C. L. R. James
James in 1974
Cyril Lionel Robert James

(1901-01-04)4 January 1901
Died31 May 1989(1989-05-31) (aged 88)
Brixton, London, England
Other namesJ. R. Johnson; Nello James
Occupation(s)Historian, writer, socialist
Notable workThe Black Jacobins
Beyond a Boundary
Minty Alley
Toussaint Louverture: The Story of the Only Successful Slave Revolt in History
World Revolution
Juanita Young
(m. 1929; div. 1932)

Constance Webb
(m. 1946; div. 1953)

(m. 1956; div. 1980)

Cyril Lionel Robert James (4 January 1901 – 31 May 1989),[1] who sometimes wrote under the pen-name J. R. Johnson, was a Trinidadian historian, journalist, Trotskyist activist and Marxist writer. His works are influential in various theoretical, social, and historiographical contexts. His work is a staple of Marxism, and he figures as a pioneering and influential voice in postcolonial literature.[2] A tireless political activist, James is the author of the 1937 work World Revolution outlining the history of the Communist International, which stirred debate in Trotskyist circles, and in 1938 he wrote on the Haitian Revolution, The Black Jacobins.[3]

Characterised by one literary critic as an "anti-Stalinist dialectician",[4] James was known for his autodidactism, for his occasional playwriting and fiction, and as an avid sportsman. The performance of his 1934 play Toussaint Louverture was the first time black professional actors featured in a production written by a black playwright in the UK. His 1936 book Minty Alley was the first novel by a black West Indian to be published in Britain.[5] He is also famed as a writer on cricket, and his 1963 book Beyond a Boundary, which he himself described as "neither cricket reminiscences nor autobiography",[6] is commonly named as the best single book on cricket, and even the best book about sports ever written.[7]


Early life in Trinidad

Born in 1901 in Tunapuna, Trinidad, then a British Crown colony, C. L. R. James was the first child of Ida Elizabeth James (née Rudder)[8] and Robert Alexander James, a schoolteacher.[9]

In 1910, James won a scholarship to Queen's Royal College (QRC), the island's oldest non-Catholic secondary school, in Port of Spain, where he became a club cricketer and distinguished himself as an athlete (he held the Trinidad high-jump record at 5 feet 9 inches (175 cm) from 1918 to 1922), as well as beginning to write fiction.[10] After graduating in 1918 from QRC, he worked there as a teacher of English and History in the 1920s;[10] among those he taught was the young Eric Williams, who became the first Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago.

Together with Ralph de Boissière, Albert Gomes and Alfred Mendes, James was a member of the anticolonialist "Beacon Group", a circle of writers associated with The Beacon magazine, in which he published a series of short stories.[11] His short story "La Divina Pastora" was published in October 1927 in the Saturday Review of Literature,[12][13] and was widely reprinted.[14]

British years

In 1932, James left Trinidad for the small town of Nelson in Lancashire, England, at the invitation of his friend, West Indian cricketer Learie Constantine, who needed his help writing his autobiography Cricket and I (published in 1933).[15] James had brought with him to England the manuscript of his first full-length non-fiction work, partly based on his interviews with the Trinidad labour leader Arthur Andrew Cipriani, which was published with financial assistance from Constantine in 1932.[16][17]

During this time, James took a job as cricket correspondent with The Manchester Guardian.[15] In 1933, he moved to London. The following year, he joined a Trotskyist group that met to talk for hours in his rented room. Louise Cripps, one of its members, recalled: "We felt our work could contribute to the time when we would see Socialism spreading."

James had begun to campaign for the independence of the West Indies while in Trinidad. An abridged version of his Life of Captain Cipriani was issued by Leonard and Virginia Woolf's Hogarth Press in 1933 as the pamphlet The Case for West-Indian Self Government.[18] He became a champion of Pan-Africanism, and was named Chair of the International African Friends of Abyssinia, later renamed the International African Friends of Ethiopia (IAFE)[19] – a group formed in 1935 in response to the Italian fascist invasion of Ethiopia (the Second Italo-Ethiopian War). Leading members included Amy Ashwood Garvey, Jomo Kenyatta and Chris Braithwaite.

