Chief minister of Kerala
Kēraḷa Mukhyamantri
Incumbent
Pinarayi Vijayan
since 25 May 2016
Chief minister's office
StyleThe Honourable (Formal)
Mr./Mrs. Chief Minister (Informal)
TypeHead of government
StatusLeader of the Executive
AbbreviationCM
Member of
Reports to
ResidenceCliff House, Thiruvananthapuram
SeatKerala Government Secretariat, Thiruvananthapuram
AppointerGovernor of Kerala
Term lengthAt the pleasure of the governor of Kerala[1]
PrecursorPrime minister of Travancore
Prime minister of Kingdom of Cochin
Chief minister of Madras
Chief ministers of Travancore-Cochin
Inaugural holderE. M. S. Namboodiripad (1957–1959)
Formation5 April 1957; 67 years ago (1957-04-05)
Salary
  • 185,000 (US$2,300)/monthly
  • 2,220,000 (US$28,000)/annually
WebsiteCMO Kerala

The chief minister of Kerala is the chief executive of the Indian state of Kerala. De facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. Following elections to the Kerala Legislative Assembly, the state's governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.[2]

Following India's independence from the British Raj in 1947, the states' monarchs of Travancore and Cochin instituted a measure of representative government, headed by a prime minister and his council of ministers. On 1 July 1949 Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin state. The Malabar District and Kasaragod region of South Canara, which together constitute more than half of present state of Kerala, had their representatives in the Madras Legislative Assembly.

On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act redrew India's map along linguistic lines, and the present-day state of Kerala was born, consisting solely of Malayalam-speaking regions, by merging Cochin, Malabar, and Travancore regions, and the Kasaragod region of South Canara.[3] The first assembly election in Kerala state was held in February–March 1957.[3] The first Kerala Legislative Assembly was formed on 5 April 1957. The Assembly had 127 members including a nominated member.[3] Since then, 12 people have served as the chief minister of Kerala. The first was E. M. S. Namboodiripad of the Communist Party of India, whose tenure was cut short by the imposition of President's rule. Kerala has come under President's rule for four years over seven terms, the last of them in 1982. Since then the office has alternated between leaders of the Indian National Congress and of the Communist Party of India (Marxist). E. K. Nayanar is the longest serving holder of the office for a total of 10 years, 353 days. Pinarayi Vijayan is the incumbent chief minister; his Left Democratic Front government has been in office since 25 May 2016.

Key

Precursors

Prime ministers of Travancore (1948–49)

No[a] Portrait Name Term of Office Assembly Appointed by (Monarch) Party
1 P. A. Thanu Pillai 24 March 1948 17 October 1948 210 days Representative Body (1948–49) Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma Indian National Congress
2 P. T. K. Narayana Pillai 22 October 1948 1 July 1949 253 days

Prime ministers of Cochin (1947–49)

No[b] Portrait Name Term of Office Assembly Appointed by (Monarch) Party
1 P. Govinda Menon 14 August 1947 22 October 1947 51 days 6th
Council
(1945–48)
Aikya Keralam Thampuran Independent
2 T. K. Nair 27 October 1947 20 September 1948 334 days
3 E. Ikkanda Warrier 20 September 1948 1 July 1949 284 days Legislative Assembly (1948–49)

Prime ministers of Travancore-Cochin (1949–50)

No[c] Portrait Name Term of Office Assembly Appointed by (Rajpramukh) Party
1 T. K. Narayana Pillai 1 July 1949 26 January 1950 209 days 1st Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma Indian National Congress

Chief ministers of Travancore-Cochin (1950–56)

After India's independence in 1947, Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin on 1 July 1949. On 1 January 1950, Travancore-Cochin was recognised as a state.

No[d] Portrait Name Term of Office Assembly Appointed by (Rajpramukh) Party
1 T. K. Narayana Pillai 26 January 1950 28 February 1951 1 year, 33 days 1st Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma Indian National Congress
2 C. Kesavan 28 February 1951 12 March 1952 1 year, 13 days
3 A. J. John 12 March 1952 16 March 1954 2 years, 4 days 2nd
(1951 election)
4 P. A. Thanu Pillai 16 March 1954 10 February 1955 331 days 3rd
(1954 election)
Praja Socialist Party
5 P. Govinda Menon 10 February 1955 23 March 1956 1 year, 42 days Indian National Congress
Vacant[e]
(President's rule)
23 March 1956 31 October 1956 222 days Dissolved N/A

Chief ministers of Kerala

On 1 November 1956, Government of India enacted the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 by which a new Kerala state was formed by the merger of Travancore-Cochin state with the Malabar district and Kasaragod taluk of South Canara district of the Madras State. The southern part of Travancore-Cochin, Kanyakumari district, along with Sengottai Taluk was transferred to Madras state and the Laccadive and Minicoy Islands were separated from Malabar district to form a new Union Territory.[5][6] A new Legislative Assembly was also created, for which elections were held in 1957.

