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Ringette
Atlantic Attack Ringette Team.jpg
Women playing ringette in Canada's
National Ringette League (NRL)
Highest governing bodyInternational Ringette Federation (IRF)
First played1963; 59 years ago (1963)
Characteristics
ContactNo contact, incidental only
Team members
TypeFemale winter team sport
EquipmentRingette ring, ringette stick, ice hockey skates, ringette girdle with pelvic protector and other protective gear
VenueStandard Canadian ice hockey rink with ringette markings
Presence
OlympicNo[1][2]
ParalympicNo
World GamesNo

Ringette is a non-contact winter team sport[3] played on ice hockey rinks using ice hockey skates, straight sticks with drag-tips, and a blue, rubber, pneumatic ring designed for use on ice surfaces.[4] The sport is among a small number of organized team sports created exclusively for female competitors. Though ice hockey rinks are used, ringette rinks use markings specific to ringette and the sport uses strategic play which more closely resembles basketball than ice hockey.

The sport was created in Canada for girls in 1963 by the two founders of the sport—Sam Jacks from West Ferris, Ontario (now part of North Bay, Ontario) and Mirl "Red" McCarthy from Espanola, Ontario. Ringette is most popular in Canada and Finland with both countries forming the top international teams (Team Canada and Team Finland) on a regular basis. Half-a-dozen other countries currently participate and organize in the sport. In 2018, over 50,000 players registered for the sport, of which 30,000 were in Canada.[5][1]

Ringette has spread to Finland, Sweden, the United States, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and unofficially to the United Arab Emirates.[6] The premier international competition for ringette is the World Ringette Championships (WRC). In Canada, the sport is a part of the Canada Winter Games programme,[7] and the annual Canadian Ringette Championships serve as the country's premiere competition for the sport's elite amateur athletes.

Play

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Ringette is played by two opposing teams using ice hockey skates and other equipment on an ice rink. The objective is to score more goals than the opposing team by shooting a blue, hollow, rubber ring into the opponent's goal net. Skaters use a long straight stick with a tapered end and a drag-tip. There is no offsides in ringette and no icing.

During play, teams consist of five skaters: one centre, two forwards, two defenders, and one goaltender.[8] Goal nets used in ringette are identical to those used in ice hockey (6 by 4 feet [1.8 m × 1.2 m]). Ringette goaltenders are the only players allowed to play the ring with their hands but must do so from within their goal crease which only they can enter. After stopping a shot on net or receiving a pass, the goaltender has five seconds to throw, push or pass the ring to another player.

Ringette games are typically played on ice surfaces used for playing ice hockey but use different lines and markings; a ringette rink is augmented with lines and markings specific to ringette instead. Though initially played using two separate periods of play per game, games today typically consist of four quarters of 15 minutes each, with the exception of younger divisions which may use two periods of 22 minutes instead.[citation needed] A 30-second shot clock is used to prevent players from running out the clock, improve the flow of the game and increase the speed of play. The rule was first introduced in Canada in 2002 and went into effect for age groups which used to be known as the junior, belle, and open divisions.[9] The 30-second shot clock is now used almost universally in all age groups as well as internationally (including the World Ringette Championships) with the exception of very young players and some of the lower divisions.

The ringette rink uses five free pass circles, each of which has a bisecting line. The start of every quarter begins with a free pass from the free pass circle at centre ice. During the rest of a game, free pass circles are used for restarting the game after a goal or a violation. At such times, players may not enter the circle unless they are the player making the free pass. If a player is making a free pass, they have five seconds after the whistle blows to either pass the ring to another teammate or take a shot at the opposing team's goal, but they must not exit the circle or cross the bisecting line before doing so. A blue line rule prevents players from carrying the ring over either of the blue lines bisecting the ice surface and as a result, players must pass the ring over each individual line to another teammate in order to advance the play.

