|Founded||8 May 1973|
(Chairman & Managing Director)
|Revenue||₹792,756 crore (US$99 billion) (2022)|
|₹98,446 crore (US$12 billion)  (2022)|
|₹67,845 crore (US$8.5 billion) (2022)|
|Total assets||₹1,770,665 crore (US$220 billion) (2022)|
|Total equity||₹772,720 crore (US$97 billion) (2022)|
Number of employees
Reliance Industries Limited is an Indian multinational conglomerate company, headquartered in Mumbai. It has diverse businesses including energy, petrochemicals, natural gas, retail, telecommunications, mass media, and textiles. Reliance is one of the most profitable companies in India, the largest publicly traded company in India by market capitalisation, and the largest company in India as measured by revenue. It is also the one of the top largest employer in India with 10,00,000 employees directly and indirectly in the world. RIL has a market capitalisation of US$197 billion as of October 2022.
The company is ranked 104th on the Fortune Global 500 list of the world's biggest corporations as of 2022. Reliance continues to be India's largest exporter, accounting for 10% of India's total merchandise exports and access to markets in over 100 countries. Reliance is responsible for almost 10% of the government of India's total revenues from customs and excise duty. It is also the highest income tax payer in the private sector in India. The company has free cash flows. Reliance Industries became the first Indian company to cross 100 billion dollars in revenues.
The company was co-founded by Dhirubhai Ambani and Champaklal Damani in 1960's as Reliance Commercial Corporation. In 1965, the partnership ended and Dhirubhai continued the polyester business of the firm. In 1966, Reliance Textiles Engineers Pvt. Ltd. was incorporated in Maharashtra. It established a synthetic fabrics mill in the same year at Naroda in Gujarat. On 8 May 1973, it became Reliance Industries Limited. In 1975, the company expanded its business into textiles, with "Vimal" becoming its major brand in later years. The company held its Initial public offering (IPO) in 1977. The issue was over-subscribed by seven times. In 1979, a textiles company Sidhpur Mills was amalgamated with the company. In 1980, the company expanded its polyester yarn business by setting up a Polyester Filament Yarn Plant in Patalganga, Raigad, Maharashtra with financial and technical collaboration with E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., U.S.
In 1985, the name of the company was changed from Reliance Textiles Industries Ltd. to Reliance Industries Ltd. During the years 1985 to 1992, the company expanded its installed capacity for producing polyester yarn by over 1,45,000 tonnes per annum.
The Hazira petrochemical plant was commissioned in 1991–92.
In 1993, Reliance turned to the overseas capital markets for funds through a global depository issue of Reliance Petroleum. In 1996, it became the first private sector company in India to be rated by international credit rating agencies. S&P rated Reliance "BB+, stable outlook, constrained by the sovereign ceiling". Moody's rated "Baa3, Investment grade, constrained by the sovereign ceiling".
In 1995/96, the company entered the telecom industry through a joint venture with NYNEX, USA, and promoted Reliance Telecom Private Limited in India.
In 1998/99, RIL introduced packaged LPG in 15 kg cylinders under the brand name Reliance Gas.
The years 1998–2000 saw the construction of the integrated petrochemical complex at Jamnagar in Gujarat, the largest refinery in the world.
In 2001, Reliance Industries Ltd. and Reliance Petroleum Ltd. became India's two largest companies in terms of all major financial parameters. In 2001–02, Reliance Petroleum was merged with Reliance Industries.
In 2002, Reliance announced India's biggest gas discovery (at the Krishna Godavari basin) in nearly three decades and one of the largest gas discoveries in the world during 2002. The in-place volume of natural gas was more than 7 trillion cubic feet, equivalent to about 120 crores (1.2 billion) barrels of crude oil. This was the first-ever discovery by an Indian private sector company.
In 2002–03, RIL purchased a majority stake in Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Ltd. (IPCL), India's second largest petrochemicals company, from the government of India, RIL took over IPCL's Vadodara Plants and renamed it as Vadodara Manufacturing Division (VMD). IPCL's Nagothane and Dahej manufacturing complexes came under RIL when IPCL was merged with RIL in 2008.
In 2005 and 2006, the company reorganised its business by demerging its investments in power generation and distribution, financial services and telecommunication services into four separate entities.
In 2006, Reliance entered the organised retail market in India with the launch of its retail store format under the brand name of 'Reliance Fresh'. By the end of 2008, Reliance retail had close to 600 stores across 57 cities in India.
In November 2009, Reliance Industries issued 1:1 bonus shares to its shareholders.
In 2010, Reliance entered the broadband services market with acquisition of Infotel Broadband Services Limited, which was the only successful bidder for pan-India fourth-generation (4G) spectrum auction held by the government of India.
