Kayamkhani or Kaimkhani (also spelled kayam Khani and Kaim Khani) is a Muslim community of India who were notable for ruling the Fatehpur-Jhunjhunu region in Rajasthan from the 1300s to the 1700s.[1][2]


They are said to be descended from Chauhan Rajputs who converted from Hinduism to Islam in the 13th century during the reign of Firuz Shah Tughlaq.[3][4] As also stated by the historian Dirk Kolff the Qaimkhani have Turkic origins.[5]

They ruled between 1384 and 1731 with Fatehpur, Rajasthan as the capital, kayamkhani rajputs ruled in Fatehpur, Jhunjhunu and Singhana.[6][need quotation to verify]

See also

The KayamKhani is a community, which derives its origin from the Hindu Rajputs of Chauhan clan who embraced Islam.Jaan Kavi (Neimat Khan) traced the history of Kayam Khani from its hero Kayam Khan, who laid the foundation for Kayam Khani Nawabi rule in Hissar[disambiguation needed]. He writes that the founder of this community was Raja Mote Rao Chauhan, a Hindu ruler of Daderva state in Churu district. He had four sons named Jainand singh chouhan, Jabar Chand singh, Jagmal singh and Karam Chand singh chouhan. It was Karam Chand whom Firuz Shah Tughlaq met within a jungle near Hissar where the young Karam Chand was resting for a while under a tree which was completely covering him to give comfort. Firuz Shah Tughlaq enquired about the young Karam Chand’s family details and took him to Delhi. After seeking consent from Mote Rao Chauhan one of his subordinates Firuz Shah sent Karam Chand to Sayyed Nasir for Islamic training. Thus Karam Chand embraced Islam and changed his name to Kayam Khan. Later in his two elder brothers Jaichand and Jabarichand also joined him in the pursuit of Islam. However, it is the descendants of Kayam Khan who were known as Kayam Khani, but in due course the descendants of his brothers, who changed their names to Jainand Khan and Jahardi Khan were also included in the fold of Kayam Khani community. Kayam Khan become an Ameer of the Delhi Sultanate. Nawab kayam Khan had six sons, named Muhammad Khan, Taj Khan, Quttab Khan, Mohan Khan, Ikhtiar Khan, and Wahid Khan. During the life of the Nawab, Muhammad Khan lived in Hisar while Taj Khan and Quttub Khan ruled Tussam in Punjab. Mohan Khan and Ikhtiar Khan were the rulers of Fatehabad and Dhosi.