When the IAFE was transformed into the International African Service Bureau in 1937, James edited its newsletter, Africa and the World, and its journal, International African Opinion. The Bureau was led by his childhood friend George Padmore, who became a driving force for socialist Pan-Africanism for several decades. Both Padmore and James wrote for the New Leader, published by the Independent Labour Party (ILP), which James had joined in 1934 (when Fenner Brockway was its General Secretary).[20]

James in 1938

In 1934, James wrote a three-act play about the Haitian revolutionary Toussaint Louverture (entitled Toussaint Louverture: The Story of the Only Successful Slave Revolt in History), which was staged in London's West End in 1936 and starred Paul Robeson, Orlando Martins, Robert Adams and Harry Andrews.[21][22] The play had been presumed lost until the rediscovery of a draft copy in 2005, the play has now gone on to be adapted into a graphic novel by Nic Watts and Sakina Karimjee.[23] In 1967, James went on to write a second play about the Haitian Revolution, The Black Jacobins, which became the first production from Talawa Theatre Company in 1986, coinciding with the overthrow of Jean-Claude Duvalier.[24] 1936 also saw Secker & Warburg in London publish James's novel, Minty Alley, which he had brought with him in manuscript form from Trinidad.[15] (Fenner Brockway had introduced him to Fredric Warburg, co-owner of the press.)[25] It was the first novel to be published by a black Caribbean author in the UK.[26]

Amid his frenetic political activity, James wrote what are perhaps his best known works of non-fiction: World Revolution (1937), a history of the rise and fall of the Communist International, which was critically praised by Leon Trotsky, George Orwell, E. H. Carr and Fenner Brockway;[27] and The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (1938), a widely acclaimed history of the Haitian Revolution, which was later seen as a seminal text in the study of the African diaspora. James went to Paris to research this work, where he met Haitian military historian Alfred Auguste Nemours. In a new foreword to the 1980 Allison & Busby edition of The Black Jacobins, James recalled that "Nemours used coffee cups and books in Paris cafés to bring to life the military skills of revolutionary Haitians."[28]

In 1936, James and his Trotskyist Marxist Group left the ILP to form an open party. In 1938, this new group took part in several mergers to form the Revolutionary Socialist League (RSL). The RSL was a highly factionalised organisation.

Speaking tour in the United States

At the urging of Trotsky and James P. Cannon, in October 1938, James was invited to tour the United States by the leadership of the Socialist Workers' Party (SWP), then the US section of the Fourth International, to facilitate its work among black workers.[29] Following several meetings in New York, which garnered "enthusiastic praise for his oratorical ability and capacity for analysis of world events," James kicked off his national speaking tour on 6 January 1939 in Philadelphia.[30] He gave lectures in cities including New Haven,[31] Youngstown, Rochester, and Boston,[32] before finishing the tour with two lectures in Los Angeles and another in Pasadena in March 1939.[33] He spoke on topics such as "Twilight of the British Empire" and "The Negro and World Imperialism".[33]

Constance Webb, who later became James' second wife, attended one of his 1939 lectures in Los Angeles and reflected on it in her memoir, writing: "I had already heard speeches by two great orators, Winston Churchill and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Now I was hearing a third. The three men were masters of the English language, a skill that gave them extraordinary power."[34]

James's relationship with Louise Cripps Samoiloff had broken up after her second abortion, so that intimate tie no longer bound him to England.[35]

Meeting Trotsky

In April 1939, James visited Trotsky in Coyoacán, Mexico. James stayed there about a month and also met Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, before returning to the United States in May 1939.[36] A key topic that James and Trotsky discussed was the "Negro Question". Parts of their conversation were transcribed, with James sometimes referred to by his pen-name, J. R. Johnson.[37] Whereas Trotsky saw the Trotskyist Party as providing leadership to the black community, in the general manner that the Bolsheviks provided guidance to ethnic minorities in Russia, James suggested that the self-organised struggle of African Americans would precipitate a much broader radical social movement.[38]

U.S. and the Johnson–Forest Tendency

James stayed in the United States until he was deported in 1953. By 1940, he had begun to doubt Trotsky's view of the Soviet Union as a degenerated workers' state. He left the SWP along with Max Shachtman, who formed the Workers' Party (WP). Within the WP, James formed the Johnson–Forest Tendency with Raya Dunayevskaya (his pseudonym was Johnson and Dunayevskaya's was Forest) and Grace Lee (later Grace Lee Boggs) to spread their views within the new party.

