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Sepak takraw
Incheon AsianGames Sepaktakraw 09 (15291705581).jpg
Women's double Sepak Takraw event at the 2014 Asian Games in Incheon
Highest governing bodyISTAF
Nicknameskick volleyball[1]
Standardized1960, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia[1][2]
Clubs31
Characteristics
ContactNo
Team members2, 3, or 4
Mixed-sexNo
Typeoutdoor, indoor, beach
Equipmentsynthetic plastic or rattan ball, net
VenueSepak Takraw court
Presence
Country or regionAsia
OlympicNo
ParalympicYes
World GamesNo

Sepak Takraw, or Sepaktakraw,[2] also called kick volleyball, is a team sport played with a ball made of rattan or synthetic plastic between two teams of two to four players on a court resembling a badminton court.[3][4] It shares similarities to volleyball and footvolley with its use of a rattan ball and allowing players to use only their feet, knees, shoulders, chest and head to touch the ball. Sepak Takraw is often referred to as a mixture of volleyball, due to its use of a net, and association football, as players use their feet.[5]

The sport's modern version was introduced, developed and standardized in 1960 when officials from Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Myanmar met in Kuala Lumpur to agree on a name and standard rules for it.[1] It was previously known as Sepak Raga Jaring, and was first was exhibited in Penang in 1945. It was introduced in the 1965 Southeast Asian Games in Kuala Lumpur as a medal event. Sepak Takraw is considered Malaysia's national sport.[2][3]

Sepak Takraw is governed internationally by the International Sepaktakraw Federation (ISTAF), formed in 1988, which is responsible for major international tournaments including the ISTAF SuperSeries (ISS) and ISTAF World Cup (IWC), Malaysia's Khir Johari Cup, and Thailand's King Cup.

Sepak Takraw resembles native sports known as Sepak Raga in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore; Rago and Raga in Indonesia; Sipa in the Philippines; Chinlone in Myanmar; Takraw in Thailand; Kataw in Laos; and Sek Dai in Cambodia. It is also claimed to be related to Cuju in China, Da Cau in Vietnam, Jegichagi in Korea and Kemari in Japan.

Etymology

The word sepak is Malay (Jawi: سڨق) for kick while the word takraw is of Thai (Thai: ตะกร้อ) origin that can be translated as muzzle or woven rattan ball.[6] "Sepak Takraw" quite literally means "to kick a rattan ball".[7] The choosing of this name for the sport was essentially a compromise between Malaysia and Thailand in Kuala Lumpur in 1960.[8]

In the past, it was called "Sepak Raga Jaring" in Malaysia,[1] where the term "Jaring", meaning net in Malay, was added to the traditional "Sepak Raga" game when it was created by Hamid Mydin in Penang in 1945. In Thailand, it is simply known as its original name of "Takraw".[1] Internationally, only the term "Sepak Takraw" is used to refer to the modern sport.[9]

History

Predecessors

The Sepak Takraw may have been introduced to Southeast Asia by the Chinese, who were inspired by the traditional game Cuju, an ancient military exercise where soldiers play to keep a leather ball filled with feathers airborne by kicking it back and forth between two or more people.[10][11] As the game evolved, the feather-stuffed ball was replaced by an air-filled ball with a two-layered hull. Cuju is also considered by the International Football Association (FIFA) as the origin of football as a sport.[12]

Video recording of a Sepak Takraw match

In Myanmar, Sepak Takraw is known as "chinlone". Chinlone has played a prominent role in Myanmar for about 1,500 years. Its style is performance-based because it was first created as a demonstrative activity for entertaining Burmese royalty. Chinlone is heavily influenced by traditional Burmese martial arts and dance.[13]

In Malaysia, historical evidence shows that Sepak Takraw played with balls made of woven strips of rattan was first played in the Malacca Sultanate (present-day Malaysia) in the 15th century, according to an ancient Malay manuscript, "Sejarah Melayu" (Malay Annals).[14][2][15] The Malay Annals described in details the incident of Raja Muhammad, a son of Sultan Mansur Shah, who was accidentally hit with a rattan ball by Tun Besar, the son of Bendahara Tun Perak, in a Sepak Raga game. The ball hit Raja Muhammad's headgear and knocked it to the ground. In anger, Raja Muhammad immediately stabbed and killed Tun Besar, leading some of Tun Besar's kinsmen retaliate and want to kill Raja Muhammad. However, Bendahara Tun Perak managed to restrain them from such an act of treason by saying that he would no longer accept Raja Muhammad as the Sultan's heir. As a result of this incident, Sultan Mansur Shah ordered his son out of Malacca and had him installed as the ruler of neighbouring Pahang.[16][17][10][18]

