Lasith Malinga bowling to Shahid Afridi in the 2009 T20 World Cup Final at Lord's, London.

Twenty20 (T20) is a shortened game format of cricket. At the professional level, it was introduced by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) in 2003 for the inter-county competition.[1] In a Twenty20 game, the two teams have a single innings each, which is restricted to a maximum of twenty overs. Together with first-class and List A cricket, Twenty20 is one of the three current forms of cricket recognised by the International Cricket Council (ICC) as being at the highest international or domestic level.

A typical Twenty20 game is completed in about two and a half hours, with each innings lasting around 70 minutes and an official 10-minute break between the innings. This is much shorter than previous forms of the game, and is closer to the timespan of other popular team sports. It was introduced to create a fast-paced game that would be attractive to spectators at the ground and viewers on television.

The game has succeeded in spreading around the cricket world. On most international tours there is at least one Twenty20 match and all Test-playing nations have a domestic cup competition.

History

Origins

Former England batsman Andrew Strauss batting for Middlesex against Surrey

When the Benson & Hedges Cup ended in 2002, the ECB sought another one-day competition to fill with the younger generation in response to dwindling crowds and reduced sponsorship. The Board wanted to deliver fast-paced, exciting cricket accessible to fans who were put off by the longer versions of the game.[2] Stuart Robertson, the marketing manager of the ECB, proposed a 20-over-per-innings game, invented by New Zealand cricketer Martin Crowe, to county chairmen in 2001, and they voted 11–7 in favour of adopting the new format.[3]

The first official Twenty20 matches were played on 13 June 2003 between the English counties in the Twenty20 Cup.[4] The first season of Twenty20 in England was a relative success, with the Surrey Lions defeating the Warwickshire Bears by nine wickets in the final to claim the title.[5] The first Twenty20 match held at Lord's, on 15 July 2004 between Middlesex and Surrey, attracted a crowd of 27,509, the highest attendance for any county cricket game at the ground – other than a one-day final – since 1953.[6]

Worldwide spread

Thirteen teams from different parts of the country participated in Pakistan's inaugural competition in 2004, with the Faisalabad Wolves the first winners. On 12 January 2005 Australia's first Twenty20 game was played at the WACA Ground between the Western Warriors and the Victorian Bushrangers. It drew a sell-out crowd of 20,000, which was the first one in nearly 25 years.[7]

Starting on 11 July 2006, 19 West Indies regional teams competed in what was named the Stanford 20/20 tournament. The event was financially backed by billionaire Allen Stanford, who gave at least $28 million in funding money. It was intended that the tournament would be an annual event. Guyana won the inaugural event, defeating Trinidad and Tobago by five wickets, securing $1 million in prize money.[8][9]

On 5 January 2007 the Queensland Bulls played the New South Wales Blues at The Gabba, Brisbane. An unexpected 16,000 fans turned up on the day to buy tickets, causing Gabba staff to throw open gates and grant many fans free entry. Attendance reached 27,653.[10] For the February 2008 Twenty20 match between Australia and India, 85,824 people attended the match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, involving the Twenty20 World Champions[11] against the ODI World Champions.[12]

The Stanford Super Series was held in October 2008 between the three teams. The respective winners of the English and Caribbean Twenty20 competitions, Middlesex and Trinidad and Tobago, and a Stanford Superstars team formed from West Indies domestic players. Trinidad and Tobago won the competition, securing $280,000 prize money.[13][14] On 1 November, the Stanford Superstars played England in what was expected to be the first of five fixtures in as many years with the winner claiming $20 million in each match. The Stanford Superstars won the first match,[15] but no further fixtures were held as Allen Stanford was charged with fraud in 2009.[16]