No[f] Portrait Name[g] Constituency Tenure Assembly
(election)
Party[h] Ministry
Vacant[e]
(President's rule)
N/A 1 November 1956 5 April 1957 155 days Dissolved N/A N/A
1 E. M. S. Namboodiripad
(1909–1998)
Nileshwaram 5 April 1957 31 July 1959 2 years, 117 days 1st
(1957 election)
Communist Party of India Namboodiripad I
Vacant[e]
(President's rule)
N/A 31 July 1959 22 February 1960 206 days Dissolved N/A N/A
2 P. A. Thanu Pillai
(1885–1970)
Trivandrum II 22 February 1960 26 September 1962 2 years, 216 days 2nd
(1960 election)
Praja Socialist Party Thanu Pillai
3 R. Sankar
(1909–1972)
Cannanore I 26 September 1962 10 September 1964 1 year, 350 days Indian National Congress Sankar
Vacant[e]
(President's rule)
N/A 10 September 1964 25 March 1965 2 years, 177 days Dissolved N/A N/A
25 March 1965 6 March 1967 Dissolved
(1965 election)[i]
N/A N/A
(1) E. M. S. Namboodiripad
(1909–1998)
Pattambi 6 March 1967 1 November 1969 2 years, 240 days 3rd
(1967 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist) Namboodiripad II
4 C. Achutha Menon
(1913–1991)
Kottarakkara 1 November 1969 3 August 1970 275 days Communist Party of India Achutha Menon I
Vacant[e]
(President's rule)
N/A 4 August 1970 3 October 1970 60 days Dissolved N/A N/A
(4) C. Achutha Menon
(1913–1991)
Kodakara 4 October 1970 25 March 1977 6 years, 172 days 4th
(1970 election)
Communist Party of India Achutha Menon II
5 K. Karunakaran
(1918–2010)
Mala 25 March 1977 27 April 1977 33 days 5th
(1977 election)
Indian National Congress Karunakaran I
6 A. K. Antony
(b. 1940)
Kazhakkuttom 27 April 1977 29 October 1978 1 year, 185 days Antony I
7 P. K. Vasudevan Nair
(1926–2005)
Alleppey 29 October 1978 12 October 1979 348 days Communist Party of India Vasudevan Nair
8 C. H. Mohammed Koya
(1927–1983)
Malappuram 12 October 1979 4 December 1979 53 days Indian Union Muslim League Koya
Vacant[e]
(President's rule)
N/A 5 December 1979 25 January 1980 51 days Dissolved N/A N/A
9 E. K. Nayanar
(1919–2004)
Malampuzha 25 January 1980 20 October 1981 1 year, 268 days 6th
(1980 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist) Nayanar I
Vacant[e]
(President's rule)
N/A 21 October 1981 28 December 1981 68 days N/A N/A
(5) K. Karunakaran
(1918–2010)
Mala 28 December 1981 17 March 1982 79 days Indian National Congress Karunakaran II
Vacant[e]
(President's rule)
N/A 17 March 1982 23 May 1982 67 days Dissolved N/A N/A
(5) K. Karunakaran
(1918–2010)
Mala 24 May 1982 26 March 1987 4 years, 306 days 7th
(1982 election)
Indian National Congress Karunakaran III
(9) E. K. Nayanar
(1919–2004)
Trikaripur 26 March 1987 24 June 1991 4 years, 90 days 8th
(1987 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist) Nayanar II
(5) K. Karunakaran
(1918–2010)
Mala 24 June 1991 22 March 1995 3 years, 271 days 9th
(1991 election)
Indian National Congress Karunakaran IV
(6) A. K. Antony
(b. 1940)
Thirurangadi 22 March 1995 20 May 1996 1 year, 59 days Antony II
(9) E. K. Nayanar
(1919–2004)
Thalassery 20 May 1996 17 May 2001 4 years, 362 days 10th
(1996 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist) Nayanar III
(6) A. K. Antony
(b. 1940)
Cherthala 17 May 2001 31 August 2004 3 years, 106 days 11th
(2001 election)
Indian National Congress Antony III
10 Oommen Chandy
(1943–2023)
Puthuppally 31 August 2004 18 May 2006 1 year, 260 days Chandy I
11 V. S. Achuthanandan
(b. 1923)
Malampuzha 18 May 2006 18 May 2011 5 years, 0 days 12th
(2006 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist) Achuthanandan
(10) Oommen Chandy
(1943–2023)
Puthuppally 18 May 2011 25 May 2016 5 years, 7 days 13th
(2011 election)
Indian National Congress Chandy II
12 Pinarayi Vijayan
(b. 1945)
Dharmadam 25 May 2016 19 May 2021 7 years, 330 days 14th
(2016 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist) Pinarayi I
20 May 2021 At Present 15th
(2021 election)
Pinarayi II