In the same year, Reliance and BP announced a partnership in the oil and gas business. BP took a 30 per cent stake in 23 oil and gas production sharing contracts that Reliance operates in India, including the KG-D6 block for $7.2 billion. Reliance also formed a 50:50 joint venture with BP for sourcing and marketing of gas in India.
In 2017, RIL set up a joint venture with Russian Company Sibur for setting up a Butyl rubber plant in Jamnagar, Gujarat, to be operational by 2018.
In August 2019, Reliance added Fynd primarily for its consumer businesses and mobile phone services in the e-commerce space.
On the 18th of August 2021, Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) stated that it had shut down its manufacturing units at Nagothane town in Maharashtra.
The company's petrochemical, refining, and oil and gas-related operations form the core of its business; other divisions of the company include cloth, retail business, telecommunications, and special economic zone (SEZ) development. In 2012–13, it earned 76% of its revenue from refining, 19% from petrochemicals, 2% from oil & gas and 3% from other segments.
In July 2012, RIL informed that it was going to invest US$1 billion over the next few years in its new aerospace division which will design, develop, manufacture, equipment and components, including aircraft, engine, radars, avionics and accessories for military and civilian aircraft, helicopters, unmanned airborne vehicles and aerostats.
On 31 March 2021, the company had 347 subsidiary companies and 150 associate companies.
Main article: Jio Platforms
Jio Platforms Limited, essentially a technology company, is a majority-owned subsidiary of RIL.It has valuation more than $100 billion on expert view as in August 2022.It is the result of a corporate restructuring announced in October 2019, resulting in all the digital initiatives and the telecommunication assets being housed under this new subsidiary. This new subsidiary holds all the digital business assets including Reliance Jio Infocomm Ltd, which in turn holds the Jio connectivity business - Mobile, broadband and enterprise and also the other digital assets (JIO Apps, Tech backbone and Investments in other tech entities like Haptic, Hathaway and Den Networks among others. In April 2020, RIL announced a strategic investment of ₹43,574 crore (US$5.5 billion) by Facebook into Jio Platforms. This investment translated into a 9.99% equity stake, on a fully diluted basis. Further in May 2020, RIL sold roughly 1.15% stake in Jio Platforms for ₹5,656 crore (US$710 million) to the American private equity investor, Silver Lake Partners. Intel became the 12th company to invest in Reliance Jio platforms after it invested ₹1,894.50 crore ($250 million),the total investments in Jio platforms is ₹117,588.45 crore so far. On 16 July 2020, Google announced that it will acquire a 7.7% stake in Jio Platforms for ₹33,737 crore.
Main article: Reliance Retail
Reliance Retail is the retail business wing of the Reliance Industries. In March 2013, it had 1466 stores in India. It is the largest retailer in India. Many brands like Reliance Fresh, Reliance Footprint, Reliance Time Out, Reliance Digital, Reliance Wellness, Reliance Trends, Reliance Autozone, Reliance Super, Reliance Mart, Reliance iStore, Reliance Home Kitchens, Reliance Market (Cash n Carry) and Reliance Jewel come under the Reliance Retail brand. Its annual revenue for the financial year 2012–13 was ₹108 billion (US$1.4 billion) with an EBITDA of ₹780 million (US$9.8 million).Its market value is more than $60 billion dollar.
Reliance Life Sciences works around medical, plant and industrial biotechnology opportunities. It specialises in manufacturing, branding, and marketing Reliance Industries' products in bio-pharmaceuticals, pharmaceuticals, clinical research services, regenerative medicine, molecular medicine, novel therapeutics, biofuels, plant biotechnology, and industrial biotechnology sectors of the medical business industry.
Main article: Reliance Logistics
Reliance Logistics is a single-window[clarification needed] company selling transportation, distribution, warehousing, logistics, and supply chain-related products. Reliance Logistics is an asset based company with its own fleet and infrastructure. It provides logistics services to Reliance group companies and outsiders. Merged content from Reliance Logistics to here. See Talk:Reliance Industries/Archives/2013#Merge proposals.
Main article: Reliance Solar
Reliance Solar, the solar energy subsidiary of Reliance, was established to produce and retail solar energy systems primarily to remote and rural areas. It offers a range of products based on solar energy: solar lanterns, home lighting systems, street lighting systems, water purification systems, refrigeration systems and solar air conditioners. Merged content from Reliance Solar to here. See Talk:Reliance Industries/Archives/2013#Merge proposals.