T20 leagues

Main article: List of T20 cricket competitions

Crowd during a match of the 2015 IPL season in Hyderabad, India

Several T20 leagues started after the popularity of the 2007 ICC World Twenty20.[17] The Board of Control for Cricket in India started the Indian Premier League popularly known as IPL, which is now the largest cricket league, in 2008, which utilizes the North American sports franchise system with ten teams in major Indian cities. In September 2017, the broadcasting and digital rights for the next five years (2018–2022) of the IPL[18] were sold to Star India for US$2.55 billion,[19] making it one of the world's most lucrative sports league per match. The IPL has seen a spike in its brand valuation to US$5.3 billion after the 10th edition, according to global valuation and corporate finance advisor Duff & Phelps.[20]

The Big Bash League, Bangladesh Premier League, Pakistan Super League, Caribbean Premier League, and Afghanistan Premier League started thereafter, following similar formulae, and remained popular with the fans.[21][22] The Women's Big Bash League was started in 2015 by Cricket Australia, while the Kia Super League was started in England and Wales in 2016. The Mzansi Super League in South Africa was started in 2018.

Several T20 leagues[23] follow the general format of having a group stage followed by a Page playoff system among the top four teams where:

In the Big Bash League, there is an additional match to determine which of the fourth- or fifth-placed teams will qualify to be in the top four.[24]

Twenty20 Internationals

Main articles: Twenty20 International and Women's Twenty20 International

The first Twenty20 International match was held on 5 August 2004 between the England and New Zealand women's teams, with New Zealand winning by nine runs.[25]

On 17 February 2005 Australia defeated New Zealand in the first men's international Twenty20 match, played at Eden Park in Auckland. The game was played in a light-hearted manner – both sides turned out in kit similar to that worn in the 1980s, the New Zealand team's a direct copy of that worn by the Beige Brigade. Some of the players also sported moustaches or beards and hairstyles popular in the 1980s, taking part in a competition amongst themselves for "best retro look", at the request of the Beige Brigade. Australia won the game comprehensively, and as the result became obvious towards the end of the NZ innings, the players and umpires took things less seriously: Glenn McGrath jokingly replayed the Trevor Chappell underarm incident from a 1981 ODI between the two sides, and Billy Bowden showed him a mock red card (red cards are not normally used in cricket) in response.

The first Twenty20 international in England was played between England and Australia at the Rose Bowl in Hampshire on 13 June 2005, which England won by a margin of 100 runs, a record victory which lasted until 2007.[26]

On 9 January 2006 Australia and South Africa met in the first international Twenty20 game in Australia. In a first, each player's nickname appeared on the back of his uniform, rather than his surname. The international match drew a crowd of 38,894 people at The Gabba.

On 16 February 2006 New Zealand defeated West Indies in a tie-breaking bowl-out 3–0; 126 runs were scored apiece in the game proper. The game was the last international match played by Chris Cairns.

The ICC has declared that it sees T20 as the optimal format for globalizing the game,[27] and in 2018, announced that it will give international status to all T20 cricket matches played between its member nations.[28] This resulted in a significant leap in the number of T20I matches played across the world.[29][30]

Twenty20 World Cup

Main articles: ICC Men's T20 World Cup and ICC Women's T20 World Cup

Every two years an ICC World Twenty20 tournament is to take place, except in the event of an ICC Cricket World Cup being scheduled in the same year, in which case it will be held the year before. The first tournament was in 2007 in South Africa where India defeated Pakistan in the final. Two Associate teams had played in the first tournament, selected through the 2007 ICC World Cricket League Division One, a 50-over competition. In December 2007 it was decided to hold a qualifying tournament with a 20-over format to better prepare the teams. With six participants, two would qualify for the 2009 World Twenty20 and would each receive $250,000 in prize money.[31] The second tournament was won by Pakistan, who beat Sri Lanka by eight wickets in England on 21 June 2009. The 2010 ICC World Twenty20 tournament was held in the West Indies in May 2010, where England defeated Australia by seven wickets. The 2012 ICC World Twenty20 was won by the West Indies, by defeating Sri Lanka at the finals. It was the first time in cricket history when a T20 World Cup tournament took place in an Asian country. The 2014 ICC World Twenty20 was won by Sri Lanka, by defeating India at the finals, where the tournament was held in Bangladesh. The 2016 ICC World Twenty20 was won by West Indies. In July 2020, the ICC announced that both the 2020 and 2021 editions had been postponed by one year due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