In Thailand, there is evidence that the Thai had played Sepak Takraw since the Ayutthaya Kingdom, at least during the reign of King Naresuan (1590–1605).[19] A French historian, François Henri Turpin, wrote about how the Siamese played the game of Takraw to stay in shape.[19] Murals at Bangkok's Wat Phra Kaeo, which was built in 1785, depict the Hindu god Hanuman playing Sepak Takraw in a ring with a troop of monkeys. The game was played in its circle form for hundreds of years, until the modern version of Sepak Takraw began taking shape in Thailand sometime during the early 1740s. In 1929, the Siam Sports Association drafted the first rules for Takraw competition.[19] Four years later, the association introduced the volleyball-style net and held the first public contest. Within just a few years, Takraw was introduced to the curriculum in Siamese schools. The game became such a cherished local custom that another exhibition of volleyball-style Takraw was held to celebrate the kingdom's first constitution in 1933, the year after Thailand abolished absolute monarchy.

In Indonesia, Sepak Takraw is also known as Sepak Raga.[20][21] In Sulawesi, the traditional Bugis football game is called "Raga" (the player is called "Pa'Raga").[22] Men play the "Raga" circle in a group, where the ball is passed from one to the other, and the man who kicks the highest ball is the winner. "Raga" is also played for fun by demonstrating several tricks, such as kicking the ball and placing it on the player's head with the handle of the tengkolok bugis (Bugis headgear similar to a Malay tanjak).

A traditional sipà (rattan wicker ball) from the Maranao people of the Philippines, along with kakasing tops and a sungka board
A traditional sipà (rattan wicker ball) from the Maranao people of the Philippines, along with kakasing tops and a sungka board

In the Philippines, the sport is related to a native game called "sipà" (or "sipà salama" among Muslim Filipinos), and along with traditional martial arts, survived Spanish colonization.[23] It is a popular sport played by children in Philippines, and was the Philippine national sport until it was replaced by Arnis in 2009. Sepak Takraw is included in Philippine's elementary and high school curriculum.

Origins of the modern sport

In the beginning, Sepak Takraw was not meant to be competitive, but was instead a casual game with emphasis on physical activity. The game acted as an exercise to improve dexterity and loosen the limbs after long periods of sitting, standing or working. However, the modern version of Sepak Takraw began taking shape sometime during the 1940s. In 1935, Seremban - Negeri Sembilan, Sepak Raga was first played on a badminton court over the net with players on the two opposing sides amid celebrating the Silver Jubilee of George V. The event shows the earliest example of modern sport rules being used for the Sepak Raga, turning it into a competitive sport. Badminton was a preferred sport by the British, whereas Sepak Raga was mainly played by the Malays. Since the diversion sport was first played amid the Jubilee festivity, it was known as "Sepak Raga Jubilee" (Jubilee Sepak Raga).[24][25][26][15][2]

Hamid Mydin, the founder of Sepak Raga Jaring/ Sepak Takraw, and his team
Hamid Mydin, the founder of Sepak Raga Jaring/ Sepak Takraw, and his team

It is likely that the sport had gained popularity in Negeri Sembilan, and spread to various states of Malaya (now West Malaysia). In the years following World War II up to the mid-20th century, it was conceivable to see "Sepak Raga Jubilee" played in rural villages and towns throughout Malaya. Though Malaysia is a multiracial country, Sepak Takraw is mainly popular among the Malay community. The amusement of the new sport then proliferated in Penang. It is believed that the advancement of present-day Sepak Takraw is, for the most part, attributed to three main figures from Jalan Patani, Penang.[24][2][25][15] In February 1945, a net and tenets like badminton were presented by Hamid Mydin, accompanied by local Sepak Raga sportsmen, Mohamad Abdul Rahman and Syed Yaacob to attempt his new contort on "Sepak Raga Jaring" (Net Sepak Raga). The new version was preferred due to the quicker pace, the distinctive styles of kicking and the higher standard of athleticism that it demanded.[15] It is considered the pioneer version of modern Sepak Takraw and also remained one of the dominant competitive forms.[25][9]