Statistics

List of chief ministers by length of term
No. Name Party Length of term No: of terms
Longest continuous term Total years of premiership
1 E. K. Nayanar CPI(M) 4 years, 361 days 10 years, 353 days 3
2 K. Karunakaran INC 4 years, 305 days 8 years, 315 days 4
3 Pinarayi Vijayan CPI(M) 7 years, 330 days 7 years, 330 days 2
4 C. Achutha Menon CPI 6 years, 172 days 7 years, 80 days 2
5 Oommen Chandy INC 5 years, 6 days 6 years, 256 days 2
6 A. K. Antony INC 3 years, 105 days 5 years, 347 days 3
7 V. S. Achuthanandan CPI(M) 4 years, 364 days 4 years, 364 days 1
8 E. M. S. Namboodiripad CPI(M)/CPI 2 years 240 days 4 years 357 days 2
9 Pattom A. Thanu Pillai PSP 2 years 216 days 2 years 216 days 1
10 R. Sankar INC 1 year 350 days 1 year 350 days 1
11 P. K. Vasudevan Nair CPI 347 days 347 days 1
12 C. H. Mohammed Koya IUML 53 days 53 days 1
List by party
Political parties by total time-span of their member holding CMO (19 April 2024)
No. Political party Number of chief ministers Total days of holding CMO
1 Communist Party of India (Marxist) 4 9691 days
2 Indian National Congress 4 8813 days
3 Communist Party of India 3 3834 days
4 Praja Socialist Party 1 947 days
5 Indian Union Muslim League 1 53 days

Timeline

Pinarayi VijayanV. S. AchuthanandanOommen ChandyE. K. NayanarC. K. Mohammed KoyaP. K. Vasudevan NairA. K. AntonyK. KarunakaranC. Achutha MenonRaman SankarPattom Thanu PillaiE. M. S. Namboodiripad
Pinarayi VijayanV. S. AchuthanandanOommen ChandyE. K. NayanarC. H. Mohammed KoyaP. K. Vasudevan NairA. K. AntonyK. KarunakaranC. Achutha MenonR. SankarPattom A. Thanu PillaiE. M. S. Namboodiripad

See also

Notes

  1. ^ A parenthetical number indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  2. ^ A parenthetical number indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  3. ^ A parenthetical number indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  4. ^ A parenthetical number indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h President's rule may be imposed when the "government in a state is not able to function as per the Constitution", which often happens because no party or coalition has a majority in the assembly. When President's rule is in force in a state, its council of ministers stands dissolved. The office of chief minister thus lies vacant, and the administration is taken over by the governor, who functions on behalf of the central government. At times, the legislative assembly also stands dissolved.[4]
  6. ^ A number in parentheses indicates that the incumbent has previously held office
  7. ^ Year in parentheses indicates life span
  8. ^ This column only names the chief minister's party. The state government he heads may be a complex coalition of several parties and independents; these are not listed here.
  9. ^ As the 1965 election did not deliver a clear mandate in favour of any party or coalition, no assembly was convened, and President's rule was re-imposed.

References

  1. ^ "Article 164 in constitution of India".
  2. ^ Durga Das Basu. Introduction to the Constitution of India. 1960. 20th Edition, 2011 Reprint. pp. 241, 245. LexisNexis Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur. ISBN 978-81-8038-559-9. Note: although the text talks about Indian state governments in general, it applies for the specific case of Kerala as well.
  3. ^ a b c Sreedhara Menon, A. (January 2007). Kerala Charitram (2007 ed.). Kottayam: DC Books. ISBN 978-81-264-1588-5.
  4. ^ K. Diwanji, Amberish (15 March 2005). "A dummy's guide to President's rule". Rediff.com.
  5. ^ The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 (PDF) (Report). Government of India.
  6. ^ "Seventh Amendment, 1956". Government of India. Retrieved 19 November 2023.

Further reading