As "J. R. Johnson", James wrote the column "The Negro Question" for Socialist Appeal (later renamed The Militant), and was also a columnist for Labor Action.[39]

While within the WP, the views of the Johnson–Forest Tendency underwent considerable development. By the end of the Second World War, they had definitively rejected Trotsky's theory of Russia as a degenerated workers' state. Instead, they classified it as state capitalist, a political evolution shared by other Trotskyists of their generation, most notably Tony Cliff. Unlike Cliff, the Johnson–Forest Tendency was focusing increasingly on the liberation movements of oppressed minorities, a theoretical development already visible in James's thought in his 1939 discussions with Trotsky. Such liberation struggles came to take centre stage for the Johnson–Forest Tendency.

After the Second World War, the WP witnessed a downturn in revolutionary sentiment. The Tendency, on the other hand, was encouraged by the prospects for revolutionary change for oppressed peoples. After a few short months as an independent group, during which they published a great deal of material, in 1947, the Johnson–Forest Tendency joined the SWP, which it regarded as more proletarian than the WP.

James would still describe himself as a Leninist despite his rejection of Vladimir Lenin's conception of the vanguard role of the revolutionary party. He argued for socialists to support the emerging black nationalist movements. By 1949, James rejected the idea of a vanguard party. This led the Johnson–Forest Tendency to leave the Trotskyist movement and rename itself the Correspondence Publishing Committee.[citation needed]

In 1955 after James had left for Britain, about half the membership of the Committee withdrew, under the leadership of Raya Dunayevskaya, to form a separate tendency of Marxist humanism and found the organisation News and Letters Committees. Whether Dunayevskaya's faction had constituted a majority or a minority in the Correspondence Publishing Committee remains a matter of dispute. Historian Kent Worcester says that Dunayevskaya's supporters formed a majority, but Martin Glaberman says in New Politics that the faction loyal to James had a majority.[40]

The Committee split again in 1962, as Grace Lee Boggs and James Boggs, two key activists, left to pursue a more Third Worldist approach. The remaining Johnsonites, including leading member Martin Glaberman, reconstituted themselves as Facing Reality. James advised the group from Great Britain until it dissolved in 1970, against his urging.[41]

James's writings were also influential in the development of Autonomist Marxism as a current within Marxist thought. He himself saw his life's work as developing the theory and practice of Leninism.[citation needed]

Return to Britain

In 1953, James was forced to leave the US under threat of deportation for having overstayed his visa. In his attempt to remain in America, he wrote a study of Herman Melville, Mariners, Renegades and Castaways: The Story of Herman Melville and the World We Live In, and had copies of the privately published work sent to every member of the Senate. He wrote the book while being detained at the immigration station on Ellis Island. In an impassioned letter to his old friend George Padmore, James said that in Mariners he was using Moby-Dick as a parable for the anti-communism sweeping the United States, a consequence, he thought, of Americans' uncritical faith in capitalism.[42]

Returning to Britain, James appeared to Padmore and his partner Dorothy Pizer to be a man adrift. After James started reporting on cricket for the Manchester Guardian, Padmore wrote to American novelist Richard Wright: "That will take him out of his ivory tower and making his paper revolution...."[43] Grace Lee Boggs, a colleague from the Detroit group, came to London in 1954 to work with James, but she too, saw him "at loose ends, trying to find his way after fifteen years out of the country."[44]

In 1957, James travelled to Ghana for the celebration of its independence from British rule in March that year. He had met Ghana's new head of state, Kwame Nkrumah, in the United States when Nkrumah was studying there and sent him on to work with George Padmore in London after the Second World War; Padmore was by this point a close Nkrumah advisor and had written The Gold Coast Revolution (1953). In correspondence sent from Ghana in 1957, James told American friends that Nkrumah thought he too ought to write a book on the Convention People's Party, which under Nkrumah's leadership had brought the country to independence. The book shows how the party's strategies could be used to build a new African future. James invited Grace Lee Boggs, his colleague from Detroit, to join in the work, though in the end, James wrote Nkrumah and the Ghana Revolution on his own. The book was not published until 1977, years after Nkrumah's overthrow, exile and subsequent death.[45][46]

Trinidad and afterwards

In 1958 James went back to Trinidad, where he edited The Nation newspaper for the pro-independence People's National Movement (PNM) party. He also became active again in the Pan-African movement. He believed that the Ghana revolution greatly encouraged the anticolonialist revolutionary struggle.