Main article: Reliance Industrial Infrastructure
Reliance Industrial Infrastructure Limited (RIIL) is an associate company of RIL. RIL holds 45.43% of the total shares of RIIL. It was incorporated in September 1988 as Chembur Patalganga Pipelines Limited, with the main objective being to build and operate cross-country pipelines for transporting petroleum products. The company's name was subsequently changed to CPPL Limited in September 1992, and thereafter to its present name, Reliance Industrial Infrastructure Limited, in March 1994. RIIL is mainly engaged in the business of setting up and operating industrial infrastructure. The company is also engaged in related activities involving leasing and providing services connected with computer software and data processing. The company set up a 200-millimetre diameter twin pipeline system that connects the Bharat Petroleum refinery at Mahul, Maharashtra, to Reliance's petrochemical complex at Patalganga, Maharashtra. The pipeline carries petroleum products including naphtha and kerosene. It has commissioned facilities like the supervisory control and data acquisition system and the cathodic protection system, a jack well at River Tapi, and a raw water pipeline system at Hazira. The infrastructure company constructed a 71,000 kilo-liter petrochemical product storage and distribution terminal at the Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) Area in Maharashtra.
Main article: Network 18
Network 18, a mass media company. It has interests in television, digital platforms, publication, mobile apps, and films. It also operates two joint ventures, namely Viacom 18 and History TV18 with Viacom and A+E Networks respectively. It also has acquired a partial part of ETV Network and since renamed its channels under the Colors TV brand.
Reliance Eros Productions LLP, joint venture with Eros International to produce film content in India.
Reliance Industrial Investments and Holdings Limited (RIIHL), a wholly-owned subsidiary of RIL provide financial services. The Company owns securities of companies other than banks, as well as offers investment services. RIIHL bought majority stakes in two companies - logistics firm Grab A Grub Services Private Limited (Grab) and software company C-Square Info Solutions - for over ₹146 crores in March 2019. RIIHL also sponsored the Tower Investment trust (InvITs) for the acquisition of 49% equity in RJio's tower assets for ₹25,215 crores by the Canadian asset management firm Brookfield Infrastructure Partners. On April 22, 2021, RIIHL acquired the entire issued share capital of Stoke Park Ltd, company that owns and manages sporting and leisure facilities in Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire for £57 million.
Reliance Strategic Business Ventures Limited (RSBVL), a wholly-owned subsidiary of RIL bought a 51.78% stake in robotics and AI firm Asteria Aerospace for ₹23.12 crore and an 85% stake in NowFloats Technologies for ₹141.63 crores in Dec 2019. It also holds 18.83% in EIH Limited, the flagship company of The Oberoi Group, one of the largest luxury hotel chains in India. In November 2019, RSBVL invested an undisclosed amount in SkyTran Inc. for 12.7%, increased it further to 26.3% by April 2020. In February 2021, RIL became the majority stakeholder with 54.46% with an additional investment of $26.76 million.
Embibe, Bengaluru-based EdTech start-up raised funding of ₹89.91 crores from RIL in February 2020. Over three years, Reliance Industries had invested around $180 million in the start-up. A part of it was towards acquiring a stake of 72.69% from Embibe's existing investors. In December 2019, Embibe, under the proprietary name (Individual Learning Private Limited), announced that it picked up equity shares in Bengaluru-based K12 startup Funtoot (eDreams Edusoft). The deal was capped at ₹71.64 crores in cash, which holds 90.5% of the equity share capital of Funtoot. In February 2020, it acquired the rival platform OnlineTyari.
NowFloats Technologies Pvt Limited offers a slew of services such as an online business management suite, local content platforms and marketing solutions, among others.Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) acquired a 85% stake in NowFloats in 2022.
Reliance Industrial Investments and Holdings owns Digital Fibre InvIT, which in turn owns 51% of Jio Digital Fibre Private Limited. The remaining 49% of Jio Digital Fibre Private Limited is owned by Reliance Industries directly.
Jio Digital Fibre Private Limited holds all fiber optic assets of the telecom operations of the group.
In March 2017, Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) completed the sale process of its 76% equity stake in Mauritius-based oil retailer Gulf Africa Petroleum Corp (GAPCO) to Total Marketing & Services, a subsidiary of French oil and gas firm Total SE.
The East West Pipeline has been acquired by India Infrastructure Trust, which is owned by Brookfield Asset Management for a consideration of ₹13,000 cr.
As of 31 March 2018, the company had 29,533 permanent employees of which 1,521 were women and 70 were employees with disabilities. It also had 158,196 temporary employees on the same date which makes a total of 187,729 employees. As per its Sustainability Report for 2011–12, the attrition rate was 7.5%. But currently, the same attrition rate has gone up to 23.4% in March 2015 as per latest report released by the organisation.