After the death of their father at the hands of Khizr Khan, they dispersed and chose to avoid confrontation with Hakim-e-Delhi (ruling power in Delhi). Taj Khan later became the Nawab of Hisar, ruling from 1420 - 1446 AD. After death of Taj Khan his eldest son Fateh Khan was made Nawab of Hisar but Bahlol Lodi expelled Fatehkhan from Hisar. Taj Khan's brother, Muhammad Khan was made Nawab of Hansi but he was also expelled. Fateh Khan and Muhammad Khan came to Shekhawati area of Rajasthan and established the states of Fatehpur and Jhunjhunu respectively. Nawab Zainudin Khan and Nawab Jabeerudin Khan founded the states of Narhar, Barwasi, Jharo Dapti, and Kayad. Rajasthan historian Mhatta Nanasi has written in his fame that Hisar's soldier Syed Nasir looted Dadreva. From there, two boys took one Chauhan and another Jat. Put them near Sheikh of Hansi. When Syed died, he was sent to Huzur of Bahlol Lodi. Chauhan was named Kayam Khan and Jat was named as Janu. Janu's descendants (Jaindot) are in Jhunjhunu Fatehpur. Kayamkhan became a soldier of Hisar. Chaudhary met Jude and settled in Jhunjhunu town. Kayamkhan was the son of Raja Moterao Chauhan of Dadreva. Kayamkhan's descendants are called Kayamkhani. [5] [6] This is confirmed by historical facts. Mahakavi Jaan, the author of Raso, being the son of Moterao Chauhan of Kayamkhan, being a resident of Dadreva, etc., mention in detail the facts. It is necessary to consider what time Moterao Chauhan was and what time Kayam Khan became a Muslim. The Chauhans of Dadreva were a branch of the Chauhans of Sambhar. He had authority over Dadreva for a long time and his title was Rana. Rana's title used two branches in Chauhans. First Mohil and second choice. The Chauhans of Dadreva probably belonged to the Chahil branch. The temple priests of Gogaji, who was the ancestor of Karamchand, are still wanted. Mote Rao Chauhan was a descendant of Gogaji. Dashrath Sharma considers Gogaji's time as the 11th Shadi. According to him, he fought in Mahmud Ghaznavi and sacrificed in Sana 1024. In Ranakpur inscription, Gogaji is considered a popular hero. This inscription is from V. 1496 (1439 AD). [7] It is famous that Karmchand was born 16 generations after Gogaji. Similarly, from Jait Singh, he is considered to be in the seventh generation. Bankidas has written Gogaji to be the son of Jewar. After Gogaji, Bairasi, Udayaraj, Jaskaran, Kesorai, Vijayaraj, Madanasi, Prithviraj, Lalchand, Ajaychand, Gopal, Jaitasi, Dadreva ascended the throne. The inscription of Jaitasi has been received which is dated to V.C. Belongs to 1270 (1213 AD). It is actually called 1273 BC. Told to be of After Jetsi, Punpal, Roop, Ravan, Tihumpal, Motrao, this lineage is considered by Rasokar. A definite date is known from the inscription of Jaitasi. Jaitasi was the son of Gopal who built a well in Dadreva. Gogaji was killed while fighting Mahmud Ghaznavi in 1024. The time from Gogaji to Jaitasi is usually 192 years for 9 Rana, which is slightly more than the average of 20 years. Raja Moterao Chauhan's time is about 1315 AD, which is near the time of Feroze Tughlaq, with the same average of the Ranaas ahead of Jaitasi. It is clear that Kayam became a Muslim in the time of Khan Feroze Tughlaq (1309-1388). [8]

It is known from Tariqi Ferozshahi that after returning from Bengal, the second year of the Battle of Bengal established Hisar Feroza. This can be considered in 1354. In Hisar, the Sultan built a fort and named the common Hisar Feroza after this city. Earlier, the area around Hisar was in the Shink (division) of Hansi. This Shink was renamed Hisar Firoza and included the districts of Hansi, Agroha, Fatehabad, Sarsuti, Salaruh and Khizrabad. Near this was the area of Shekhawati in the southwest. Kayam Khan though converted to Muslim but his Hindu rites were strong. His contact was also with the ruling castes around his place of birth. Kayam Khan had seven women who were all Rajput. [9]The names of the seven queens of Kayam khan were -

