The climate of Mumbai is an extreme version of a tropical wet and dry climate with a lengthy, practically rainless dry season and a relatively short, but extremely rainy wet season due to the Southwest Monsoon and orographic influences from the nearby Western Ghats. Some suburbs (e.g. Santacruz) are sufficiently wet to qualify as a tropical monsoon climate. Mumbai's climate can be best described as moderately hot with a high level of humidity. Its coastal nature and tropical location ensure temperatures do not fluctuate much throughout the year.

The mean annual temperature is 27.7 °C or 81.9 °F. Average annual rainfall is 2,213.4 millimetres or 87 inches in Colaba, which represents South Mumbai and 2,502.3 millimetres or 99 inches in Santacruz, which represents central and suburban Mumbai.[1] The mean maximum average temperatures is about 32 °C (90 °F) in summer and 30 °C (86 °F) in winter, while the average minimums are 26 °C (79 °F) in summer and 18 °C (64 °F) in winter.

Climate Change

As climate change and global warming are issues of rapidly increasing importance, the Mumbai Government launched the Mumbai Climate Action Plan to tackle climate change and extreme weather events.[2]

Climate data for Mumbai

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.0
(98.6)
38.3
(100.9)
41.6
(106.9)
40.6
(105.1)
39.7
(103.5)
37.2
(99.0)
35.6
(96.1)
33.8
(92.8)
35.6
(96.1)
39.5
(103.1)
38.4
(101.1)
36.7
(98.1)
41.6
(106.9)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 34.4
(93.9)
34.9
(94.8)
35.8
(96.4)
35.1
(95.2)
35.4
(95.7)
35.0
(95.0)
32.1
(89.8)
31.7
(89.1)
32.7
(90.9)
36.4
(97.5)
36.3
(97.3)
35.3
(95.5)
37.6
(99.7)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 30.2
(86.4)
30.3
(86.5)
31.7
(89.1)
32.9
(91.2)
34.0
(93.2)
32.2
(90.0)
29.9
(85.8)
29.9
(85.8)
30.6
(87.1)
33.1
(91.6)
33.8
(92.8)
32.2
(90.0)
31.7
(89.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.9
(76.8)
25.3
(77.5)
27.1
(80.8)
28.9
(84.0)
30.5
(86.9)
29.3
(84.7)
27.8
(82.0)
27.4
(81.3)
27.8
(82.0)
28.9
(84.0)
28.4
(83.1)
26.5
(79.7)
27.7
(81.9)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 19.4
(66.9)
20.4
(68.7)
23.0
(73.4)
25.3
(77.5)
27.3
(81.1)
26.6
(79.9)
25.5
(77.9)
25.2
(77.4)
25.1
(77.2)
25.1
(77.2)
23.6
(74.5)
21.2
(70.2)
24
(75)
Mean minimum °C (°F) 16.0
(60.8)
17.1
(62.8)
20.0
(68.0)
22.9
(73.2)
25.0
(77.0)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.1
(73.6)
22.8
(73.0)
20.7
(69.3)
17.7
(63.9)
15.6
(60.1)
Record low °C (°F) 11.7
(53.1)
11.7
(53.1)
16.3
(61.3)
20.0
(68.0)
22.8
(73.0)
21.1
(70.0)
21.7
(71.1)
20.7
(69.3)
20.0
(68.0)
20.6
(69.1)
17.8
(64.0)
12.8
(55.0)
11.7
(53.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.6
(0.02)
0.4
(0.02)
0.7
(0.03)
0.2
(0.01)
15.9
(0.63)
506.0
(19.92)
768.5
(30.26)
471.9
(18.58)
355.6
(14.00)
81.7
(3.22)
8.5
(0.33)
3.4
(0.13)
2,213.4
(87.14)
Average rainy days 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.6 14.1 22.1 20.2 14.0 3.6 0.5 0.3 75.6
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 62 62 63 66 68 77 85 84 80 72 65 63 71
Average dew point °C (°F) 15
(59)
16
(61)
19
(66)
22
(72)
24
(75)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
24
(75)
22
(72)
19
(66)
16
(61)
21
(70)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 282.1 271.2 282.1 279.0 272.8 138.0 80.6 77.5 147.0 238.7 267.0 275.9 2,611.9
Mean daily sunshine hours 9.1 9.6 9.1 9.3 8.8 4.6 2.6 2.5 4.9 7.7 8.9 8.9 7.2
Average ultraviolet index 8 10 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 10 8 7 11
Source 1: India Meteorological Department (sun 1971–2000)[3][4][5]Time and Date (dewpoints, 1985-2015)[6]
Source 2: Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1981–2010)[7]Weather Atlas[8]
Climate data for Mumbai (Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport, located in Santacruz) 1991–2020, extremes 1951–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.4
(99.3)
39.6
(103.3)
41.7
(107.1)
42.2
(108.0)
41.0
(105.8)
39.8
(103.6)
36.2
(97.2)
33.5
(92.3)
37.0
(98.6)
38.6
(101.5)
37.6
(99.7)
39.8
(103.6)
42.2
(108.0)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 31.2
(88.2)
31.7
(89.1)
32.7
(90.9)
33.3
(91.9)
34.3
(93.7)
34.8
(94.6)
29.4
(84.9)
29.0
(84.2)
30.9
(87.6)
34.9
(94.8)
34.5
(94.1)
32.3
(90.1)
32.4
(90.3)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 19.8
(67.6)
23.2
(73.8)
23.4
(74.1)
25.6
(78.1)
29.3
(84.7)
29.5
(85.1)
27.7
(81.9)
27.3
(81.1)
27.1
(80.8)
27.7
(81.9)
26.2
(79.2)
24.0
(75.2)
24
(75)
Record low °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3)
8.5
(47.3)
12.7
(54.9)
16.9
(62.4)
20.2
(68.4)
19.8
(67.6)
21.2
(70.2)
19.4
(66.9)
20.7
(69.3)
16.7
(62.1)
13.3
(55.9)
10.6
(51.1)
7.4
(45.3)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.2
(0.01)
0.2
(0.01)
0.1
(0.00)
0.1
(0.00)
7.3
(0.29)
526.3
(20.72)
919.9
(36.22)
560.8
(22.08)
383.5
(15.10)
91.3
(3.59)
11.0
(0.43)
1.6
(0.06)
2,502.3
(98.52)
Average rainy days 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.7 14.0 23.3 21.4 14.4 3.9 0.6 0.2 78.6
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 49 47 51 59 65 74 81 81 76 63 56 51 63
Source: India Meteorological Department[9][10]