In its 39th Annual General Meeting, its chairman informed the shareholders of the investment plans of the company of about ₹1,500 billion (US$19 billion) in the next three years. This would be accompanied by increasing the staff strength in Retail division from existing strength of 35,000 to 120,000 in next 3 years and increasing employees in Telecom division from existing 3,000 to 10,000 in 12 months.
|Year||Revenue (In crores)||Profits/Loss (In crores)||Total Assets (In crores)||Employees|
The Ambani family holds around 45% of the shares in RIL. Since its inception, the company was managed by its founder and chairman Dhirubhai Ambani. After suffering a stroke in 1986, he handed over the daily operations of the company to his sons Mukesh Ambani and Anil Ambani. After the death of Dhirubhai Ambani in 2002, the management of the company was taken up by both the brothers. In November 2004, Mukesh Ambani, in an interview, admitted to having differences with his brother Anil over 'ownership issues'. He also said that the differences "are in the private domain". The share prices  of RIL were impacted by some margin when this news broke out. In 2005, after a bitter public feud between the brothers over the control of the Reliance empire, mother Kokilaben intervened to broker a deal splitting the RIL group business into the two parts. In October 2005, the split of Reliance Group was formalised. Mukesh Ambani got Reliance Industries and IPCL. Younger brother Anil Ambani received telecom, power, entertainment, and financial services business of the group. The Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group includes Reliance Communications, Reliance Infrastructure, Reliance Capital, Reliance Natural Resources and Reliance Power.
The division of Reliance group business between the two brothers also resulted in de-merger of 4 businesses from RIL. These businesses immediately became part of Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group. The existing shareholders in RIL, both the promoter group and non-promoters, received shares in the de-merged companies.
In May 2014, ONGC moved to Delhi High Court accusing RIL of pilferage of 18 billion cubic metres of gas from its gas-producing block in the Krishna Godavari basin. Subsequently, the two companies agreed to form an independent expert panel to probe any pilferage.
Seminar magazine (2003) detailed Reliance founder Dhirubhai Ambani's proximity to politicians, his enmity with Bombay Dyeing's Nusli Wadia, the exposes by the Indian Express and Arun Shourie about illegal imports by the company and overseas share transactions by shell companies, and the botched attempt to acquire Larsen & Toubro.
As early as 1996, Outlook magazine addressed other controversies related to fake and switched shares; insider trading; and a nexus with the state-owned Unit Trust of India. Five main allegations concerning Reliance, which have plunged the Indian capital markets into a period of uncertainty unsurpassed since the days of the securities scam were:
The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) filed a charge sheet in a Mumbai court against Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) and four retired employees of National Insurance Company Limited (NICL), including a former CMD, under provisions of the Prevention of Corruption Act for criminal conspiracy and other charges. Acting on a reference from CVC in March 2005, the CBI started probing the conspiracy that led to the filing of the charge sheet on 9 December 2011. The 2005 complaint had alleged irregularities in the issuance of insurance policies — for coverage of default payments — by NICL to RIL. The charge sheet also mentioned criminal offenses with dishonest intention and causing wrongful loss totaling ₹147.41 crores to NICL and wrongful gain to the private telecom provider.
Two retired senior officials of National Insurance Company Limited and 11 others were awarded varying jail terms by a Delhi court in Jan 2014.
A business jet owned by Reliance Industries (RIL) was grounded by The Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) on 22 March 2014 during a surprise inspection, for carrying expired safety equipment on board; its pilot was also suspended for flying without a license.
Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) was supposed to relinquish 25% of the total area outside the discoveries in 2004 and 2005, as per the Production Sharing Contract (PSC). However, the entire block was declared as a discovery area and RIL was allowed to retain it. In 2011, the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) criticized the Oil Ministry for this decision. The CAG also faulted RIL for limiting the competition in contracts, stating that RIL awarded a $1.1 billion contract to Aker on a single-bid basis.
A PIL filed in the Supreme Court by an NGO Centre for Public Interest Litigation, through Prashant Bhushan, challenged the grant of a pan-India license to RJIL by the Government of India. The PIL alleged that RJIL was allowed to provide voice telephony along with its 4G data service, by paying an additional fee of just INR16580 million (US$280 million) arbitrary and unreasonable and contributed to a loss of INR228420 million (US$3.8 billion) to the exchequer.
The CAG in its draft report alleged rigging of the auction mechanism, whereby an unknown ISP, Infotech Broadband Services Pvt Ltd, acquired the spectrum by bidding 5000 times its net worth, after which the company was sold to Reliance Industries.
In February 2022, Reliance terminated the leases of hundreds of Future Retail locations, the next largest retail chain in India, and took possession of those brick-and-mortar shops. Future Retail had a deal to sell its assets to Reliance, but that deal was contested by Amazon.com, which in 2019 acquired a stake in a subunit of Future Retail along with certain rights with respect to the transfer of the retailer's assets. Reliance's possessions came after rounds of legal wrangling, including a 2020 arbitration in Singapore and an antitrust review by the Competition Commission of India.
In June 2022, the company was mentioned in a Wall Street Journal story covering various ways international shippers and refiners avoided the western bans on Russian oil. India's daily imports of Russian oil advanced by 800,000 barrels a day since the start of the war in Ukraine.
((cite web)): Missing or empty
((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
((cite news)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)