The sport uses a "free play zone" (alternatively known as the "extended zone") which exists in each of the rink's two end zones and consists of the area between the end boards and the free play line (or "ringette line"). The ringette line is a thin red line bisecting the rink which is placed atop of the free pass circles in the end zone.[citation needed] Only three players from each team are allowed in these zones at one time or a "four in" call is made and play is stopped with a free pass awarded to the non-offending team.[citation needed] The remaining players must remain behind the ringette line. There is one exception which can be made in higher divisions whereby the defending team is serving a penalty: in such a case, the opposing team may pull its goaltender and send in another attacker, meaning four of its players are allowed into the zone without penalty.[citation needed]

There is no intentional body contact in ringette though incidental contact does occur. Body checking and boarding are penalized. Fighting is forbidden and has a zero-tolerance policy. The only type of checks allowed are stick checks which are performed by either using the stick in a sweeping motion to knock the ring away from the ring carrier or by raising the ring carrier's stick upwards by lifting or knocking it, followed immediately by an attempt to steal the ring. Sticks may not be raised above shoulder height and high-sticking is penalized.

Physical contact

There is no intentional body contact[10][11][12] in ringette at any competitive level, though incidental contact does occur. Body checking and boarding are both illegal and qualify as penalties, a feature of the sport dating to its inception. Fighting is not allowed in ringette and has a zero-tolerance policy.[10][11][12] At the international level, the level of allowable body contact may differ.[citation needed]

Ringette rink

Main article: Ice rink § Ringette

Typical layout of an ice hockey rink surface
Typical layout of an ice hockey rink surface

Ringette games are played on ice rinks either indoors or outdoors. Playing area, size, lines and markings for the standard Canadian ringette rink are similar to the average 85-by-200-foot (26 m × 61 m) Canadian ice hockey rink with certain modifications.[13][14][15][16] An exception exists for European ice hockey rinks which may be slightly larger in size. A ringette rink utilizes most (but not all) of the standard ice hockey markings used by Hockey Canada but with additional markings: five free pass circles (each with a bisecting line) with two in each end zone and one at centre ice, four free-pass dots in each of the end zones, two free-pass dots in the centre zone, and a line demarcating a larger goal crease area which is shaped in a semi-circular fashion. Two additional free-play lines (also known as a "ringette line" or "extended zone line") are also required, with one in each end zone.

Equipment

Official ring; players use ice hockey skates; fully equipped ringette players; goalie using a ringette goalie trapper a.k.a. "Keely glove"

Ringette uses a blue, rubber, pneumatic ring designed for play on an ice surface. The official ring has a diameter of 16.5 cm. Some ringette rings are also available in pink[17] but aren't typically used in official game play.

Ringette rings have two designs: one for use on ice and another for use on dry floors for gym ringette. The ring used for the ice game is a blue, rubber pneumatic torus. The gym ringette ring is an orange torus made of a sponge-like material and unlike the ice ring, is not hollow. The ringette "practice ring" (a.k.a. "turbo ring")[18][better source needed] is not a torus, but a small open disk (a toroid) used on ice to help ringette players develop and hone pass receiving skills and is typically either orange or blue.

The equipment players wear is similar to that used by ice hockey players but involves a few differences. Required equipment for ringette players includes the following:

Ringette sticks[19][better source needed] are straight and have tapered ends with metal or plastic drag-tips designed with grooves to increase the lift and velocity of the wrist shot. Sticks must conform to specific rules including those which determine the acceptable measurements for the taper and face of the stick. The stick and the tip must also meet the minimum width measurements.⁣ Sticks are reinforced to withstand the bodyweight of a player - a ring carrier leans heavily on the stick to prevent opposing players from removing the ring.

