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Google Pay
Developer(s)Google
Initial releaseMay 26, 2011; 11 years ago (2011-05-26) (as Google Wallet)
September 11, 2015; 7 years ago (2015-09-11) (as Android Pay)
January 8, 2018; 4 years ago (2018-01-08) (as Google Pay)
Stable release(s) [±]
Operating systemAndroid 5 or later
Wear OS 2 or later
Platform
LicenseProprietary
Websitedevelopers.google.com/pay

Google Pay (formerly Android Pay) is a mobile payment service developed by Google to power in-app, online, and in-person contactless purchases on mobile devices, enabling users to make payments with Android phones, tablets, or watches. Users can authenticate via a PIN, passcode, or biometrics such as 3D face scanning or fingerprint recognition.[1]

As of 2022, it is currently available in 46 countries.[2] In 2022, a companion app named Google Wallet was released.

Service

Google Pay uses near-field communication (NFC) to transmit card information facilitating funds transfer to the retailer. It replaces the credit or debit card chip and PIN or magnetic stripe transaction at point-of-sale terminals by allowing the user to upload these in Google Wallet. It is similar to contactless payments already used in many countries, with the addition of two-factor authentication. The service lets Android devices wirelessly communicate with point of sale systems using a near field communication (NFC) antenna and host-based card emulation (HCE).

When the user makes a payment to a merchant, Google Pay does not send the actual payment card number. Instead, it generates a virtual account number representing the user's account information.[3]

Google Pay requires that a screen lock be set on the phone or watch.[4] It has no card limit.[5][6][7]

Users can add payment cards to the service by taking a photo of the card, or by entering the card information manually. To pay at points of sale, users hold their authenticated device to the point of sale system. The service has smart-authentication, allowing the system to detect when the device is considered secure (for instance if unlocked in the last five minutes) and challenge if necessary for unlock information.[8]

Technology

Google Pay uses the EMV Payment Tokenisation Specification.[9]

The service keeps customer payment information private from the retailer by replacing the customer's credit or debit card Funding Primary Account Number (FPAN) with a tokenized Device Primary Account Number (DPAN) and creates a "dynamic security code [...] generated for each transaction". The "dynamic security code" is the cryptogram in an EMV-mode transaction, and the Dynamic Card Verification Value (dCVV) in a magnetic-stripe-data emulation-mode transaction. Users can also remotely halt the service on a lost phone via Google's Find My Device service.

To pay at points of sale, users hold their authenticated Android device to the point-of-sale system's NFC reader. Android users authenticate unlocking their phone by using biometrics, a pattern, or a passcode, whereas Wear OS users authenticate by opening the Google Wallet app prior to payment.[10]

Consumer Device Cardholder Verification Method (CDCVM)

In EMV-mode transactions, Google Pay supports the use of the Consumer Device Cardholder Verification Method (CDCVM) using biometrics, pattern, or the phone's or watch's passcode. The use of CDCVM allows the device itself to provide verification for the transaction and may not require the cardholder to sign a receipt or enter their PIN. Additionally, in certain markets which have a "no verification contactless limit" using contactless cards (such as the £100 limit in the United Kingdom and the CA$100 limit in Canada), the use of CDCVM can enable merchants to accept transactions higher than these amounts using Google Pay, provided that their terminal software is updated to support the latest network contactless specifications.[11][12]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Set up screen lock to make contactless payments - Android - Google Pay Help". support.google.com. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  2. ^ "Find supported payment methods for contactless purchases - Android". Google Pay Help. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  3. ^ "Google introduces Android Pay, a replacement for its wallet app on mobile". The Verge. May 28, 2015. Archived from the original on May 28, 2015. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
  4. ^ "Set up Google Pay". Archived from the original on June 4, 2018.
  5. ^ "Google Pay". HSBC. HSBC UK. Archived from the original on June 4, 2018. Retrieved June 4, 2018. There is no limit to the number of cards you can add to your device.
  6. ^ "Android Pay Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). CO-OP Financial Services. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 4, 2018. Retrieved June 4, 2018. How many cards can the Android Pay app store? As many as you would like! There is no limit on the number of cards storable in the Android Pay app.
  7. ^ "Google Pay Frequently Asked Questions -". Institution for Savings. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 4, 2018. How many cards can I use with Google Pay? As many as you would like! There is no limit on the number of cards storable in the Google Pay app.
  8. ^ "Fingerprint and payments APIs (100 Days of Google Dev)". Google Developers. 2015. Archived from the original on August 26, 2016. Retrieved December 2, 2016 – via YouTube.
  9. ^ "Payment Tokenisation". EMVco. March 1, 2014.
  10. ^ "Pay with your smartwatch". Google Pay Help. Google Inc. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
  11. ^ "Set up screen lock to make contactless payments – Android – Google Pay Help". Google Inc. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
  12. ^ "CDCVM – Google Pay Merchant Help". Google Inc. Retrieved July 8, 2020.

Media related to Google Pay at Wikimedia Commons