In June 2021, the ICC expanded the Twenty20 World Cup from 16 to 20 teams starting from the 2024 edition onwards.[32]

Impact on the game

Twenty20 matches can have some exciting displays, such as when the batsmen run out to the pitch

Twenty20 cricket is claimed to have resulted in a more athletic and explosive form of cricket. Indian fitness coach Ramji Srinivasan declared in an interview with the Indian fitness website Takath.com that Twenty20 had "raised the bar" in terms of fitness levels for all players, demanding higher levels of strength, speed, agility and reaction time from all players regardless of role in the team.[33] Matthew Hayden credited retirement from international cricket with aiding his performance in general and fitness in particular in the Indian Premier League.[34]

Several commentators have noted that the T20 format has been embraced by many Associate members of the ICC partly because it is more financially viable to play.[35][27]

Former Australian captain Ricky Ponting, on the other hand, has criticised Twenty20 as being detrimental to Test cricket and for hampering batsmen's scoring skills and concentration.[36] Former Australian captain Greg Chappell made similar complaints, fearing that young players would play too much T20 and not develop their batting skills fully, while former England player Alex Tudor feared the same for bowling skills.[37][38]

Former West Indies captains Clive Lloyd, Michael Holding and Garfield Sobers criticised Twenty20 for its role in discouraging players from representing their test cricket national side, with many West Indies players like Chris Gayle, Sunil Narine and Dwayne Bravo preferring instead to play in a Twenty20 franchise elsewhere in the world and make far more money.[39][40][41][42][43]

Under-17s and Under-19s are playing T20 games in national championships, and at the detriment of two-day games. Good state players these days are averaging 35; if you were averaging 35 when I was playing your dad would go and buy you a basketball or a footy and tell you to play that.

Ricky Ponting, [44]

Inclusion in multi-sport events

In June 2009, speaking at the annual Cowdrey Lecture at Lord's, former Australian wicketkeeper Adam Gilchrist pushed for Twenty20 to be made an Olympic sport. "It would," he said, "be difficult to see a better, quicker or cheaper way of spreading the game throughout the world."[45] This became a reality starting with the 2028 Summer Olympics. T20 cricket has also been accepted into the Asian Games and Commonwealth Games.[46]

Match format and rules

Format

Twenty20 match format is a form of limited overs cricket in that it involves two teams, each with a single innings. The key feature is that each team bats for a maximum of 20 overs (120 legal balls). The batting team members do not arrive from and depart to traditional dressing rooms, but come and go from a bench (typically a row of chairs) visible in the playing arena, analogous to association football's technical area or a baseball dugout.[47]

Middlesex playing against Surrey at Lord's, in front of a 28,000-strong crowd

General rules

The Laws of cricket apply to Twenty20, with major exceptions:[48]

Tie deciders

Main article: Super Over

Currently, if the match ends with the scores tied and there must be a winner, the tie is broken with a one-over-per-side Eliminator[49] or Super Over:[50][51] Each team nominates three batsmen and one bowler to play a one-over-per-side "mini-match". The team which bats second in the match bats first in the Super Over.[52][53] In turn, each side bats one over bowled by the one nominated opposition bowler, with their innings over if they lose two wickets before the over is completed. The side with the higher score from their Super Over wins. If the Super Over also ends up in a tie, it is repeated until the tie is broken.

In the Australian domestic competition the Big Bash League, the Super Over is played slightly differently, with no two-wicket limit, and if the Super Over is also tied then a "countback" is used, with scores after the fifth ball for each team being used to determine the result. If it is still tied, then the countback goes to four balls, and so on.[54] The latest Super Over to decide a match was between the United States and Pakistan on 6 June 2024, in the 2024 ICC Men's T20 World Cup at Grand Prairie Stadium in Dallas, Texas, with the United States winning 18/1 to 13/1 in the Super Over after tying on 159.