James also advocated the West Indies Federation.[47] It was over this issue that he fell out with the PNM leadership. He returned to Great Britain, where he joined Calvin C. Hernton, Obi Egbuna and others on the faculty of the Antiuniversity of London,[48][49] which had been set up by a group of left-wing thinkers led by American academic Joseph Berke.[50] In 1968 James was invited to the US, where he taught at the University of the District of Columbia (formerly Federal City College), leaving for Trinidad in 1980.[1]

Ultimately returning in 1981 to Britain,[1] where Allison & Busby had in the mid-1970s begun a programme of reissuing his work, beginning with a volume of selected writings,[51] James spent his last years in Brixton, London.[52] In the 1980s, he was awarded an Honorary Doctorate from South Bank Polytechnic (later to become London South Bank University) for his body of socio-political work, including that relating to race and sport.

James died in London from a chest infection on 19 May 1989, aged 88.[1] His funeral took place on Monday, 12 June in Trinidad, where he was buried at Tunapuna Cemetery.[53][54] A state memorial service was held for him at the National Stadium, Port of Spain, on 28 June 1989.[55]

Personal life

James married his first wife, Juanita Young, in Trinidad in 1929, but his move three years later to Britain led to their estrangement. He met his second wife, Constance Webb (1918–2005), an American model, actress and author, after he moved to the US in 1938; she wrote of having first heard him speak in the spring of 1939 at a meeting in California.[56] James and Webb married in 1946 and their son, C. L. R. James Jr, familiarly known as Nobbie,[57] was born in 1949.[58] Separated forcibly in 1952, by James's arrest and detention on Ellis Island, the couple divorced in 1953, when James was deported to Britain, while Webb remained in New York with Nobbie.[58] A collection of James's letters to Webb was posthumously published as Special Delivery: The Letters of C.L.R. James to Constance Webb, 1939–1948, edited and introduced by Anna Grimshaw (Oxford, UK; Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996).[59] Stories written by James for his son were published in 2006 as The Nobbie Stories for Children and Adults, edited and introduced by Constance Webb.[60]

In 1956 James married Selma Weinstein (née Deitch), who had been a young member of the Johnson–Forest Tendency;[61] they remained close political colleagues for more than 25 years, but divorced in 1980. She is best known as one of the founders of the International Wages for Housework Campaign.

Legacy and recognition


Collections of C. L. R. James papers are held at the University of the West Indies Alma Jordan Library, St Augustine, Trinidad,[97][98] and at Columbia University Libraries.[99]

Duke University Press publish the series "The C. L. R. James Archives", edited by Robert A. Hill, literary executor of the estate of C. L. R. James, producing new editions of books by James, as well as scholarly explorations of his oeuvre.[100]

Writings on cricket

See also: Beyond a Boundary

He is widely known as a writer on cricket, especially for his autobiographical 1963 book, Beyond a Boundary, which he himself described as "neither cricket reminiscences nor autobiography".[6] It is considered a seminal work on the game, and is often named as the best single book on cricket (or even the best book on any sport) ever written.[7] John Arlott called it "so outstanding as to compel any reviewer to check his adjectives several times before he describes it and, since he is likely to be dealing in superlatives, to measure them carefully to avoid over-praise – which this book does not need ... in the opinion of the reviewer, it is the finest book written about the game of cricket."[101] A conference to mark the 50th anniversary of its first publication was held 10–11 May 2013.[90][102]

The book's key question, frequently quoted by modern journalists and essayists, is inspired by a line in Rudyard Kipling's poem "English Flag" – "What do they know of England who only England know?" James asks in the Preface: "What do they know of cricket who only cricket know?" Acknowledging that "To answer involves ideas as well as facts", James uses this challenge as the basis for describing cricket in an historical and social context, the strong influence cricket had on his life, and how it meshed with his role in politics and his understanding of issues of class and race.