Sea temperature[edit]

Mumbai sea temperature[11]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
27 °C (81 °F) 25 °C (77 °F) 26 °C (79 °F) 27 °C (81 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 30 °C (86 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 26 °C (79 °F)

Monthly breakdown of climate

The following is the monthly breakdown of the weather in Mumbai.

January

January is the coolest month of the year for Mumbai with mean daily minimum being 16.4 °C and mean daily maximum being 30.1 °C.[12][13] The nightly lows may vary between 13 °C and 20 °C. Chilly northern winds during the day make the city seem cooler than it really is. Generally clear skies, with some smog – especially in the early morning – are the norm. The days are dry, the nights relatively humid. January is also associated with the deciduous trees in the city shedding their leaves. 26–27 January 2008 recorded a minimum temperature of 10.2 °C, which is the lowest recorded in 45 years. The lowest recorded temperature is 7.4 °C (45.3 °F) on 22 January 1962 which was the coldest day in Mumbai. Coastal areas are relatively cooler during the day, but they are warmer at night.

February

The fine January weather continues for the first fortnight of February. The mean daily minimum stays at 17.3 °C and mean daily maximum being 31.3 °C with some possibility of unseasonable showers.[12] Smog increases. 6 February 2008 recorded a minimum temperature of 9.4 °C. Just two days later, on 8 February, the minimum temperature recorded was 8.5 °C, which was the lowest temperature Mumbai has seen since January 1962.[14]

March

The month of March sees a mean minimum temp of 20.6 °C and mean maximum temp of 32.7 °C.[12] During the transition from the dry to humid weather in mid March, the temperature might hit 38 to 40 °C. This high however, is due to hot dry winds from Gujarat. By mid-March the temperatures may hit 37 °C, with the lows at 24 °C. Humidity is unbearable, and smog affects the city. New leaves sprout from deciduous trees. The all-time high day temperature for March was recorded in 2018 at 41.7 °C.[15]

April

The temperatures and humidity are still high. However, the cooling effect of the sea breezes makes its presence felt. The high temperature stays around 35.1 °C and daily lows are around 23.2 °C. Plants are in full bloom in April.