Tied Twenty20 matches were previously decided by a bowl-out.[55]

International

Main articles: Twenty20 International and Women's Twenty20 International

Women's and men's Twenty20 Internationals have been played since 2004 and 2005 respectively. To date, 76 nations have played the format, including all Test-playing nations.

Nation Date of men's T20I debut Date of women's T20I debut
 Australia 17 February 2005 2 September 2005
 New Zealand 17 February 2005 5 August 2004
 England 13 June 2005 5 August 2004
 South Africa 21 October 2005 10 August 2007
 West Indies 16 February 2006 27 June 2008
 Sri Lanka 15 June 2006 12 June 2009
 Pakistan 28 August 2006 25 May 2009
 Bangladesh 28 November 2006 27 August 2012
 Zimbabwe 28 November 2006 5 January 2019
 India 1 December 2006 5 August 2006
 Kenya 1 September 2007 6 April 2019
 Scotland 12 September 2007 7 July 2018
 Netherlands 2 August 2008 27 June 2008
 Ireland 2 August 2008 27 June 2008
 Canada 2 August 2008 17 May 2019
 Bermuda 3 August 2008
 Afghanistan 2 February 2010
   Nepal 16 March 2014 12 January 2019
 Hong Kong 16 March 2014 12 January 2019
 United Arab Emirates 17 March 2014 7 July 2018
 Papua New Guinea 15 July 2015 7 July 2018
 Oman 25 July 2015 17 January 2020
 Sierra Leone 19 October 2021 20 August 2018
 Lesotho 16 October 2021 20 August 2018
 South Korea 9 October 2022 3 November 2018
 China 26 July 2023 3 November 2018
 Indonesia 9 October 2022 12 January 2019
 Myanmar 26 July 2023 12 January 2019
 Bhutan 5 December 2019 13 January 2019
 Bahrain 20 January 2019 20 March 2022
 Saudi Arabia 20 January 2019 20 March 2022
 Kuwait 20 January 2019 18 February 2019
 Maldives 20 January 2019 2 December 2019
 Qatar 21 January 2019 17 January 2020
 Rwanda 18 August 2021 26 January 2019
 United States 15 March 2019 17 May 2019
 Philippines 22 March 2019 21 December 2019
 Vanuatu 22 March 2019 6 May 2019
 Spain 29 March 2019 5 May 2022
 Malta 29 March 2019 27 August 2022
 Mexico 25 April 2019 23 August 2018
 Belize 25 April 2019 13 December 2019
 Costa Rica 25 April 2019 26 April 2019
 Panama 25 April 2019
 Japan 9 October 2022 6 May 2019
 Fiji 9 September 2022 6 May 2019
 Tanzania 2 November 2021 6 May 2019
 Belgium 11 May 2019 25 September 2021
 Germany 11 May 2019 26 June 2019
 Uganda 20 May 2019 7 July 2018
 Nigeria 20 May 2019 26 January 2019
 Ghana 20 May 2019 28 March 2022
 Namibia 20 May 2019 20 August 2018
 Botswana 20 May 2019 20 August 2018
 Italy 25 May 2019 9 August 2021
 Guernsey 31 May 2019 31 May 2019
 Jersey 31 May 2019 31 May 2019
 Norway 15 June 2019 31 July 2019
 Denmark 16 June 2019 28 May 2022
 Mali 17 November 2021 18 June 2019
 Malaysia 24 June 2019 3 June 2018
 Thailand 24 June 2019 3 June 2018
 Samoa 8 July 2019 6 May 2019
 Finland 13 July 2019
 Singapore 22 July 2019 9 August 2018
 France 5 August 2021 31 July 2019
 Cayman Islands 18 August 2019
 Austria 29 August 2019 31 July 2019
 Romania 29 August 2019 27 August 2022
 Luxembourg 29 August 2019
 Turkey 29 August 2019 29 May 2023
 Czech Republic 30 August 2019
 Argentina 3 October 2019 3 October 2019
 Brazil 3 October 2019 23 August 2018
 Chile 3 October 2019 23 August 2018
 Peru 3 October 2019 3 October 2019
 Bulgaria 14 October 2019
 Serbia 14 October 2019 10 September 2022
 Greece 15 October 2019 9 September 2022
 Portugal 25 October 2019
 Gibraltar 26 October 2019
 Malawi 6 November 2019 20 August 2018
 Mozambique 6 November 2019 20 August 2018