The first properly organized Sepak Takraw competition was held at a Swim Club in Penang on May 16, 1945.[26][15] Three teams from Malay populated localities in Penang were among those that went after the Nyak Din Nyak Sham Trophy.[27] Starting thereon, the amusement of the sport spread rapidly all through the remainder of Malaya. From Penang, the "Sepak Raga Jaring" spread to Alor Setar in Kedah, to Kampung Baru in Kuala Lumpur and then to Singapore. By 1960, the diversion was well known in many Malayan schools that had badminton courts.[18] The sport was frequently played by football players because of the similarities in skills required for both sports. During this time, several Sepak Raga associations had formed in various Malayan states.[15]

About the same time, similar developments were in Thailand. In 1929, the Siam Sports Association drafted the first rules for the Takraw competition. Four years later, the association introduced the volleyball-style net and held the first public contest. Within just a few years, Takraw was introduced to the curriculum in Siamese schools. The game became such a cherished local custom that another exhibition of volleyball-style Takraw was staged to celebrate the kingdom's first constitution in 1933, the year after Thailand abolished its absolute monarchy.[19]

Standardization

Hamid Mydin is awarded the Khir Johari Gold Medal from the Malaysian Sepak Raga Association on 7 August 1977.
Hamid Mydin is awarded the Khir Johari Gold Medal from the Malaysian Sepak Raga Association on 7 August 1977.

The determination and perseverance of Penang's Sepak Takraw pioneers had led to the founding of the "Jawatankuasa Penaja Sepak Raga Pulau Pinang" (Penang Sepak Raga Sponsors' Committee) on 25 March 1956 at Dewan UMNO Pulau Pinang. On 28 January 1960, the committee then negotiated with representatives from Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Kedah and Singapore at Bangunan Persatuan Melayu Pulau Pinang on the founding of "Jawatankuasa Penaja Perseketuan Sepak Raga Jaring Malaya" (Malayan Sepak Raga Jaring Sponsors' Committee), an organization at the national level. The initial rules and regulations of the sport were enacted and compiled in writing on 15 April 1960 at Sultan Sulaiman Club in Kuala Lumpur.[28][29]

On 25 June 1960, the Malayan Sepak Raga Federation (now renamed Malaysian Sepak Takraw Association (PSM)) was established at a meeting held in Balai Rakyat, Jalan Patani, Penang. The ceremony was officiated by the Chief Minister of Penang, Wong Pow Nee. During the meeting, the representatives from Kedah, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Penang had unanimously appointed Khir Johari as its first President. Hamid Mydin was also recognized as the creator and founder of Sepak Takraw by the federation at that meeting.[30][3][29] The Sepak Raga rules that were compiled on 15 April in Kuala Lumpur was also ratified by the Malayan Sepak Raga Federation on this day.

Later that year, representatives from Malaya, Singapore, Myanmar and Thailand got together in Kuala Lumpur to standardize the guidelines for the sport. After intense debate, they came to a consensus that the sport would henceforth be officially called "Sepak Takraw".[19][2][9] Thus, a game of Sepak Takraw that witnesses acrobatic movements by athletes was officially introduced to the international level. In Malaya, an inter-state competition known as "Khir Johari Gold Cup" was organized at Stadium Negara, Kuala Lumpur from 27 to 28 December 1962 to further advance the amusement. Penang, where the Sepak Raga Jaring originated, turned to be the primary holder of the tournament. By that point, "Sepak Raga Jaring" had turned out to be one of the more well-known amusements in Malaya, and today regarded as Malaysia's national sport.[2][15]

Global game

In 1965, the Asian Sepak Takraw Federation (ASTAF) was formed. Its first task was to translate the Sepak Takraw rules into English, placing the point for the first worldwide competition, the Southeast Asian Peninsular Games (SEAP Games) (now Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games)) held in Kuala Lumpur.[19] During this time, it was still confusing known as "Sepak Raga". From the fourth SEAP Games in 1967, the term "Sepak Takraw" become the established name.[25]

In 1970, the Asian Games was held in Bangkok, a show game of Sepak Takraw by Malaysian and Thai teams was introduced to Asian countries.