While editor of The Nation, he led the successful campaign in 1960 to have Frank Worrell appointed the first black captain of the West Indies cricket team. James believed that the relationship between players and the public was a prominent reason behind the West Indies' achieving so much with so little.[103]

Selected bibliography


  1. ^ a b c d Fraser, C. Gerald, "C. L. R. James, Historian, Critic And Pan-Africanist, Is Dead at 88" Archived 21 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, 2 June 1989.
  2. ^ Said, Edward, Culture and Imperialism, London: Chatto & Windus, 1993, p. 54.
  3. ^ Segal, Ronald. The Black Diaspora, London: Faber, 1996, p. 275.
  4. ^ Said, Culture and Imperialism. p. 253.
  5. ^ Gabrielle Bellot, "On the First Novel Published By a Black Caribbean Writer in England" Archived 11 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Huffington Post, 19 May 2016.
  6. ^ a b James, Beyond a Boundary (1963), Preface.
  7. ^ a b Rosengarten: Urbane Revolutionary, p. 134.
  8. ^ "West Indies | C. L. R. James". Making Britain. The Open University. Archived from the original on 29 June 2021.
  9. ^ "Timeline" Archived 1 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Every Cook Can Govern: Documenting the life, impact & works of CLR James.
  10. ^ a b Margaret Busby, "C. L. R. James: A Biographical Introduction", in At the Rendezvous of Victory, Allison & Busby, 1984, p. vii.
  11. ^ Reinhard W. Sander (ed.), From Trinidad: An Anthology of Early West Indian Writing, Hodder & Stoughton, 1978.
  12. ^ "C.L.R. James". Writers of the Caribbean. Archived from the original on 29 June 2021.
  13. ^ Bogues, Anthony, Caliban's Freedom: The Early Political Thought of C.L.R. James, Pluto Press, 1997, p. 17.
  14. ^ James, Louis (2001). "Writing the Ballad: The Short Fiction of Samuel Selvon and Earl Lovelace". In Jacqueline Bardolph; André Viola; Jean-Pierre Durix (eds.). Telling Stories: Postcolonial Short Fiction in English. Rodopi. p. 103. ISBN 9042015349.
  15. ^ a b c Anna Grimshaw, "Notes on the Life and Work of C. L. R. James", in Paul Buhle (ed.), C. L. R. James: His Life and Work, London: Allison & Busby, 1986, pp. 9–21.
  16. ^ "C.L.R. James" Archived 24 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Encyclopædia Britannica.
  17. ^ Ramachandra Guha, "Black is Bountiful: C. L. R. James", in An Anthropologist Among the Marxists and Other Essays, Delhi: Permanent Black, 2004, p. 215.
  18. ^ The Life of Captain Cipriani: An Account of British Government in the West Indies, with the pamphlet The Case for West-Indian Self Government Archived 24 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine at Duke University Press (2014).
  19. ^ Excerpts from pamphlet Celebrating C. L. R. James, produced by Hackney Library Service 2012 Archived 13 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. C. L. R. James Legacy Project.
  20. ^ Polsgrove, Ending British Rule, pp. 27, 35.
  21. ^ C. L. R. James, Toussaint Louverture: The Story of the Only Successful Slave Revolt in History – A Play in Three Acts Archived 25 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine (edited and with an introduction by Christian Høgsbjerg), Duke University Press, 2013.
  22. ^ Gaverne Bennett, "Book Review: Toussaint Louverture by C.L.R. James" Archived 15 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, LSHG Newsletter # 49 (May 2013).
  23. ^ "Toussaint Louverture". Verso. Retrieved 2 March 2024.
  24. ^ a b "The Black Jacobins | Talawa Theatre Company – 21st February 2019" Archived 27 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ Marc Matera, Black London: The Imperial Metropolis and Decolonization in the Twentieth Century, University of California Press, 2015, p. 276.
  26. ^ D. Elliott Paris, "Minty Alley", in Paul Buhle (ed.), C. L. R. James: His Life and Work, London: Allison & Busby, 1986, p. 200.
  27. ^ Fenner Brockway, The New Leader, 16 April 1937.
  28. ^ Magno, Viviane (30 January 2021). "Remembering C. L. R. James | An interview with Rachel Douglas". Tribune. Archived from the original on 3 October 2022.