T20 International rankings

Main articles: ICC World Twenty20 rankings and ICC Women's ODI and T20I rankings

In November 2011, the ICC released the first Twenty20 International rankings for the men's game, based on the same system as the Test and ODI rankings. The rankings cover a two- to three-year period, with matches since the most recent 1 August weighted fully, matches in the preceding 12 months weighted two-thirds, and matches in the 12 months preceding that weighted one-third. To qualify for the rankings, teams must have played at least eight Twenty20 Internationals in the ranking period.[56][57]

The ICC Women's Rankings were launched in October 2015, which aggregated performance over all three forms of the game.[58] In October 2018, the ICC announced that the women's ranking would be split between ODIs and T20Is, and released both tables shortly thereafter.[59]

ICC Men's T20I Team Rankings
Team Matches Points Rating
 India 55 14,714 268
 Australia 40 10,241 256
 England 39 9876 253
 West Indies 46 11604 252
 South Africa 35 8777 251
 New Zealand 49 12,113 247
 Pakistan 46 11,097 241
 Sri Lanka 37 8,508 230
 Bangladesh 50 11,253 225
 Afghanistan 39 8,682 223
 Ireland 47 9,159 195
 Zimbabwe 41 7,878 192
 Scotland 24 4,606 192
 Namibia 37 6,965 188
 Netherlands 21 3,873 184
 United Arab Emirates 42 7,386 176
   Nepal 39 6,601 169
 United States 20 3381 169
 Oman 38 6,192 163
 Papua New Guinea 31 4,472 144
 Uganda 62 8,353 135
 Hong Kong 37 4,977 135
 Canada 21 2,700 129
 Malaysia 40 4,931 123
 Kuwait 31 3,677 119
 Bahrain 34 4,030 119
 Jersey 22 2,556 116
 Qatar 23 2,598 113
 Italy 18 1,944 108
 Bermuda 11 1,185 108
 Spain 13 1,376 106
 Kenya 42 4,419 105
 Saudi Arabia 30 3,142 105
 Germany 28 2,541 91
 Tanzania 42 3,797 90
 Guernsey 18 1,389 77
 Nigeria 29 2,233 77
 Singapore 23 1,676 73
 Cayman Islands 9 646 72
 Denmark 21 1,430 68
 Cambodia 22 1,471 67
 Norway 15 985 66
 Portugal 17 1,071 63
 Isle of Man 14 857 61
 Belgium 25 1,512 60
  Switzerland 13 751 58
 Vanuatu 16 921 58
 Austria 30 1,691 56
 France 24 1,325 55
 Botswana 24 1,298 54
 Japan 28 1,504 54
 Romania 28 1,316 47
 Czech Republic 14 658 47
 Malawi 18 834 46
 Sweden 13 580 45
 Finland 16 684 43
 Argentina 8 340 43
 Philippines 17 701 41
 Indonesia 28 1,091 39
 Thailand 24 850 35
 Rwanda 60 2,006 33
 Mozambique 16 522 33
 Ghana 28 873 31
 Fiji 5 152 30
 Malta 41 1,188 29
 Luxembourg 28 753 27
 Sierra Leone 25 651 26
 Israel 7 178 25
 Bahamas 8 191 24
 Gibraltar 25 528 21
 Hungary 17 336 20