May

May is the hottest month of the year for Mumbai with the cool sea breezes providing some relief. The daily maximum hovers around 34.5 °C and the daily low is 29.1 °C.[12]

June

June marks the beginning of the monsoon period in Mumbai. The beginning of the month is characterized by a continuation of the summer with increased humidity. The official date for the monsoon to hit the city is 10 June.[16] This period is marked by thunderstorms and often windy conditions as the monsoon establishes itself over the city. Rainfall activity intensifies as the month goes on, leading into wettest month, July. The max and min mean daily temperatures are measured at 31.9 °C/26.6 °C.[12]

July

Waterlogging due to showers

In this month the city receives the maximum amount of rain. July and August are characterized by almost non-stop rain and weeks of no sunshine. A continuous monsoon current covers the entire western coast of India during this period. Rainfall activity is less stormy and more constant with a relatively constant breeze from the West or South West. It is not uncommon for parts of the city to be waterlogged during periods of persistent heavy rain. This affects the city's public transport system often leading to long delays. During periods of severe precipitation, the city's commuter rail system is often suspended because of water logging and poor visibility.

The average maximum temperature for the month is around 29.8 °C with the average minimum at 25.5 °C.[12] Average monthly rainfall is 919.9 mm in Santacruz and 768.5 mm in Colaba.[1] The highest 24-hour rainfall in the history of Mumbai was recorded at the Santacruz observatory of the India Meteorological Department on 26 July 2005. On this day, a record 944 mm rainfall fell over the city, causing large scale flooding, claiming several lives and causing large scale property damage.[17]

August

The weather in August is almost identical to July. Towards the later half of the month, rainfall activity tends to lessen. The coolest days of the monsoon season are often in August. The max temperature might drop to 29.3 °C during the day and 24.5 °C at night.[12]

September

In September the intensity of rainfall decreases. The monsoons officially end in the 3rd week of September. September has unsettled weather. The rainfall is short and light and is not continuous. The end of the monsoon, much like the beginning can feature heavy thunderstorms associated with the withdrawal of the monsoon current from the city and surrounding areas. The mean maximum daily temperatures reach 30.1 °C while daily mean minimum temperature stays at 24.0 °C.[12]

October

In the month of October the mean daily maximum stays at around 32.9 °C and mean daily minimum stays at 23.1 °C[12] making it hot during the days and relatively mild during the nights.

November

The temperature continues to drop slowly in the month of November with the mean daily minimum staying at 20.5 °C and the mean daily maximum staying around 33.4 °C.[12] There are a few unseasonable showers.

December

The day highs hover around 32.4 °C. The nights average around 18.2 °C.[12] Humidity is low in December.

Weather monitoring stations in Mumbai

Mumbai has two weather monitoring stations, one at Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport and the other at Navy Nagar near Colaba towards the southern tip of Mumbai.

Record highest and lowest temperatures in Mumbai

The highest temperature ever recorded in Mumbai's history is 42.2 °C (108.0 °F), on 14 April 1952, while the lowest is 7.4 °C (45.3 °F), on 22 January 1962, both of which were recorded at the airport.[18]

Cyclones in Mumbai

Sitting on the coast, Mumbai is vulnerable to cyclones, but as the cyclones in the Arabian Sea turn to the Arabian Peninsula or Gujarat, Mumbai stands less affected.[19] Cyclones that have affected Mumbai include 1618,[20] 1698,[20] 1702,[20] 1740,[20] 1742,[20] 1762,[20] 1799,[20] 1854,[20] 1882 (Which is believed to be a hoax), 1891[21] 1940 [22] 1948,[23] Cyclone Phyan,[24] Cyclone Ockhi,[25] Cyclone Vayu,[26] Cyclone Nisarga,[22] and Cyclone Tauktae.[27]