Darude kanwar - daughter of Raghunath Singh Panwar of Sadar

Umaid Kanwar - daughter of Ratan Singh Jatu of Siwani

Jeet Kanwar - daughter of Sivraj Singh God of Maroth

Sujan Kanwar - daughter of Olurao Nirvana of Khandela

Sujan Kanwar - daughter of Rajpal Bhati of Jaisalmer

Ratan Kanwar - daughter of Dwarkadas of Nagaur

Chand Kanwar - daughter of Bhagwan Das Badgujar of Hod

Fatehpur Settlement of Fateh Khan

Kayam Khan was the prince of Hisar Turquoise in the last days of his life. This area was far and wide and Dadreva, his place of birth, was also near where Chauhan was still ruling. Kayamkhan had close contact with Shekhawati, this can be known from his marriage in the section of rulers of Khandele. Later due to this contact, his son was displaced from Hisar and moved here. According to Shekhawati Prakash Kayamkhan had 5 sons - Mohammadkhan, Tajkhan, Qutubkhan, Abukhan, and Ikhtiarkhan. In 'Fatehpur Parichay' it is said that he has 6 boys. In addition to the above five, the name of Mohankhan has been added. The fourth son settled in Qutub Khan Baruve and took possession of the surrounding places. Barua is the place of Jhunjhunu district which is 11 km south of Nawalgarh. [24] According to Ratan Lal Mishra, Raso's statement is that Fateh Khan could not live in Hisar due to opposition from Bahlol Lodi emperor. He settled the city of Fatehpur, which was formerly a forest and had reservoirs. As long as the fort was built, Fatah Khan stayed in Rinau village. He put together the foundations of 6 forts, Palhu, Bhadra, Bhadang, Baila, and Fatehpur. Apart from Fatehpur, all the above mentioned places fall in the present Churu and Ganganagar districts. Pallu, Bhadra fall in Hanumangarh district and Saheva, Bhadang and Bayla fall in Churu district. According to Raso, the settlement of Fatehpur is of Samvat 1508 (1451 AD). An inscription has been found in the temple of old Saravagis of Fatehpur, according to which Seth Tuhin Mal laid the foundation stone of Samvat 1508 Phagan Sudi 2 of this temple. [25] Ratan Lal Mishra [26] writes that there is also another evidence which takes the matter of settling of Fatehpur city a little back. When Fatekhan came to Fatehpur, he brought with him Pandit, Seth and moneylender. It is known from the article in the book of Mr. Kishanlal Brahmabhatta that Fatehkhan came here from Hisar in Samvat 1503. It is written in this book - "Haritwal Godwal came from Narnol to Fatehpur, in the Bar of Chaudhary Gangaram in the war of Nawab Fatehkhan, the year of Samvat 1503." This is the same era when Bahlol Lodi took possession of Hisar and the surrounding area before becoming the emperor. Where Fatehkhan started building the fort, there were forests and reservoirs (Ho Sarwar Udyan) and Mahatma Gangadas had a dhuni. In order to build the fort, the people of Fateh Khan asked to raise Mahatmaji. Mahatmaji said that make the fort a little dandy. If the soldiers did not listen, the Mahatma became enraged and put them in the bag with a burning dhuni. The soldiers went to Renau and narrated this miraculous incident to Fateh Khan. Fateh Khan, fearing the curse of the monk, came to Mahatma ji. At that time, Mahatma ji was sitting under the jaunt of fumigation where lime is nowadays. Fateh Khan asked Mahatmaji to return, but he did not budge. At this place, even today the temple and mausoleum of Mahatma Gangadas ji are there. There is also a Persian inscription on which the construction of the temple is written Samvat 1505 (1448 AD). Fateh khan had many Hindu women. In order to worship them, small house temples or devasthan were built in the fort. Their remains could be seen till a few years ago

