An embroidered silk panel depicting Guru Nanak from China

Sikhs in China are a religious minority in the People's Republic of China. Sikhism originated from the Punjab region of northern Indian subcontinent.


Rabinder Nath Tagore with Sikhs in Shanghai 1924

Guru Nanak is traditionally locally referred to as Baba Foosa in China proper and as Nanak Lama in Tibet.[1][2] During the 1800s and 1900s, many Sikh Punjabi people were recruited from British India to work as officers for the Shanghai Municipal Police and Hong Kong Police. Recruitment of Sikhs in SMP began in 1885 from Punjab. By 1920 there were 573 policemen in Sikh branch. The Old Sikh Gurdwara at 326 Dong Baoxing Road was opened in 1908.[3] Rabindra Nath Tagore visited Shanghai Gurdwara during his 1924 visit, which is in background on the image given. By 1930s and 1940s the exodus of Sikhs began after World War I during 1911–14, when some Sikhs openly supported Japanese and joined INA of Subhash Chander Bose. The SMP was disbanded in 1945. Many Sikhs had settled permanently in China and made marriages there. The last Sikhs left Shanghai in 1973 after the Sino-India conflict in 1962.[4]


Inauguration in 1908 of Sikh Gurdwara in Shanghai
This is present picture of Buxing Road Gurdwara 1908–1945, declared as monument to preserve Sikh heritage in china
Bauxing Road Gurdwara Monument for Sikhism heritage in China

There are a small number of gurdwara (Sikh temples) in China:[5]

Apart from mainland China, many Sikh businessmen and Indians also reside in Hong Kong.


  1. ^ Baker, Janet (2019-10-02). "Guru Nanak: 550th birth anniversary of Sikhism's founder: Phoenix Art Museum, The Khanuja Family Sikh Art Gallery, 17 August 2019–29 March 2020". Sikh Formations. 15 (3–4): 499. doi:10.1080/17448727.2019.1685641. ISSN 1744-8727. S2CID 210494526.
  2. ^ Service, Tribune News. "Booklet on Guru Nanak Dev's teachings released". Tribuneindia News Service. Retrieved 2023-02-19. Rare is a saint who has travelled and preached as widely as Guru Nanak Dev. He was known as Nanakachraya in Sri Lanka, Nanak Lama in Tibet, Guru Rimpochea in Sikkim, Nanak Rishi in Nepal, Nanak Peer in Baghdad, Wali Hind in Mecca, Nanak Vali in Misar, Nanak Kadamdar in Russia, Baba Nanak in Iraq, Peer Balagdaan in Mazahar Sharif and Baba Foosa in China, said Dr S S Sibia, director of Sibia Medical Centre.
  3. ^ Vathyam, Meena (2018-01-01). "Tears and Toil: The History of Shanghai Sikh Gurdwaras". The Shanghai Sikh Gurdwara.
  4. ^ "Sikhs: A piece of history that remains fragmentary". 2016-11-11. Retrieved 2019-06-28.
  5. ^ "A Fascinating Visual History of Sikhs in Old Shanghai". The Kalgidhar Society, Baru Sahib. 2014-04-19. Retrieved 2022-08-30.
  6. ^ "Gurdwara Shanghai, Shanghai, Shanghai, China". Retrieved May 22, 2017.
  7. ^ "Khalsa Diwan".