Android 11
Version of the Android operating system
Screenshot
Android 11 home screen with Pixel Launcher
DeveloperGoogle
OS familyAndroid
General
availability
September 8, 2020; 3 years ago (2020-09-08)
Latest release11.0.0_r76 (RSV1.210329.107)[1] / February 5, 2024; 1 day ago (2024-02-05)
Kernel typeMonolithic (Linux)
Preceded byAndroid 10[2]
Succeeded byAndroid 12
Official websiteandroid.com/android-11 Edit this at Wikidata
Support status
Supported[3]

Android 11 is the eleventh major release and 18th version of Android, the mobile operating system developed by the Open Handset Alliance led by Google.[4] It was released on September 8, 2020.[5][6] The first phone launched in Europe with Android 11 was the Vivo X51 5G[7] and after its full stable release, the first phone in the world which came with Android 11 after Google Pixel 5 was OnePlus 8T.[8][9]

Since Android 11, apps can no longer access files in any other app's directory within storage (likewise to "Android/Data").[10]

As of November 2023, Android 11, the oldest still-supported Android version, is the third most commonly used version of the Android OS with a share of 17 percent, slightly behind Android 12.[11]

History

Android 11 logo for Developer preview and Beta release

Android 11 (internally codenamed Red Velvet Cake)[12] was intended for three monthly developer preview builds to be released before the first beta release, initially due in May, with a total of three monthly beta releases before the actual release. A state of "platform stability" was planned for July 2020, and the final release occurred on September 8, 2020.[4][13][14]

The first developer preview build of Android 11 was released on February 19, 2020, as a factory image for supported Google Pixel smartphones (excluding the first-generation Pixel and Pixel XL). Developer Preview 2 was then released on March 18,[15] followed by Developer Preview 3 on April 23.[16] On May 6, Google released an unexpected Developer Preview 4, as they pushed the whole roadmap for Android 11 forward a month, setting the date for the first beta for June 3.[17]

The release of the first public beta was originally set to take place on June 3 at Google I/O, which was ultimately canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic, an online release event being planned instead.[18] Following the George Floyd protests, Google announced that the release of the first Android 11 beta would be postponed.[19] Beta 1 was finally released on June 10, 2020,[20] followed by Beta 2 on July 8.[21] A hotfix Beta 2.5 was then released on July 22,[22] with Beta 3 released on August 6.[23] It was released on September 8, 2020.[5][6]

Features

See also: Android version history § Android 11

User experience

Android 11 introduces "conversations" notifications; they are designed for chat and messaging, and can be presented in pop-up overlays known as "bubbles" when supported by apps. Conversations can also be marked as "priority" to give them greater prominence (pushing them to the top of notifications, and allowing them to bypass do not disturb mode). Notification history over the past 24 hours can also be displayed.[24] Bubbles is designed to replace the existing overlay permission, which is being deprecated in the future due to security (due to its use by clickjacking malware) and performance concerns.[25]

The menu displayed when holding the power button now includes an area devoted to controlling smart home devices (only on Pixel devices).[24] The screenshot button is moved to the recents screen (only on Pixel devices).[24][26] Apps can be pinned on the share menu.[24]

Android 11 includes a built-in screen recorder.[27] Media controls are displayed as part of the quick settings area and no longer as a persistent notification,[24] and can be swiped sideways to access those for other apps.[28]

Accessibility

The voice control system is capable of recognizing screen context.[24]

Platform

Android 11 contains various APIs designed for detecting the presence of 5G network connectivity in order to provide enhanced in-app experiences.[29] Android 11 contains new APIs for handling devices with hinged displays (such as foldable smartphones) and ultra-curved "waterfall" displays.[30]

A new API can be used to monitor a device's temperature and adjust application operations accordingly.[30] OpenSL ES is deprecated in favor of Oboe.[31] Android 11 supports wireless debugging.[30] Android 11 Go Edition has performance improvements, privacy enhancement, increasing storage, upgraded RAM storage and new app features, with Google stating that apps would launch 20% quicker than on Android 10.[32]

Privacy and security

If automatically rebooting after a system update, apps can automatically resume and regain access to credential-encrypted storage without authentication.[30][33] Android 11 introduces "one-time" permissions for camera, microphone, and location; when requested by an app, the user must choose whether to grant access whenever they are using the app, only once, or deny. Repeatedly denying permission will imply an indefinite rejection. Apps must require users to go to the system settings menu in order to enable background location tracking, and all "sensitive" permissions are automatically reset if the user has not used an app for several months.[24][34][35][36]