Ringette facemasks are designed to meet ringette's specific safety requirements and are available in different styles for both goaltenders and other players. In the case of the traditional wire cage ringette masks in North America, the bars are shaped like triangles rather than squares and are designed so that the end of a ringette stick cannot enter the mask. Similar North American designs exist but must meet certain safety specifications required by the CSA Group (formerly the Canadian Standards Association or "CSA").[citation needed] European ringette cage and bar styles may differ. Some players wear clear plastic shields but half-visors are illegal. Some masks are a combination of a shield and tightly spaced wires or similar. At all levels, ringette players must wear a pelvic protector, essentially the female equivalent of a jockstrap, known colloquially as a "jill" or "jillstrap". Goaltenders may use an ice hockey trapper, an ice hockey blocker, and/or a ringette goalie trapper a.k.a. "Keely glove", named after a Keely Brown, a former goalie of Canada's national ringette team who helped create the sport's first design.[20]

Variants

There are currently two off-ice variants of ringette: in-line ringette and gym ringette, played wearing shoes. Gym ringette was developed in Canada as a floor variant of ringette in the 1990s, largely by Ringette Canada.[citation needed][21][22] It is meant to be played as a stand-alone activity or as a form of dry-land training to help players develop skills which are transferable to the ice sport.[23] In-line ringette is played as an informal alternative, but a consistent set formal rules have not been codified and sizeable organizing bodies do not exist.

History

Development

Ringette was created in Northern Ontario, Canada, as a civic recreation project for girls by its two founders,[24] Samuel Perry Jacks (known as Sam Jacks) from North Bay, Ontario, and Mirl "Red" McCarthy from Espanola, Ontario.[25][26] Jacks is credited with creating the idea for the sport in 1963, following his earlier development of a variant of floor hockey[27] in 1936,[28][29] which used bladeless sticks and a flat felt disk with a hole in the centre.[30] McCarthy was responsible for developing the sport's first rules.[31] Ringette was created in the hopes of increasing and maintaining female participation in winter sport under the existing authority of the Society of Directors of Municipal Recreation of Ontario (SDMRO) and the Northern Ontario Recreation Directors Association (NORDA) due to a lack of success in generating interest among the young female population in the winter team sports of girl's broomball and girl's ice hockey.[26][27]

Ringette crest from the first ringette tournament, held in Témiscaming arena in 1966.[citation needed]
Ringette crest from the first ringette tournament, held in Témiscaming arena in 1966.[citation needed]

The idea for the new game was first introduced at a general meeting between the members of NORDA in January 1963 in Sudbury, Ontario.[32][31] The first ringette game took place that fall in Espanola, Ontario under the direction of McCarthy between a group of girls who had played ice hockey at Espanola High School.[33][31] Other Northern Ontario communities soon began experimenting with the game in the winter of 1964–65.[26][34] On May 31, 1965, a set of rules developed by McCarthy were presented by NORDA to the SDMRO which then published them for use in the 1965–66 season.[26][35][36][37][38][39]

For as long as Municipal Recreation has existed there has been, with some justification, a concern that our sports tended to be male orientated.

Over the years attempts have been made to discover or create a new winter court or rink game for girls. Broomball was such a game, and for some time girls' Ice Hockey had a certain success. Neither of these games seemed to have the acceptance of the female population as indicated by lack of growth.

Ringette is a new attempt to provide a winter team sport, on skates, for girls.[26]

— Ringette Rules (A Game on Skates for Girls), SDMRO (1965–1966)

The SDMRO then developed and organized the sport on a larger scale, and in 1969 the Ontario Ringette Association (ORA, now Ringette Ontario) was formed as a provincial governing body.[40] The sport was introduced to Manitoba in 1967 and the province's first team, the Wildwood, was created two years later in Fort Garry, Winnipeg.[9][41][42]

Growth

In Canada, ringette spread to Manitoba, Quebec, Nova Scotia and British Columbia. To better organize the sport nationally, Ringette Canada was founded in 1974. The following year, the sport received national television exposure in an intermission feature during Hockey Night in Canada.[9] The copyright to the official ringette rules, which had been transferred from the SDMRO to the Ontario Ringette Association in 1973, was acquired by Ringette Canada in 1983.

