Rajasthan Atomic Power Station
Map
CountryIndia
Coordinates24°52′20″N 75°36′50″E / 24.87222°N 75.61389°E / 24.87222; 75.61389
StatusOperational
Construction began1963
Commission date16 December 1973
Operator(s)Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL)
Nuclear power station
Reactors6
Reactor typeUnits 1 & 2: CANDU
Units 3,4,5 & 6: IPHWR-220
Units 7 & 8: IPHWR-700
Reactor supplierUnits 1 & 2: AECL
Units 3 & 4: PPED, DAE (now NPCIL)
Units 5 & 6: NPCIL
Units 7 & 8: NPCIL
Cooling sourceRana Pratap Sagar Dam, Chambal River
Power generation
Units operational1 x 200 MW
4 x 220 MW
Units under const.2 x 700 MW
Units decommissioned1 x 100 MW
Nameplate capacity995 MW
Capacity factor78.07% (2020-21)[1]
Annual net output7386 GW.h (2020-21)[1]
External links
WebsiteNuclear power Corporation of India Ltd
CommonsRelated media on Commons

The Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS; also Rajasthan Atomic Power Project - RAPP) is a nuclear power plant located at Rawatbhata in the state of Rajasthan, India.

History

The construction of the Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station Canada began in 1961 with a CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) capable of producing 220 MW of electricity. Two years after the construction of the Rajasthan Atomic Power Project (RAPP) commenced, two similar reactors were built in the state of Rajasthan. Ten years later, in 1973 RAPS-1 was put into service. In 1974 after India conducted Smiling Buddha, its first nuclear weapons test Canada stopped its support of the project, delaying the commissioning of RAPS-2 until 1981.[2]

In the context of the Indian atomic program, two more PHWR with an output of 220 MW each were built. They cost around 570 million dollars. RAPS-3 became critical on 24 December 1999, RAPS-4 became critical on 3 November 2000. Commercial operations began on 1 June 2000 for unit 3, and on 23 December 2000 for unit 4.

Two more reactors (RAPS-5 and RAPS-6) with 220 MWe have also been built, with unit 5 beginning commercial operation on 4 February 2010, and unit 6 on 31 March 2010.[3]

Two of the new Indian-designed 700 MWe series of the reactor (RAPP-7 and RAPP-8) are under construction in Rajasthan.

In November 2012, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) intensively audited over several weeks two reactors at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station for safety. It has been concluded that the reactors are among the best in the world, the indigenously made 220 MW atomic plants can withstand a Fukushima type of accident, even suggesting that the "safety culture is strong in India" and that India emerged a winner with a high global safety rank.[4]

First concrete for unit 7 was poured on 18 July 2011,[5] with commercial operation expected by 2016. The two reactors will cost an estimated Rs 123.2 billion (US$2.6 billion).[6]

Incidents

By 2003 RAPS-1 had experienced numerous problems due to leaks, cracks in the end-shield and turbine blade failures, had undergone repairs and appeared to be generating 100 MW of electricity, with RAPS-2 reportedly generating 200 MW.[2]

On 29 August 2006, a 90% iron meteorite weighing 6.8 kilograms (15 lb) fell in Kanvarpura village, near the power station. The Deputy Director-General (western region) of the Geological Survey of India, R.S. Goyal, said that devastation on an "unimaginable scale" would have ensued had the object struck the station.[7] However, the kinetic energy of a meteorite of this size is smaller than that of jet aircraft frequently used as a basis for impact resistance of containment structures.[8][9]

In June 2012, 38 workers were exposed to tritium when a welding operation went wrong inside the protected environment of the reactor.[10]

Units

Phase Unit
No.
Reactor Status Capacity in MWe Construction start First criticality Grid Connection Commercial operation Closure Notes
Type Model Net Gross
I 1 PHWR CANDU Shut Down 90 100 1 August 1965 11 August 1972 30 November 1972 16 December 1973 9 October 2004 [11]
2 PHWR CANDU Operational 187 200 1 April 1968 8 Octobe 1980 1 November 1980 1 April 1981 [12]
II 3 PHWR IPHWR-220 Operational 202 220 1 February 1990 24 December 1999 10 March 2000 1 June 2000 [13]
4 PHWR IPHWR-220 Operational 202 220 1 October 1990 3 November 2000 17 November 2000 23 December 2000 [14]
III 5 PHWR IPHWR-220 Operational 202 220 18 September 2002 24 November 2009 22 December 2009 4 February 2010 [15]
6 PHWR IPHWR-220 Operational 202 220 20 January 2003 23 January 2010 28 March 2010 31 March 2010 [16]
IV 7 PHWR IPHWR-700 Under Construction 630 700 18 July 2011 [17][18][19]
8 PHWR IPHWR-700 Under Construction 630 700 30 September 2011 [17][20]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Monthly Genration Reports Actual for Apr-2021 : Central Sector Nuclear" (PDF). National Power Portal. Central Electricity Authority. Retrieved 10 October 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS)". Nuclear Threat Initiative. 1 September 2003. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
  3. ^ "Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS)". Plants Under Operation. Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL). Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
  4. ^ Bagla, Pallava (15 November 2012). "UN's nuclear watchdog: Rajasthan reactors are among world's safest". NDTV.com.
  5. ^ "India begins construction of 25th nuclear plant". The Hindu. 18 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
  6. ^ "Construction starts on new Rajasthan units". World Nuclear News. World Nuclear Association (WNA). 18 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
  7. ^ Meteorite fall in Rajasthan village The Hindu, 6 September 2006.
  8. ^ Jiang, Hua; Chorzepa, Mi G. (1 November 2014). "Aircraft impact analysis of nuclear safety-related concrete structures: A review". Engineering Failure Analysis. 46: 118–133. doi:10.1016/j.engfailanal.2014.08.008.
  9. ^ Allain, Rhett (1 March 2013). "How Fast Would a Small Meteor Travel?". Wired.
  10. ^ Bagla, Pallava (30 June 2012). Bhatt, Abhinav (ed.). "Radiation scare in Rajasthan, workers exposed". NDTV.com.
  11. ^ "Rajasthan Atomic Power Station". NPCIL. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  12. ^ "RAPS-2". PRIS. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  13. ^ "RAPS-3". PRIS. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  14. ^ "RAPS-4". PRIS. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  15. ^ "RAPS-5". PRIS. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  16. ^ "RAPS-6". PRIS. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  17. ^ a b "Kakrapar 3 achieves first criticality : New Nuclear - World Nuclear News".
  18. ^ "Indian government takes steps to get nuclear back on track - World Nuclear News". world-nuclear-news.org. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  19. ^ "RAPS-7". PRIS. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  20. ^ "RAPS-8". PRIS. Retrieved 13 February 2020.