The strongest cyclone ever recorded to hit Mumbai is the 1948 Mumbai Cyclone, which hit the city on November 21, 1948. Gusts in Juhu reached 151 km/h, torrential rains lashed the city reaching 5 inches in only 24 hours. Flooding occurred due to heavy rains, the city power supply was disrupted. The cyclone left 38 people dead and 47 missing, Local transport came to a standstill [22][23][28][29]

In recent times, Cyclone Tauktae battered Mumbai, reaching gusts of 114 km/h with heavy rains. The storm was catastrophic, and flight operations at Mumbai's Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport halted for hours due to the cyclone.[30][31]

References

  1. ^ a b "Climatological Tables 1991-2020" (PDF). www.imdpune.gov.in. Retrieved 2 September 2023.
  2. ^ "Mumbai: All you need to know about first-ever climate action plan dedicated to the city". Free Press Journal. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  3. ^ "Station: Mumbai (Colaba) Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 509–510. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  4. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M146. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  5. ^ "Table 3 Monthly mean duration of Sun Shine (hours) at different locations in India" (PDF). Daily Normals of Global & Diffuse Radiation (1971–2000). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  6. ^ "Climate & Weather Averages in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India". Time and Date. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  7. ^ "Normals Data: Bombay/Colaba - India Latitude: 18.90°N Longitude: 72.82°E Height: 9 (m)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  8. ^ "Climate and monthly weather forecast Mumbai, India". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
  9. ^ "Climatological Information". cdsp.imdpune.gov.in. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  10. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M146. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  11. ^ "Mumbai Climate and Weather Averages, India". Weather2Travel. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "India Metrological Dept: Mumbai". Archived from the original on 5 April 2008.
  13. ^ "Tata Institute of Fundamental Research- Mumbai:Climate". 8 August 2005.
  14. ^ "Mumbai records lowest temperature in 46 years".
  15. ^ Badri Chatterjee (29 March 2017). "Monday was second-hottest March day in Mumbai since 2014". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  16. ^ "South-west monsoon might not keep its usual June 10 date with Mumbai". The Times of India. Mumbai. 9 June 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
  17. ^ Fairclough, Chris (2007). Mumbai. London: Evans. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-237-53125-6.
  18. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M146. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  19. ^ Dutta, Prabhash K. (3 June 2020). "Nisarga, an exception: Why Mumbai does not get cyclones". India Today. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h Scroll Staff (2 June 2020). "'The bay was strewn with shipwrecks': A short history of Mumbai storms in the 18th, 19th centuries". Scroll.in. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  21. ^ "Nisarga, Mumbai's first cyclone since 1891, poised to make landfall". Deccan Chronicle. 3 June 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  22. ^ a b c "Cyclone Nisarga is not the 1st Cyclone for Mumbai, lets see the 1940 & 1948 Cyclones". Tamil Nadu Weatherman. 2 June 2020. Archived from the original on 16 June 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  23. ^ a b "When 20-hour storm paralysed Bombay: Old-timers recall fury of cyclone which hit Mumbai in 1948". India Today. 3 June 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  24. ^ Inamdar, Siddhesh (11 November 2009). "Cyclone Phyan lashes Gujarat, Maharashtra". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  25. ^ "Cyclone Ockhi: Mumbai Records Highest 24-hour December Rain in a Decade". India News, Breaking News | India.com. 5 December 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  26. ^ Deshpande, Tanvi (12 June 2019). "Cyclone Vayu: Mumbai experiences strong winds, moderate rain on Wednesday". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  27. ^ "Cyclone Tauktae batters Mumbai, airport closed temporarily". The Indian Express. 17 May 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  28. ^ "Cyclone Nisarga: When 1948 November storm left 38 dead and 47 missing in Bombay". Free Press Journal. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  29. ^ "Cyclone hits Bombay; isolates city". Argus. Melbourne, Vic. 23 November 1948. p. 1. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  30. ^ "Mumbai sees record May rains due to Tauktae - OrissaPOST". Odisha News, Odisha Latest news, Odisha Daily - OrissaPOST. 18 May 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  31. ^ "Tauktae effect: Mumbai records wettest day in May". The Indian Express. 18 May 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.