In 1975, the Kedah's Sepak Takraw team visited Germany in conjunction with The Sports Press Feast 1975 to perform the Sepak Takraw as a demonstration.[29]

In 1977, the Penang's Sepak Takraw team was brought to North Malaysian Week in Adelaide, Australia.[29]

In 1979, ASTAF for the first time held a conference in Jakarta in conjunction with the SEA Games and reviewed the Sepak Takraw laws submitted by the Malaysian Sepak Takraw Association. The ASTAF technical committee also held its second meeting in Singapore in the same year for the same purpose.

In 1980, the Malaysian Sepak Takraw team held several Sepak Takraw performances in China, South Korea and Hong Kong, an outstanding achievement in the history of Sepak Takraw towards introducing the sport to East Asian countries.[29]

In 1982, the woven synthetic ball was introduced to replace woven rattan ball in Thailand.[2]

In 1988, the International Sepaktakraw Federation (ISTAF), the international governing body for the sport, recognised as such by the Olympic Movement in 1990 was formed by visionaries within the Asian Sepaktakraw Federation (ASTAF).[2]

In 1990, Sepak Takraw was included at the Asian Games in Beijing.[25][3][2]

In 1997, the first women's championship was held in Thailand.[3]

In 1998, Sepak Takraw was introduced as a demonstration event in the Commonwealth Games held in Kuala Lumpur.[15]

In 2011, the inaugural edition of Sepak Takraw's flagship tournament, the ISTAF World Cup, was staged in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The ISTAF SuperSeries, a new series of elite tournaments was also launched in Bangkok.

There are more than 30 countries that have national Sepak Takraw organizations with associates on the International Sepak Takraw Federation (ISTAF) overseeing the sport.[31]

Competition

Sepak takraw competition in the Philippines
Sepak takraw competition in the Philippines

International play is now governed by ISTAF, the International Sepak Takraw Federation. Major competitions for the sport such as the ISTAF SuperSeries, the ISTAF World Cup and the King's Cup World Championships are held every year.

Sepak Takraw is now a regular sport event in the Asian Games and the Southeast Asian Games, with Thailand having won the most medals for the event.[32][33]

Asian Games

Main article: Sepak takraw at the Asian Games

Sepak Takraw has been a sport at the Asian Games since 1990 with Thailand securing the highest number of gold medals.

Canada

The Lao people first brought Sepak Takraw into Canada when they immigrated as refugees in the 1970s. But the game began gaining exposure outside the Laotian communities when a Saskatchewan teacher, Richard (Rick) Engel, who first saw Sepak Takraw while living in Asia, included it in Asian Sport, Education & Culture (ASEC) International's School Presentation Program. Sepak Takraw was so well received by schools that it became part of ASEC's mandate to help introduce, promote and organize the sport across the country. In May 1998, after introducing many schools to the sport, and by networking with experienced players, ASEC International organised the first Canadian inter-provincial tournament to include men's, boys and girls teams. By the end of 1998, Engel was sent to Bangkok, Thailand to film at the 14th King's Cup Sepak Takraw World Championships – the footage of which was used to produce a widely used instructional Sepak Takraw video/DVD, called Sepak Takraw – Just for Kicks.

On 11 December 1998, the Sepak Takraw Association of Canada (STAC)[34] was incorporated to organise and govern the sport nationally. Its office was set up in Regina, SK, where there are experienced players and organizational support, and where it could share the resources and office space of the already established ASEC International, a committee from which has now become Sepak Takraw Saskatchewan Inc.[35] The first annual Canadian Open Sepak Takraw Championships (a national and international tournament event) were held in May 1999 in Regina, SK, and have over the years attracted teams from across Canada, the United States, Japan, Malaysia and China. That same year Canada also attended its first International Sepak Takraw Federation (ISTAF) Congress and was accepted as members of ISTAF, which governs the sport globally. In 2000, Rick Engel, Perry Senko and Brydon Blacklaws played for Team Canada and earned a silver medal in the entry level division of the King's Cup World Sepak Takraw Championships in Thailand. Another major milestone was achieved on 3 December 2000, when STAC and the sport of Sepak Takraw became an official class E Member of the Canadian Olympic Committee.

