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Meo
Mayo
Total population
170,000[1]
India India[1]

Pakistan Pakistan[2]

Languages
Mewati, Urdu, Rajastani
Religion
Star and Crescent.svg
Islam
Related ethnic groups
CheetahMeratQaimkhaniSindhi-SipahiDeshwaliBhatti KhanzadaRanghar

Meo (pronounced as may-o or mev), also called Mewati, is an ethnic group from the Mewat Muslim Rajput community of north-western India which includes the Nuh district (previously Mewat) in Haryana and parts of adjacent Alwar district and Bharatpur district in Rajasthan.[3][4] Meos are Muslim Rajputs and speak the Indo-Aryan Mewati language.[1][3]

History and origin

Meos are inhabitants of Mewat, a region that consists of Mewat district in Haryana and some parts of adjoining Alwar district and Bharatpur district of Rajasthan and Western Uttar Pradesh, where the Meos have lived for a millennium. According to one theory, they were Hindu Meena and Rajput clans converted to Islam between the 12th and 17th centuries so A Meo with Islam,[5][6] until as late as Aurangzeb's rule but they have maintained their age-old distinctive cultural identity until today. According to S. L. Sharma and R. N. Srivastava, the Mughals had little effect of strengthening their Islamic identity, but it reinforced their resistance to Mughal rule.[7]

Hindu origins

Meos profess the beliefs of Islam but the roots of their ethnic structure are in Hindu caste society. The neighbouring Hindu Jats,[8][full citation needed] Minas (meenas) and other Rajputs share the same mores.[9] According to some sources, the Meo community have a common origin with the Khanzada community.[3][10][page needed]

Hindu inhabitants of Mewat, although belonging to the same Kshatriya Rajput castes to which the Meos belonged before conversion to Islam, are not called Meo.[3] Thus the word "Meo" is both region-specific and religion-specific. Apparently, Meos come from many Hindu Rajput clans who converted to Islam and amalgamated as Meo community.[8]

Connection with other Hindus communities in Mewat region

Raja Hassan Khan Mewati was represented the Meo Community in Battle of khanwa.[3] Rajasthani Meos retain mixed Hindu-Muslim names. Names such as Ram Khan or Shankar Khan are not unusual in the Meo tracts in Alwar. The Muslim Rajput Community of Meos was highly Hinduised before independence, an indication of religious syncretism. Meos celebrated Diwali and Holi as they celebrated two Eids (Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha). They do not marry within one's Gotras like Hindus of the north though Islam permits marriage with cousins. Solemnization of marriage among Meos was not complete without both Nikah as in Islam.[11]

"The Meos (Muhammadans) of the eastern Punjab still participate in the observance of the Holi and Diwali festivals. On the latter occasion they paint the horns, hoofs, etc.,of their bullocks and join in the general rejoicings".[12]: 174 

— Excerpt from the Census of India (Punjab Province), 1911 AD

Despite pressure by the princely states of Alwar and Bharatpur, who ruled in the region, the Meo community decided not to migrate to Pakistan during the Partition of India. In 1947, Mahatma Gandhi visited Ghasera, a village in present day Nuh district to urge the Muslims living there not to leave, calling the Meos “Iss desh ki reed ki haddi” or the backbone of India.[13][14] But many peoples of Meo Rajput Gotras were migrated to Pakistan during partition in 1947.They were mostly settled in Pakistani Districts, Sialkot, Lahore, Karachi, Narowal, Dera Ghazi khan, Shiekupura, Gujranwala, Haiderabad etc.[11]

Cultural aspects

Marriage and kinship customs

Meos generally do not follow the Muslim law of inheritance and so among them, like various other communities in the region, custom makes a younger brother or a cousin marry the widow of the deceased by a simple Nikah ceremony.[15]

The Meo have been subject to a number of recent ethnographic studies. These books have dealt with issues such as marriage and self-perception of the community. Raymond Jamous studied kinship and rituals among the Meo and wrote a book.[16]