After Jacks died in May 1975, his wife Agnes Jacks promoted the game and acted as an ambassador for the sport until her own death in April 2005. She received the Order of Canada for this work in 2002.[43]

In 1979, former professional ice hockey player and coach Juhani Wahlsten introduced ringette to Finland at girls ice hockey practices in the Turku area. The first recorded game in Finland (also the first in Europe) took place on January 23, 1979, and the first tournament took place in early 1980. The game quickly gained popularity, aided by Canadian coaches who helped establish programs. In 1983, a national association was established, which organized tournaments of more than a hundred matches by the mid-1980s.[44]

Ringette spread to Sweden in the early 1980s. An ringette elite league (Ringette Dam-SM) was formed in 1994.[citation needed] The national federation of ringette of Sweden, the Sweden Ringette Association (Sweden Ringette Association) was also established in 1994.[45][46][47]

Ringette was introduced to the Midwestern United States in the mid-1970s and had gained popularity by the 1980s with most activity centred in Minnesota. However, participation fell dramatically in the mid-1990s when ice hockey was endorsed over ringette as an official high school sport for girls.[48]

In 1986, the World Ringette Council was founded in Finland to promote and develop the sport internationally and to establish international competitions.[citation needed] The World Ringette Championships (WRC) were first held in 1990. The following year, the World Ringette Council changed its name to the International Ringette Federation (IRF), possibly to avoid confusion due to the fact that it had the same acronym as the world event.[49]

International governance

Main article: International Ringette Federation

The IRF is the highest governing body for the sport of ringette.[50] There are four member countries: Canada, Finland, the USA, and Sweden. Historically, Canada and Finland have been the most active ambassadors in the International Federation and regularly send teams to demonstrate how ringette is played in countries including Japan, Australia, Iceland, and New Zealand, Norway, Slovakia, and South Korea.

Olympic status

Ringette as a sport is currently not recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).[1] The sport has a "relatively narrow profile" and is played predominately in four nations: Canada, Finland, Sweden, and the United States. In addition, the IOC has a firm rule that no new sport will be allowed into the Olympics unless it is organized for and played by both females and males at the international level.[citation needed] In addition, ringette is played predominantly by female athletes and the Olympic Charter has higher requirements for male participation.[1] The Charter stipulates that ringette be played extensively in seventy-five countries by men on four different continents and played by women in no less than forty countries and on three different continents. Outreach efforts by officials in Canada and Finland to have the sport recognized by the IOC have not been successful.[51]

The IOC asked Canada to stage a heritage games event for the sports of ringette, broomball, and lacrosse during the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, but the three sports were unable to meet objectives and the event failed to materialize.[52] Because ringette has not obtained Olympic status, the sport does not receive federal financing in Canada.[53]

World Ringette Championships

Main article: World Ringette Championships

The World Ringette Championship (WRC) is the premier international ringette competition between ringette-playing nations, organized by the IRF. Initially held in alternate years, the tournament has been held every two to three years since the 2004 edition. The winning national senior team is awarded the Sam Jacks Trophy. The winning national junior team is awarded the Juuso Wahlsten Trophy. The President's Trophy is awarded to the winner of the President's Pool.

Ringette World Club Championship

Main article: Ringette World Club Championship

Initially organized by the IRF as a separate tournament from the WRC, the Ringette World Club Championship was a competition held in 2008 and 2011, which featured the top teams of the Canadian National Ringette League (NRL), the Finnish Ringeten SM-sarja league (now SM Ringette) and Swedish Ringette Dam-SM.

Czech Ringette Challenge Cup

Traditionally held in Prague, Czech Republic, the Czech Ringette Challenge Cup is the only ringette tournament of its kind in Central Europe and is organized by the Czech Ringette Association (Český svaz ringetu). Along with the Finland Lions Cup, it is one of Europe's premier ringette tournaments played every summer.[54] The 16th annual Czech Ringette Challenge Cup took place in 2019.[55]

Finland Lions Cup

The Finland Lions Cup is a ringette tournament which takes place annually in Finland.[54] Along with the Czech Ringette Challenge Cup, it is one of Europe's premier ringette tournaments played every April, July, and December.[56] The tournament typically features ringette teams from Finland, Sweden, and Canada. Competing divisions include Under-14 (U14), Under-16 (U16), and Under-19/Open.