 Estonia 14 255 18
 Panama 9 257 17
 Serbia 13 176 14
 Cyprus 12 146 12
 Bhutan 16 176 11
 Bulgaria 21 154 7
 Eswatini 17 118 7
 China 11 53 5
 Maldives 21 61 3
 Cameroon 10 26 3
 Mongolia 8 0 0
 Turkey 9 0 0
 Seychelles 5 0 0
 Samoa 5 0 0
 Mali 6 0 0
 Lesotho 11 0 0
 Gambia 6 0 0
 Croatia 8 0 0
References: ICC T20I rankings, As of 2 July 2024
"Matches" is the number of matches played in the 12–24 months since the May before last, plus half the number in the 24 months before that.
ICC Women's T20I Rankings
Team Matches Points Rating
 Australia 34 9,982 294
 England 38 10,752 283
 India 48 12,613 263
 New Zealand 32 8,163 255
 South Africa 32 7,736 242
 West Indies 35 8,331 238
 Sri Lanka 43 9,868 229
 Pakistan 41 8,936 218
 Bangladesh 38 7,562 199
 Ireland 38 6,868 181
 Papua New Guinea 26 4,088 157
 Thailand 44 6,766 154
 Zimbabwe 37 5,616 152
 Scotland 28 4,236 151
 Netherlands 35 4,421 126
 United Arab Emirates 52 6,531 122
 Uganda 58 6,414 111
 Namibia 33 3,649 111
 Tanzania 34 3,468 102
 Indonesia 28 2,830 101
   Nepal 32 3,101 97
 Hong Kong 45 3,993 89
 United States 17 1,320 78
 Malaysia 43 3,225 75
 Kenya 46 3,441 75
 Rwanda 56 3,995 71
 Nigeria 45 3,143 70
 Italy 22 1,430 65
 Jersey 13 839 65
 Gibraltar 7 450 64
 Vanuatu 27 1,628 60
 Canada 9 513 57
 Greece 11 613 56
 Germany 15 766 51
 Spain 6 256 43
 France 23 973 42
 Brazil 20 846 42
 Sweden 16 586 37
 Luxembourg 9 323 36
 Guernsey 11 375 34
 Isle of Man 14 462 33
 Sierra Leone 21 632 30
 Botswana 39 1,150 29
 Myanmar 13 334 26
 China 12 294 25
 Bhutan 13 317 24
 Kuwait 21 487 23
 Samoa 21 386 18
 Singapore 28 493 18
 Mozambique 16 269 17
 Malta 6 100 17
 Romania 13 207 16
 Japan 24 363 15
 Malawi 10 125 13
 Bahrain 11 123 11
 Cook Islands 11 108 10
 Austria 27 252 9
 Argentina 20 150 8
 Denmark 8 57 7
 Qatar 20 126 6
 Cambodia 13 28 2
 Oman 7 11 2
 Norway 11 3 0
 Mongolia 8 0 0
 Eswatini 9 0 0
 Serbia 7 0 0
 Philippines 12 0 0
 Lesotho 10 0 0
 Ghana 7 0 0
 Fiji 21 0 0
 Estonia 9 0 0
 Cameroon 19 0 0
 Czech Republic 7 0 0
 Belgium 6 0 0
References: ICC Women's T20I Rankings, Updated on 2 July 2024

Domestic professional T20 leagues

The Kolkata Knight Riders taking on the Chennai Super Kings at the Eden Gardens during India's IPL 01 (2008).
The Perth Scorchers taking on the Hobart Hurricanes at the WACA Ground during Australia's BBL 01 (2011–12).

Main article: List of Twenty20 cricket competitions

This is a list of the current Twenty20 domestic competitions in several of the leading cricket countries.

