA: The Committee on SustainabilityAssessment © COSA 2017.
  38. ^ "An Introduction to Assessing Climate Resilience in Smallholder Supply Chains USAID Feed the Future Learning Community for Supply Chain Resilience" (PDF). Sustainable Food Lab. 2018.
  39. ^ FAO (2016). "Resilience Index Measurement and Analysis - II" (PDF).
  40. ^ Jones, Lindsey; D'Errico (2019). "Resilient, but from whose perspective? Like-for-like comparisons of objective and subjective measures of resilience" (PDF). London School of Economics and Political Science.
  41. ^ a b IPCC, 2022: Annex II: Glossary [Möller, V., R. van Diemen, J.B.R. Matthews, C. Méndez, S. Semenov, J.S. Fuglestvedt, A. Reisinger (eds.)]. In: Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, M. Tignor, E.S. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegría, M. Craig, S. Langsdorf, S. Löschke, V. Möller, A. Okem, B. Rama (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, pp. 2897–2930, doi:10.1017/9781009325844.029.
  42. ^ O'Neill, B., M. van Aalst, Z. Zaiton Ibrahim, L. Berrang Ford, S. Bhadwal, H. Buhaug, D. Diaz, K. Frieler, M. Garschagen, A. Magnan, G. Midgley, A. Mirzabaev, A. Thomas, and R.Warren, 2022: Chapter 16: Key Risks Across Sectors and Regions. In: Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, M. Tignor, E.S. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegría, M. Craig, S. Langsdorf, S. Löschke, V. Möller, A. Okem, B. Rama (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, pp. 2411–2538, doi:10.1017/9781009325844.025.
  43. ^ Kasotia, Paritosh (2007). "The Health Effects Of Global Warming: Developing Countries Are The Most Vulnerable". United Nations.
  44. ^ "Unprecedented Impacts of Climate Change Disproportionately Burdening Developing Countries, Delegate Stresses, as Second Committee Concludes General Debate". United Nations. 8 October 2019. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
  45. ^ Sarkodie, Samuel Asumadu; Ahmed, Maruf Yakubu; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa (2022-04-05). "Global adaptation readiness and income mitigate sectoral climate change vulnerabilities". Humanities and Social Sciences Communications. 9 (1): 1–17. doi:10.1057/s41599-022-01130-7. hdl:11250/2999578. ISSN 2662-9992. S2CID 247956525.
  46. ^ a b c d e IPCC, 2022: Summary for Policymakers Archived 2023-01-22 at the Wayback Machine [H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, E.S. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, M. Tignor, A. Alegría, M. Craig, S. Langsdorf, S. Löschke, V. Möller, A. Okem (eds.)]. In: Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Archived 2022-03-18 at the Wayback Machine [H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, M. Tignor, E.S. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegría, M. Craig, S. Langsdorf, S. Löschke, V. Möller, A. Okem, B. Rama (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, pp. 3–33, doi:10.1017/9781009325844.001.

“Hallegatte, Stephane; Anjum, Rubaina; Avner, Paolo; Shariq, Ammara; Winglee, Michelle; Knudsen, Camilla. 2021. Integrating Climate Change and Natural Disasters in the Economic Analysis of Projects: A Disaster and Climate Risk Stress Test Methodology. © World Bank, Washington, DC. http://hdl.handle.net/10986/35751 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.