  29. ^ Rosengarten, Frank (2008). "C. L. R. James's Engagement with Marxism". Urbane Revolutionary: C.L.R. James and the Struggle for a New Society. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-60473-306-8.
  30. ^ "C. L. R. James Opens National Tour in Phila" (PDF). Socialist Appeal. 7 January 1939. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 July 2020.
  31. ^ "C. L. R. James on Successful Tour" (PDF). Socialist Appeal. 21 January 1939. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 July 2020.
  32. ^ "James Tour Continues with Striking Success" (PDF). Socialist Appeal. 28 January 1939. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 July 2020.
  33. ^ a b "C. L. R. James Ends Tour in California" (PDF). Socialist Appeal. 10 March 1939. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 July 2020.
  34. ^ Webb, Constance (2003). Not Without Love: Memoirs. Lebanon, NH: University Press of New England. p. 71. ISBN 9781584653011.
  35. ^ Polsgrove, Ending British Rule, p. 34.
  36. ^ Jelly-Schapiro, Joshua (2011). "C. L. R. James in America" (PDF). Transition 104. pp. 30–57. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 October 2016.
  37. ^ Trotsky, Leon (1970). "Self-Determination for the American Negroes". International Socialism. 43 (April/May): 37–38. Archived from the original on 31 October 2020.
  38. ^ James, C. L. R. (1986). Paul Buhle (ed.). State Capitalism and World Revolution. Charles H. Kerr Publishing Company. p. xiii.
  39. ^ "Works | AMERICA 1938-1953". Every Cook Can Govern: Documenting the life, impact & works of CLR James. Archived from the original on 29 June 2021.
  40. ^ Glaberman, Martin, "C. L. R. James: A Recollection", New Politics No. 8 (Winter 1990), pp. 78–84.
  41. ^ "The Legacy of CLR James - Red and Black Notes". Red and Black Notes (15). Summer 2002. Archived from the original on 29 September 2022 – via libcom.org.
  42. ^ Polsgrove, Ending British Rule, p. 129.
  43. ^ Polsgrove, Ending British Rule, p. 130.
  44. ^ Boggs, Grace Lee, Living for Change (1998), p. 69.
  45. ^ Polsgrove, Ending British Rule, pp. 155–56.
  46. ^ James, Dr Leslie (10 March 2022). "Book extract: Leslie James introduces the new edition of Nkrumah and the Ghana Revolution by C. L. R. James". LSE. Archived from the original on 22 May 2022.
  47. ^ C. L. R. James, "Lecture on Federation, (West Indies and British Guiana)" Archived 30 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine, delivered on June 1958 at Queen's College, Guyana.
  48. ^ Jakobsen, Jakob, "The Antiuniversity of London – an Introduction to Deinstitutionalisation" Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Antihistory.
  49. ^ Jakobsen, Jakob (2012). "The Counter University". London: Antihistory. Archived from the original on 6 February 2016.
  50. ^ Sam Gelder, "Shoreditch's Antiuniversity legacy lives on half a century after its closure" Archived 14 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Hackney Gazette, 9 November 2016.
  51. ^ a b Margaret Busby, "Storming the pavilion of prejudice", The Guardian, 3 August 1996, p. 29: "Allison & Busby set about a publishing programme, beginning with his Selected Writings, and in the course of the next decade produced nine James volumes."
  52. ^ a b "James gets unique honour". BBC Caribbean. 9 October 2004. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022.
  53. ^ Selwyn R. Cudjoe, "CLR James Misbound" Archived 13 January 2022 at the Wayback Machine, Transition, No. 58 (1992), p. 124.
  54. ^ Jackqueline Frost (31 May 2019). "The Funeral of C.L.R. James". Verso Blog. Archived from the original on 31 July 2023.
  55. ^ "C.L.R. James: A Tribute: Eulogies Delivered at the State Memorial Service Held for the Late C.L.R. James, National Stadium, Port-of-Spain, 28 June 1989", 1990, 20pp, in Trinidad and Tobago national bibliography, p. 31.
  56. ^ Webb, Constance, "C. L. R. James, the Speaker and his Charisma", in Paul Buhle (ed.), C. L. R. James: His Life and Work, London: Allison & Busby, 1986, p. 168.
  57. ^ Caryl Phillips, "Obituary: Constance Webb, Writer wife of CLR James" Archived 13 January 2022 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 15 April 2005.