Ringette by country

Canada

Further information: Ringette in Canada and Canada national ringette team

Bourassa Royal playing against the Montréal Mission during the 2011–2012 NRL season
Bourassa Royal playing against the Montréal Mission during the 2011–2012 NRL season

Ringette is played in all ten Canadian provinces and the Northwest Territories. An average of 30,000 players register to play the sport annually. Ringette Canada is the country's national organizing body and promotes the sport. It established the Ringette Canada Hall of Fame in 1988.[57][58]

Canada selects two national ringette teams for international competition: Team Canada Junior and Team Canada Senior. Both teams compete in the World Ringette Championships. At the university and college level, ringette players have the opportunity to play their sport in several provinces. The National Ringette League[59] (NRL) is Canada's semi-professional ringette league for elite ringette players aged 18 and over.

At the end of every ringette season, Canada's elite ringette players compete in the Canadian Ringette Championships, which also includes the final competition for the National Ringette League. The tournament was created in order to be able to determine the Canadian champions in the age divisions of Under-16 years, Under-19 years, and previously for a former division known as "Open" which was replaced by the National Ringette League in 2008.

Ringette became a part of the Canada Winter Games program in 1991.[60][61] The sport is also part of the provincial, winter-based, multi-sport competitions in some provinces. Several cities and regions also have annual ringette competitions.

Cross-sport participation is common among Canada's ringette athletes, with some national-level ringette players having also played bandy for the Canadian women's national bandy team.[62][63][64][65]

Finland

It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Ringette in Finland. (Discuss) (September 2022)
Juhani "Juuso" Wahlsten in 1962. Wahlsten is known as the "Father of Ringette" in Finland
Juhani "Juuso" Wahlsten in 1962. Wahlsten is known as the "Father of Ringette" in Finland

There are more than 10,000 ringette players registered to play in Finland.[66] Players participate in 31 ringette clubs, with important clubs in Naantali, Turku, and Uusikaupunki.[67] The national governing body for the sport, Ringette Finland, was created in 1983.

History

In 1979, Juhani Wahlsten, also known as "Juuso" Wahlsten, introduced ringette in Finland and is considered the "Father of Ringette" in the country.[68]

Notable among Finnish ringette coaches is Antero Simo Tapani Kivelä, a retired Finnish ice hockey goaltender who played for Finland's national ice hockey team making 58 appearances overall, as well as appearing at the 1980 Winter Olympics.[69] Kivelä coached several ringette teams in Finland after he finished his playing career in ice hockey, which included being the head coach for ten seasons of ringette club, LuKi-82, in Finland's semi-professional ringette league, SM Ringette (formerly SM-sarja).[70] Also notable is Timo Himberg [fi] who coached the Finland national ringette team for many years.

Finland national ringette team

Finland has two national ringette teams: Team Finland Senior and Team Finland Junior. Both teams compete in the World Ringette Championships.

Semi-professional ringette league

Further information: Ringette Finland § Semi-professional league

The Tampere Ilves and Lahti ringette teams warming up during the 2021–22 season of SM Ringette, Finland's semi-pro ringette league.
The Tampere Ilves and Lahti ringette teams warming up during the 2021–22 season of SM Ringette, Finland's semi-pro ringette league.

Finland has a semi-professional ringette league called SM Ringette, formerly known as Ringeten SM-sarja [fi].[71][72][73] In english it is known as the Finnish National Ringette League. The league has been in operation since the 1987–88 winter season. The Agnes Jacks Trophy, named after the wife of Sam Jacks, is awarded to the league's Most Valuable Player at the end of the each season and was first awarded in 1992.[74]

Women's Premier League

Main article: fi:Naisten Ykkössarja

Naisten Ykkössarja [fi] (Women's Premier League) is the second-highest series level of Finnish Ringette, which operates under Suomen Ringetteliitto [fi] (the Finnish Ringette Association). The league was formerly known as Ringete ykkössarja. The first division has been played since the 2008 season. During the 2021–22 season, six teams played in the Women's First Division.