Canada has since contributed much to the development of Sepak Takraw worldwide, with Engel authoring three instructional books[36] and helping produce five DVDs about the sport, while STAC does the publishing. The most notable of these books is Sepak Takraw 101 - The Complete Coaching/Instructional Manual for Sepak Takraw (Kick Volleyball), the third edition of which has also been translated and published in the Indonesian language and released in Indonesia through a government education project. Engel has found himself to be in demand, introducing the sport and conducting Sepak Takraw skills clinics in schools and sessions at physical education teachers' conferences all over Canada, the US and Europe.

Japan

A Japanese team played at the 1990 Asian Games in Beijing. While as of 2010 there are no professional teams in Japan, university-level teams have been established at Asia University, Chiba University, Keio University, and Waseda University.[37]

Philippines

The Philippine team competes for the Sepak Takraw internationally. Among the veteran players still in the lineup are Jason Huerta, Reyjay Ortuste, Mark Joseph Gonzales, Josefina Maat, Des Oltor, Ronsted Cabayeron and Sara Catain. Sepak Takraw is also known as "Sipa" in the Philippines.

United States

The earliest accounts of organized Takraw in the United States involve a group of students from Northrop University (Greg St. Pierre, Thomas Gong, Joel "big bird" Nelson, and Mark Kimitsuka) in 1986 in Inglewood, California, learning about and playing the sport in Los Angeles. In the early 80s, Southeast Asians held soccer tournaments with Takraw events in Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota and California, especially within the Lao, Hmong and Thai communities.[38] Malaysian students attending the university often enjoyed playing the sport on a court on top of the dormitory cafeteria. They taught a handful of curious American students how to play, which in turn inspired Malaysia Airlines to sponsor a US team from the university to attend the National Tournament in Kuala Lumpur in November 1987. The Northrop team played in a bracket of international new teams with Korea, Sri Lanka, and Australia. The US team beat Sri Lanka and Australia to bring home the gold.[39]

Los Angeles's Asian community and Northrop's team had already established a Takraw community in and around L.A. Kurt Sonderegger moved to Los Angeles, founded the United States Takraw Association, and started a business that sold plastic Takraw balls. In 1989, he was sent an invitation from the International Sepak Takraw Federation, and along with a few of the Northrop group, travelled to represent the United States in the World Championships.

The team was beaten badly but the Takraw world was enchanted with the fact that non-Asian teams had competed at the World Championships.[40]

Rules and regulations

Measurements of courts and equipment often vary among tournaments and organisations that operate from a recreational to a competitive level; international competitive rules and regulations are used in this section. There are two types of event categories: the regu and the doubles regu. The regu category is played by three players on each team while the doubles regu is played by two players on each team.

Expressions

Takraw is the Thai word for the hand-woven rattan ball originally used in the game. Therefore, the game is essentially "kick ball".[41] The concept of Footvolley originates from Thai Takraw pronounced (Tha-Graw). It is also sometimes incorrectly referred to by foreigners as "Shaolin Soccer", however it is an ancient game mainly enjoyed between Thailand and Laos.

Court

Sepak takraw court diagram
Sepak takraw court diagram

The sepak takraw sport is played on a similar to badminton double sized court.[42]

The court has an area of 13.4 by 6.1 metres (44 ft × 20 ft) free from all obstacles up to the height of 8 metres (26 ft) measured from the floor surface (sand and grass court not advisable). The width of the lines bounding the court should not be more than 4 centimetres (1.6 in) measured and drawn inwards from the edge of the court measurements. All the boundary lines should be drawn at least 3.0 metres (9.8 ft) away from all obstacles. The center line of 2 cm (0.79 in) should be drawn equally dividing the right and left court.

At the corner of each at the center line, the quarter circle shall be drawn from the sideline to the center line with a radius of 0.9 metres (2 ft 11 in) measured and drawn outwards from the edge of the 0.9 m radius.

The service circle of 0.3 m radius shall be drawn on the left and on the right court, the center of which is 2.45 m from the back line of the court and 3.05 m from the sidelines, the 0.04 m line shall be measured and drawn outward from the edge of the 0.3 m radius.[43]

Net

The net should be made of fine ordinary cord or nylon with 6 cm to 8 cm mesh, similar to a volleyball net.[42]

The net should be 0.7 m in width and not shorter than 6.10 m in length, taped at 0.05 m from tape double at the top and sideline, called boundary tape.