Apps targeting Android 11 are only allowed to access files in external storage that they have created themselves ("scoped storage"), preferably contained within an app-specific directory, and audio, image, and video files contained within the Music, Pictures, or Videos directories. Any other file may only be accessed via user intervention through the Storage Access Framework.[34][37][38] To "ensure that the EXIF location metadata is correctly processed based on the location permissions defined within the app", Android 11 restricts image and video capture Intents to system camera apps only. This does not affect cameras built into apps (such as, for example, Instagram or Snapchat).[34][39][40]

References

  1. ^ "Android security 11.0.0 release 76". Google Git.
  2. ^ "This could be Android 12, Google's next Android OS". February 8, 2021.
  3. ^ "Android Security Bulletin—January 2024".
  4. ^ a b "Android 11". Android Developers. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
  5. ^ a b Cipriani, Jason (September 8, 2020). "Google releases Android 11 with new features and privacy enhancements". ZDNet. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  6. ^ a b Burke, Dave (September 8, 2020). "Turning it up to Android 11". Google The Keyword. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  7. ^ "vivo United Kingdom". Vivo. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  8. ^ "This phone is the first to ship with Android 11 — but it isn't a Pixel". Android Police. September 30, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  9. ^ "The Vivo V20 is the first phone to launch with Android 11 out of the box". xda-developers. September 30, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  10. ^ "Android 11 : Scoped Storage". DhiWise. July 21, 2021.
  11. ^ "Mobile Android Version Market Share Worldwide". StatCounter. May 30, 2023. Retrieved June 9, 2023.
  12. ^ Gartenberg, Chaim (July 23, 2020). "Even Android 11 is cake". The Verge. Retrieved December 18, 2021.
  13. ^ Bohn, Dieter (February 19, 2020). "Google releases Android 11 developer preview earlier than expected". The Verge. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  14. ^ "Android 11 will have 3 developer previews and 3 betas before release". Android Police. February 19, 2020. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  15. ^ "Android 11: Developer Preview 2". Official Google developers blog. March 18, 2020.
  16. ^ "Android 11 developer preview 3 is now available". ZDNet. April 23, 2020.
  17. ^ "Bonus Android 11 Developer Preview 4 lands today". AndroidPolice. May 6, 2020.
  18. ^ Haselton, Todd (March 20, 2020). "Google's big developer conference is now completely canceled because of coronavirus". CNBC. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
  19. ^ Bohn, Dieter (May 30, 2020). "Google delays the Android 11 Beta announcement as protests roil US cities". The Verge. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  20. ^ Faulkner, Cameron (June 10, 2020). "How to install the Android 11 public beta". The Verge. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  21. ^ "Google releases Android 11 Beta 2 with 'Platform Stability' for Pixel phones". VentureBeat. July 8, 2020.
  22. ^ "Google releases Android 11 Beta 2.5 patch with Pixel 4 display fix". July 22, 2020.
  23. ^ "Android 11 beta 3 lands, requires users to opt-in to Exposure Notifications API". Android Authority. August 6, 2020.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g Bohn, Dieter (June 10, 2020). "Android 11: conversations, bubbles, and making sense of complexity". The Verge. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  25. ^ "Google will entirely kill the overlay permission in a future Android release". Android Police. May 8, 2019. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  26. ^ "Google's Android 11 message: No other phone will be as good as a Pixel". PCWorld. September 10, 2020. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  27. ^ "Android 11: Everything you need to know!". Android Central. September 2, 2020. Retrieved September 7, 2020.
  28. ^ Johnson, Dave (March 26, 2021). "The 11 best new features of Android 11". Business Insider. Retrieved August 24, 2021.
  29. ^ "Add 5G capabilities to your app". Android Developers. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  30. ^ a b c d "Features and APIs Overview". Android Developers. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  31. ^ "Home · google/oboe Wiki". GitHub. Retrieved July 2, 2022.
  32. ^ Peters, Jay (September 10, 2020). "Android 11 Go is available today, and it will launch apps 20 percent faster". The Verge. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
  33. ^ Condon, Stephanie. "Google releases second developer preview of Android 11". ZDNet. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
  34. ^ a b c "Behavior changes: Apps targeting Android 11". Android Developers. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  35. ^ "Behavior changes: all apps". Android Developers. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  36. ^ "Privacy in Android 11". Android Developers. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  37. ^ "Android Q Scoped Storage: Best Practices and Updates". Android Developers Blog. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  38. ^ "Android Q privacy change: Scoped storage". Android Developers. Archived from the original on July 11, 2019. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  39. ^ "Android 11 is taking away the camera picker to limit potential geotag hijacking". Android Police. August 18, 2020. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  40. ^ Hollister, Sean (August 20, 2020). "Google confirms Android 11 will limit third-party camera apps because of location spying fears". The Verge. Retrieved August 25, 2020.