Sweden

It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Ringette in Sweden. (Discuss) (September 2022)

Ringette was introduced to Sweden in the 1980s.[75][76][failed verification] The first ringette club was Ulriksdals, in Solna, Stockholm, with most Swedish ringette associations located in the surrounding Mälardalen region.[75][46] There are programs of twin towns between the Sweden Ringette Association and Canadian associations for the development of the sport within the Swedish population. In Sweden more than 6,000 girls are registered to play ringette each year.[76][failed verification]

Sweden's elite league (Ringetteförbundet) was established in 1994 and the Sweden Ringette Association was formed the same year.[46] The Swedish Ringette Association is now an associate member of the Swedish Sports Confederation.[77]

The Sweden national ringette team competes regularly at the World Ringette Championships in the Senior Pool. Sweden has occasionally formed a junior national ringette team, but the senior team has made the most international appearances.

Semi-professional ringette league

The elite ringette competition in Sweden is Ringette Dam-SM (Ringetteförbundet). SM stands for, "Swedish Championship", (svenska mästerskapet). The elite league was established in 1994, the same year the Swedish Ringette Association was formed. Several junior teams and numerous amateur teams are connected with these 7 semi-pro clubs. The league groups together seven semi-professional women's clubs: Kista Hockey,[78] IFK Salem,[79] IK Huge,[80] Järna SK,[81] Segeltorps IF,[82] Sollentuna HC,[83] and Ulriksdals SK.[84]

United States

It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Ringette in the United States. (Discuss) (September 2022)

The two national sporting organizations for ringette in the United States are USA Ringette[85] and Team USA Ringette.[86][87] The sport was introduced in the Midwestern US in various places during the mid-1970s and was most popular in Alpena and Flint, Michigan, Minnesota, Grand Forks, North Dakota, and Viroqua and Onalaska, Wisconsin.[88]

The United States national ringette team competes regularly at the WRC, beginning in 1990 with the first WRC. Notable in the success of Team USA's development is coach Phyllis Sadoway who was the team's head coach at the WRC from 2004 to 2013, and was inducted as a coach into the Ringette Canada Hall of Fame in 2012.[89][90]

Soviet Union

In 1984, a sports delegation helped introduce ringette to the U.S.S.R.; however, within two years it became evident that the sport had failed to take hold.[91]

Impact

Ice hockey

Ringette has had an unintentional influence on the sport of ice hockey, including a minor effect on men's professional ice hockey and a larger impact on girl's and women's ice hockey.

The "ringette line" began to have a potential impact on men's professional ice hockey in 2012 in regards to the American Hockey League with several professionals including Toronto Maple Leafs general manager Brian Burke considering its possible application in ice hockey to correct areas of concern about the game.[92]

Ringette concepts and rings have been used in professional ice hockey practices from the late 1970s, when the Toronto Maple Leafs head coach Roger Neilson sought to add variation to practices.[93] After observing this, the coach of the Czechoslovakia men's national ice hockey team, Karel Gut, took notes on the game and made modifications in order to apply it to a training system used in Czechoslovakia's university ice hockey teams.

Prior to the 1990s in Canada, the development of women's ice hockey had failed and growth stagnated. In Ontario where ringette was invented, there were only 101 female ice hockey teams existing in the province by 1976.[94] By 1983, there were over 14,500 ringette players in Canada compared to only 5,379 female ice hockey players.[95] By 1990–91 there were still only 8,146.[96] Female ice hockey only began to experience significant growth after it banned body checking, which was mostly accomplished in Canada by 1986.[95] Following this, the expansion of female ice hockey in Canada was largely accomplished by aggressive recruiting from the ringette system.[95]

Culture

Ringette remains one of the few organized sports worldwide where all of its elite athletes are female rather than male. Many women's sports are variants of male-dominated sports and are meant to serve as the female equivalent, rather than being sports developed for females. Canadian media and parts of the ringette community increasingly avoid calling ringette a girls' sport in spite of its heritage.[26][97] Although mixed teams have appeared, some have claimed that there is a social stigma against males playing ringette.[98][99] In 2021, CBC Radio reported on the controversy of a teenage ringette goaltender who identified as male and who had competed in ringette in Quebec.[100]

Popular culture

Canada Post issued four stamps in a series of sports with Canadian origins: ringette, basketball, five-pin bowling and lacrosse.[101][102] The commemorative stamps were issued on August 10, 2009, and featured well-worn equipment used in each sport with a background line drawing of the appropriate playing surface.