Geography and demography

The boundary of Mewat region is not precisely defined. The region largely consists of plains but has hills of Aravali range. The inconsistency in Mewat topography is evident from its patches of land with hills and hillock of the Aravali on the one hand and plains on the other. The region is semi-arid with scanty rainfall and this has defined the vocations the Meos follow. They are peasants, Agriculturists(Zameendars) and cattle breeders.[17]

Meo gotra

Meo profess the beliefs of Islam but the roots of their ethnic structure are in Hindu caste society. Meos claim high-caste Muslim Rajput descent. This may be true for some of them. However, some of them may be descendants of other Kashtriya castes who might have laid claim to Rajput ancestry after converting to Islam to enhance their social standing. The names of many gots (gotra) or exogamous lineages of Meos are common with other Hindu caste Ahir, Gujjar, Jats, Meena who live in their vicinity. It thus seems possible that the Meos belonged to many different Kashtriya castes and not just to the Rajputs (Aggarwal 1978:338).[8][10][page needed], but this phenomenon is also seen in other Rajput communities and not limited to the Meos, in particular.[18][19]

References

  1. ^ a b c Kukreja, Reena (22 July 2020). "Meo Muslim, Mev, Mewati Muslim". doi:10.14288/1.0394975. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. ^ http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/history/PDF-FILES/salauddin.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  3. ^ a b c d e توصیف الحسن میواتی الہندی (23 August 2020). تاریخِ میو اور داستانِ میوات.
  4. ^ "Tareekh-e-Miyo Chhatri by Hakeem Abdush Shakoor". Rekhta. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
  5. ^ Mathur, Malati (2006). "The Mewati Mahabharata: Pandun Ka Kaba". In Trikha, Pradeep (ed.). Textuality and Inter-textuality in the Mahabharata: Myth, Meaning and Metamorphosis. Sarup & Sons. p. 84. ISBN 9788176256919.
  6. ^ Chauhan, Abha (2004). "Custom, Religion and Social Change Among the Meos of Mewat". In Gupta, Surendra K. (ed.). Emerging Social Science Concerns: Festschrift in Honour of Professor Yogesh Atal. Concept Publishing. p. 365. ISBN 9788180690983.
  7. ^ Eaton, Richard M. (1993). The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 55. ISBN 9780520205079.
  8. ^ a b c Guru Nanak Dev University. Sociology Dept (1 January 2003). Guru Nanak journal of sociology. Sociology Dept., Guru Nanak Dev University.
  9. ^ K. S. Singh (1 January 1998). People of India: Rajasthan. Popular Prakashan. pp. 638–. ISBN 978-81-7154-769-2. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
  10. ^ a b Mayaram, Shail (2003). Against History, Against State: Counterperspectives from the Margins. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12730-1.
  11. ^ a b "Tareekh-e-Miyo Chhatri by Hakeem Abdush Shakoor". Rekhta. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  12. ^ "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1911 VOLUME XIV PUNJAB" (PDF). Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  13. ^ "Photos: 71 years after independence, Gandhi Gram Ghasera battles neglect". Hindustan Times. 1 October 2018. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  14. ^ "Why the Meo Muslims in Mewat remember Mahatma Gandhi in December every year". Scroll.in. 30 January 2019. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  15. ^ Hashim Amir Ali; Mohammad Rafiq Khan; Om Prakash Kumar (1970). The Meos of Mewat: old neighbours of New Delhi. Oxford & IBH Pub. Co. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
  16. ^ Kinship and Rituals Among the Meo of Northern India : Locating Sibling Relationship/Raymond Jamous. Translated from the French by Nora Scott. New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2003, xiv, 200 p., ills., tables, $31. ISBN 0-19-566459-0.
  17. ^ People of India Rajasthan Volume XXXVIII Part Two edited by B.K Lavania, D. K Samanta, S K Mandal & N.N Vyas page 638 to 640 Popular Prakashan
  18. ^ Caste and Kinship in Kangra By Jonathan P. Parry Pg.133
  19. ^ Caste and Kinship in Central India By Adrian C. Mayer Pg.161-163