  58. ^ a b "Constance Webb papers, 1918-2005 bulk 1939-2002" Archived 31 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Archival collections, Columbia University Library.
  59. ^ Special Delivery: The Letters of C.L.R. James to Constance Webb, 1939–1948 Archived 31 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Pan-African News Wire, 14 April 2009.
  60. ^ The Nobbie Stories for Children and Adults, University of Nebraska Press, 2006.
  61. ^ Becky Gardiner, "A life in writing: Selma James" Archived 30 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 8 June 2012.
  62. ^ Shereen Ali, "Sharing our Voices" Archived 25 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Trinidad and Tobago Guardian, 29 April 2015.
  63. ^ a b "The Future in the Present (Selected Writings)". Every Cook Can Govern: Documenting the life, impact & works of CLR James. Archived from the original on 3 December 2023.
  64. ^ Johnson, Helen (11 March 2015). "Campaign launched to save Nello James community centre in Whalley Range". Greater Manchester News. Archived from the original on 25 January 2023.
  65. ^ "Beyond a Boundary" Archived 18 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine (1976; producer/director Mike Dibb) on YouTube.
  66. ^ "In Conversation with Stuart Hall" Archived 18 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine, YouTube video.
  67. ^ "E.P. Thompson and C.L.R. James" on YouTube
  68. ^ Suman Bhuchar, "Nazareth, H. O.", in Alison Donnell (ed.), Companion to Contemporary Black British Culture, Routledge, 2002, p. 214.
  69. ^ Margaret Busby, "2015: The Year of Being Connected, Exhibition-wise", Wasafiri, Volume 31, Issue 4, November 2016.
  70. ^ "Penumbra Productions". BFI. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020.
  71. ^ "The C.L.R. James Institute". Archived from the original on 26 February 2005.
  72. ^ Mike Watson, "The Local Importance of CLR James and Dalston Library" Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Local Roots, Global Routes, 25 July 2014.
  73. ^ Scott McLemee, "At the Rendezvous of Victory" Archived 2 March 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Inside Higher Ed, 22 September 2010.
  74. ^ "Black Hero Dropped by Hackney" Archived 26 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Loving Dalston, 19 February 2010.
  75. ^ Eloise Horsfield, "Hackney Council signals U-turn in CLR James library row" Archived 18 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Hackney Citizen, 8 October 2010.
  76. ^ a b "Celebrations for the New Dalston C.L.R James Library Reach Fever Pitch" Archived 6 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Hackney Council, 1 March 2012.
  77. ^ Gelder, Sam (28 March 2018). "Charlie Collins: Reggae pioneer and founder of Dalston's legendary Four Aces Club dies aged 81". Hackney Gazette. Archived from the original on 18 January 2021.
  78. ^ BEMA Network Archived 13 January 2022 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 16 March 2012.
  79. ^ "Black Jacobins, The", Black Plays Archive, Royal National Theatre.
  80. ^ "Beyond a Boundary" Archived 22 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine, BBC, Radio Times, Issue 3787, 22 August 1996: Abridged in five parts (25–30 August 1996) by Margaret Busby, produced by Pam Fraser Solomon.
  81. ^ "Radio", in David Dabydeen, John Gilmore, Cecily Jones (eds), The Oxford Companion to Black British History, Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 392.
  82. ^ "Minty Alley | Margaret Busby's award-winning dramatisation of the only novel by C L R James" Archived 2 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Afternoon Play, BBC Radio 4.
  83. ^ "Afternoon Play: Minty Alley" Archived 26 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Radio Times, Issue 3878, 4 June 1998, p. 133.
  84. ^ Nigel Deacon, "BBC Radio Plays, radio 4, 1998" Archived 29 August 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Diversity Website.
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Further reading