The sport was featured on an episode of the children's show Caillou.

Notables

International players

Finland

See also: Finland national ringette team

Canada

See also: Canada national ringette team

Others

Notable in ringette is Sam Jacks who created the sport, in addition with the help of Red McCarthy. Juhani Wahlsten is notable for introducing ringette to Finland in the late 1970s.

Gallery

See also

Further reading

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Why isn't ringette in the Olympics?". ringette.ca. Ringette Canada. 16 August 2021. Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  2. ^ Butler, Nick (4 February 2018). "New sports face struggle to be added to Winter Olympic Games programme, IOC warn". Insidethegames.biz. Dunsar Media. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
  3. ^ Smith, Madison (13 July 2021). "Every sport is male sport". The Critic.
  4. ^ Maxymiw, Anna (4 November 2014). "Girls on Ice". The Walrus. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  5. ^ "Ringette Canada reaches record registration numbers, announces new president and board appointments". www.ringette.ca. Ringette Canada. 7 November 2018. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  6. ^ Pennington, Roberta (3 October 2014). "Ice game hit with desert youngsters". thenationalnews.com. The National News.
  7. ^ "Gym Ringette: Instructor Guide" (PDF). Ringette Canada. Ringette Canada.
  8. ^ "The Rules of Ringette". National Ringette School. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  9. ^ a b c "History of Ringette". ringette.ca. Ringette Canada. 2015. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
  10. ^ a b "Girls suffer sports concussions at a higher rate than boys. Why is that overlooked?". Washington Post. 10 February 2015.
  11. ^ a b Mac Shneider (14 February 2018). "Why women's ice hockey has a higher concussion rate than football". Vox. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  12. ^ a b Sanderson, Katharine (3 August 2021). "Why sports concussions are worse for women". Nature. 596 (7870): 26–28. Bibcode:2021Natur.596...26S. doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02089-2. PMID 34345049. S2CID 236915619.
  13. ^ "Ringette Canada Line Markings" (PDF). Canadian Recreation Facilities Council. 2013. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  14. ^ "Rink Line Markings Ringette". BC Ringette Association. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  15. ^ "Ringette Canada Line Markings Ontario". Ontario Recreation Facilities Association, Inc. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  16. ^ "Rink Markings". Prince George Ringette. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  17. ^ "RINGETTE RING OFFICIAL PINK S20". evolutionsportsexcellence.com. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
  18. ^ "A passing problem | The Story of the Mini Turbo ring". ringettestore.com. The Ringette Store. 2022. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  19. ^ "Ringette sticks". Shopify.
  20. ^ "What's In a Name? Inventing the Ringette Goalie Trapper". ringettestore.com. The Ringette Store. 2022. Retrieved 7 September 2022.
  21. ^ "Gym Ringette: Instructor Guide" (PDF). Ringette Canada. Ringette Canada.
  22. ^ Veale, Beth (1995). Gym Ringette: Basic skills series. Google Books: Ringette Canada.
  23. ^ "Gym Ringette - Ontario Ringette Association". ringetteontario.com. Ringette Ontario. 27 April 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  24. ^ Ringette, Canada. "Founders of Ringette". Ringette Canada Hall of Fame.
  25. ^ "History of ringette". ringette.ca. Ringette Canada. 2015. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2022.
  26. ^ a b c d e f "Ringette (A Game on Skates for Girls) Rules 1965-66". Ringette Calgary. Society of Directors of Municipal Recreation of Ontario/Ringette Canada.
  27. ^ a b "North Bay Sports Hall of Fame Inductee".
  28. ^ "Sam Jacks – Ringette Canada". ringette.ca. Ringette Canada. 2017. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  29. ^ "Hall of Famer, Sam Jacks". sportshall.ca. Canada's Sports Hall of Fame. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  30. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Academic Edition, s.v. "Ice Hockey"
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