Country Domestic competitions Number of teams
Australia Big Bash League 8
Bangladesh Bangladesh Premier League 8
Canada Global T20 Canada 6
England T20 Blast 18
Hong Kong Hong Kong T20 Blitz 5
India Indian Premier League, Syed Mushtaq Ali Trophy 10, 38
Ireland Inter-Provincial Trophy 4
Netherlands Dutch Twenty20 Cup 16
Nepal Nepal T20 League, Everest Premier League 6,6
New Zealand Super Smash 6
Pakistan Pakistan Super League, National T20 Cup, Kashmir Premier League, Pakistan Junior League 6, 6, 8, 1
Scotland Murgitroyd Twenty20, Regional Pro Series 3
South Africa Mzansi Super League, CSA Provincial T20 Cup, SA20 6, 15, 6
Sri Lanka Lanka Premier League 5
West Indies Caribbean Premier League 6
United Arab Emirates International League T20 6
United States Major League Cricket 6
Zimbabwe Stanbic Bank 20 Series 4

See also

References

  1. ^ "The first official T20 in 2003". 12 March 2016. Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  2. ^ Gardner, Alan (13 January 2015). "T20 timeline: Revolution to uncertainty". ESPNcricinfo. ESPN.
  3. ^ Cleaver, Dylan (3 November 2010). Brendon McCullum: Inside Twenty20. Hachette New Zealand. ISBN 978-1-86971-238-9. Archived from the original on 3 April 2023. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  4. ^ Matches played 13 June 2003 Archived 10 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 9 June 2008
  5. ^ Twenty20 Cup, 2003, Final – Surrey v Warwickshire Archived 25 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 9 June 2008
  6. ^ Weaver, Paul (25 May 2009). "Usman Afzaal gives Surrey winning start but absent fans fuel concerns". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  7. ^ "Sellout at WACA for Twenty20 match". ESPNcricinfo. 12 January 2005. Archived from the original on 22 July 2021. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  8. ^ "Guyana crowned Stanford 20/20 champions". ESPNcricinfo. 14 August 2006. Archived from the original on 8 February 2023. Retrieved 15 February 2023.
  9. ^ "Dates for Stanford Twenty20 announced". The Jamaica Observer. 9 February 2006. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008.
  10. ^ "Gabba fans let in for free". Cricket20.com. Archived from the original on 8 October 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2007.
  11. ^ "India crash to nine-wicket defeat". ESPNcricinfo. 1 February 2008. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 15 February 2023.
  12. ^ S Rajesh; HR Gopalakrishna. "Australia v Sri Lanka, World Cup final, Barbados". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 30 April 2007.
  13. ^ "Udal leads Middlesex for Stanford". ESPNcricinfo. 3 October 2008. Archived from the original on 22 July 2021. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  14. ^ McGlashan, Andrew (27 October 2008). "Ramdin leads T&T to big-money glory". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 18 April 2021. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  15. ^ McGlashan, Andrew (1 November 2008). "Gayle leads Superstars to millions". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  16. ^ "US tycoon charged over $8bn fraud". BBC News. 17 February 2009. Archived from the original on 12 July 2022. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  17. ^ "Are T20 leagues making money?". Archived from the original on 2 November 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  18. ^ "IPL Live Score". iplt20lives.com. Archived from the original on 12 April 2021. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  19. ^ "IPL television and broadcast rights sold for massive £1.97bn to Star India". The Guardian. 4 September 2017. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  20. ^ "IPL 2017 Valuation". TOI. Archived from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  21. ^ "IPL world's 6th most attended league, Big Bash 9th: Report". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  22. ^ "The lowdown on the major T20 leagues". 3 August 2017. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  23. ^ "IPL format: No time to relax". Hindustan Times. 9 May 2011. Archived from the original on 25 January 2022. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  24. ^ "EXPLAINED | Format of Big Bash League 2019–20 finals". The Statesman. 22 January 2020. Archived from the original on 21 October 2020. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  25. ^ Miller, Andrew (6 August 2004). "Revolution at the seaside". Cricinfo. Archived from the original on 3 April 2023. Retrieved 24 March 2010.