The net should be edged with 0.05 m tape double at the top and the bottom of the net supported by a fine ordinary cord or nylon cord that runs through the tape and strain over and flush with the top of the posts. The top of the net shall be 1.52 m (1.42 m for women) in height from the center and 1.55 m (1.45 m for women) at the posts.[43]

Ball

A sepak takraw ball made out of rattan
A sepak takraw ball made out of rattan

The Sepak Takraw ball should be spherical, made of synthetic fibre or one woven layer.

Sepak Takraw balls without synthetic rubber covering must have 12 holes and 20 intersections, must have a circumference measuring from 42 to 44 cm (16.5–17.3 in) for men or from 43 to 45 cm (16.9–17.7 in) for women, with a weight that ranges from 170 to 180 g (6.0–6.3 oz) for men or from 150 to 160 g (5.3–5.6 oz) for women.

The ball can be any single or multi-color, but must not in any color that would impair the performance of the players.

The Sepak Takraw ball can also be constructed of synthetic rubber or soft durable material for covering the ball, for the purpose of softening the impact of the ball on the player's body. The type of material and method used for constructing the ball or for covering the ball with rubber or soft durable covering must be approved by ISTAF before it can be used for any competition.

All world, international, and regional competitions sanctioned by International Sepak Takraw Federation, including but not limited to, the Olympic Games, World Games, Commonwealth Games, Asian Games and SEA Games, must be played with ISTAF approved Sepak Takraw balls.[43]

Players

A match is played by two teams called 'regu', each consisting of three players. On some occasions, it can be played by only two players (doubles) or four players (quadrant) per team.

One of the players should be at the back; they are called a "Tekong" or also known as the "Server". The other two players should be in front, one on the left and the other on the right. The player on the left is called a "feeder/setter/tosser" and the player on the right is called a "attacker/striker/killer".[43]

Start of play and service

The side that must serve first should start the first set. The side that wins the first set should have the options of "Choosing Service".

The throw must be executed as soon as the referee calls the score. If either of the "Inside" players throws the ball before the referee calls the score, it must be re-thrown and a warning will be given to the thrower.

During the service, as soon as the Tekong kicks the ball, all the players are allowed to move about freely in their respective courts.

The service is valid if the ball passes over the net, whether it touches the net or not, and inside the boundary of the two net tapes and boundary lines of the opponent's court.[43]

Faults in the game

Serving side during service

Serving and receiving side during service

For both sides during the game

Scoring system

An official doubles or regu match is won by best of three sets (win 2 out of 3 sets), with each set being played up to 21 points.

A team event or group match is effectively three regu matches played back to back, using different players for each regu. The winner is determined by best of three regus (win 2 out of 3 regus), where a winner of each individual regu is determined by best of 3 sets, played up to 21 points per set.

In the last 3rd set the change of sides takes place when one team reaches 11 points.

When either serving side or receiving side commits a fault, a point is awarded to the opponent side.[43]

Serving: Teams alternate serving every three points, regardless of who wins the points. If a tie takes place at 21-21, each team alternates one serve each until a winner is determined.

Set: Each set is won by the side which scores 21 points with a minimum lead of two points to a ceiling of 25 points. In the event of a 21–21 tie, the set shall be won by the side which gets a lead of two points, or when a side reaches 25 points (whichever occurs first).

Match: A match is won by the team who has won two sets. A team event match is won by the team that wins two regus.

Ranking: In group stages of tournaments or team events (round robin) the ranking in a group is determined by: 1. Sum of match wins; a match win gives 1 point 2. Sum set points 3. Point difference +/-

Competing countries

International play is now governed by ISTAF, the International Sepak Takraw Federation.

In other media

See also

References

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  3. ^ a b c d e Shawn Kelley. "Takraw: A Traditional Southeast Asian Sport". Archived from the original on 10 July 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2007.
  4. ^ J. A. Mangan, Fan Hong (2002). Sport in Asian Society: Past and Present. Frank Cass Publishers. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-7146-8330-0.
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  16. ^ Brown, Charles Cuthbert (1970). Sejarah Melayu; or, Malay annals: an annotated translation [from the Malay]. Oxford University Press. p. 89.
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