  26. ^ "Records / Twenty20 Internationals / Team records / Largest margin of victory (by runs)". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  27. ^ a b "Cricket gets smaller before it can grow?". playthegame.org. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  28. ^ "T20s between all ICC members to have international status". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  29. ^ "Cricket looks set to become a global game". The Economist. 20 October 2021. ISSN 0013-0613. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  30. ^ "T20 International Cricket drives significant growth in 2019". icc-cricket.com. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  31. ^ "ICC World Twenty20 Qualifier to be held in Ireland". ESPNcricinfo. 13 December 2007. Archived from the original on 10 February 2022. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  32. ^ "ICC expands men's world events: ODI WC to 14 teams, T20 WC to 20 teams". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  33. ^ "An interview with Ramji Srinivasan". Takath.com. 19 June 2009. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2009.
  34. ^ "Hayden heroics shining light of IPL". The Canberra Times. 13 May 2009. Archived from the original on 18 September 2009.
  35. ^ Germany, Brazil, Thailand: T20 the vehicle to drive cricket to ever newer horizons Archived 27 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine https://indianexpress.com/ 23 October 2021 "We are good at T20 because that's the format in which we get maximum exposure, apart from the fact that it is financially viable", says former Afghanistan Cricket Association chief executive Shafiq Stanikzai.
  36. ^ "I told Dravid not to retire – Ponting". Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  37. ^ "How is T20 affecting cricket?". Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  38. ^ "Alex Tudor fears T20 is killing cricket's traditional skills". 30 March 2016. Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  39. ^ "T20 cricket has destroyed West Indies cricket: Sir Garfield Sobers – Firstpost". firstpost.com. 22 October 2015. Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  40. ^ "T20 has messed our cricket up – Lloyd". Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  41. ^ Gray, James (17 August 2017). "Why isn't Chris Gayle playing for West Indies against England? Test absence explained". Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  42. ^ "Gayle, Bravo, Pollard – Why Windies' Stars Will Skip India Series". 23 June 2017. Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  43. ^ White, Jim (1 June 2010). "Twenty20 will kill Test cricket within 20 years, says West Indian great Michael Holding". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022.
  44. ^ "I told Dravid not to retire – Ponting". ESPN Cricinfo. 25 August 2011. Archived from the original on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  45. ^ Quoted in Booth, Lawrence. "Myths; And stereotypes." The Spin, 30 June 2009.
  46. ^ "T20 cricket confirmed as one of five new sports at LA28". ESPNcricinfo. 16 October 2023. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  47. ^ "Bringing back fences could help even up the contest between bat and ball, and ensure that all sixes are genuine". 17 April 2016. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  48. ^ "Twenty20 Rules". CricketWorld4U. Archived from the original on 28 December 2014. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
  49. ^ "One-over eliminator could replace bowl-out". cricinfo.com cricinfo.com. 27 June 2008. Archived from the original on 28 June 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
  50. ^ "Windies edge NZ in Twenty20 thriller". abc.net.au Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 26 December 2008. Archived from the original on 29 December 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
  51. ^ "Benn stars in thrilling tie". cricinfo.com cricinfo.com. 26 December 2008. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
  52. ^ "Vettori opposes Super Over". cricinfo.com cricinfo.com. 26 December 2008. Archived from the original on 30 December 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
  53. ^ The Explainer (13 January 2009). "One1". cricinfo.com cricinfo.com. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
  54. ^ "KFC T20 Big Bash League: Rules". KFC T20 Big Bash League. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
  55. ^ "Super Over to replace bowl out". ESPN CricInfo. 27 October 2008. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
  56. ^ ICC Team Rankings Archived 17 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  57. ^ Kendix, David. ICC rankings for Tests, ODIs, Twenty20 & Women Archived 3 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ESPN Cricinfo. ESPN Sports Media Ltd.
  58. ^ "ICC Women's Team Rankings launched". International Cricket Council. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  59. ^ "ICC Launches Global Women's T20I Team Rankings". International Cricket Council. Archived from the original on 12 October 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2019.