Fateh khan's right over Shekhawati In this way, Fatekhan established himself on the south eastern part of Shekhawati. He established his suzerainty over the land lying in the north direction, as is proved by the construction of 5 forts in this area. Thus far-off lands were under him. By strengthening the fort on the frontier, he strengthened his position considerably. [11] According to Raso, Taj khan and Mohammad Khan returned to Hisar. Tajkhan became a very powerful ruler. It took over Khetri, Kharkada, Buhana and subdued Patan, Rewasa and Amer. He took Peshkas from Kachwahe, Nirvana, Tanwar and Panwar. Tajkhan died in Hisar Samvat 1503 (1446 AD). His brother Mohammad Khan died in Hansi. [12] In many books, the matter of settling Jhunjhunu by Mohammad khan has been said in the context of Jhunjh Jat. [13] The evidence of Jhunjhunu Nagar's earlier settlements is available in Jain texts. Many quotations of 14th century are present in Jain texts, which prove the antiquity of this city. Jhunjhunu is described in the Sarvatirthamala written by Siddhasen Suri in Vikrami 1123 (1066 AD) as follows - "Khandillu Xinzhuyanay Narayan Harsaur Khattauesu. Nayur Suddha Dehi Su Sabhari Desesu Vandami ..." [14] Similarly, from the information published in Varada, Jhunjhunu has been mentioned in Samvat 1300 as follows- "Samvat 1300 Subsequently Khatu Vaastya Sah Gopal Chief Nana Nagar Gramay Vastavayanek Shravaka: Shri Navaha Jhunjhunu Vaastya - [15] Jhunjhunu settling in Vakayat Kaum Kayamkhani has been reported as 1444 V. Month 14 Saturday. There is a possibility that Kaymkhanis may have decorated Jhunjhunu with a new spirit. Along with Fatekhan came Mohammad Khan's son Shamskhan who established his authority over the northern part of Shekhawati. A mention of Shamskhan establishing his rule in Jhunjhunu is also found in the commendation of Trilokya Deepak. According to this no. Shamskhan was ruled by Jhunjhunu in 1516. [16] "Swasti Samvat 1516 Ashadh Sudi Five Bhomwasare Jhunjhunu auspicious place Shaki Bhupathi Prajapalka Samaskhan Vijay Raje". According to Vakayat Kaum Kayamkhani, Shamskhan built a pond which is still known as Shams pond. It has paved ghats and steps. It left a bead in an area of 20 square miles in which animals graze. It also made some solid cooks. This Nawab settled a village called Shamspur which is situated 4 miles east of Jhunjhunu. Shamskhan died in Jhunjhunu where a strong dome is present.

The list of Nawabs of Jhunjhunu is as follows -

Mohammad khan

Sams khan

Fateh khan

Mubarak khan

Kamal khan

Bhikam khan

Mohabat khan

Khizar khan

Bahadur khan

Samas khan

Sultan khan

Wahid khan

Saad khan

Fzal khan

Rohilla khan

The last Nawab of Jhunjhunun was Rohilla Khan. It came under Shardul Singh Shekhawat in 1730

Kayam Khan established his Nawabi rule in Hissar[disambiguation needed]. His sons established Jhunjhunu Nawabi and Fatehpur[disambiguation needed] Nawabi was established by Kayam Khan in 1309-1388 to 1730. KayamKhani mainly ruled in Churu, Jhunjhunu, Sikar , Nagaur , Hansi and Hissar district. [3]

[See also]


If we look carefully at political scenario of the eighteenth century Shekhawati, one may find that the politics of this region was passing through a transition phase. As the Kayamkhanis Nawab, who were ruling over the Fatehpur-Jhunjhunu of Shekhawati since the reign of Sultan Firoz Shah Tughluq were defeated and displaced by Shekhawats in 1731 AD. Other hand, Nagad-Pathans Nawab also known as Afghan Pathan, were ruling over the Narahar-Shekhawati since the reign of Sultan Bahlol Lodhi, were conquered by Shekhawats in 1732 AD.5 By this more than two hundred years of Kayamkhanis Nawabi from the Fatehpur-Jhunjhunu and long standing local domination of NagadPathans from the Narhar came to end and whole Shekhawati region passed into the hands of Shekhawats. The political conversion from Kayamkhanis and Nagad-Pathans to Shekhawats rule, reflects the beginning of a new era and an important phase in the political history of Shekhawati, which brought this region under the single dominant power of Shekhawats, before it, this region was divided into the several small holdings between the different Rajput clans. The displacement of Kyamkhanis and Afghan Pathans from the certain parts of the Shekhawati and the establishment of Shekhawats rule over it may be characterized as a rise of regional power and politics. The territorial acquisition of Kayamkhanis based Fatehpur-Jhunjhunu by Shekhawats also may be characterized as a clanconquest of this area and shifting of politics from one clan to another. There are some divergent views regarding the conquest of Fatehpur, Jhunjhunu, Narhar and defeat of Kyamkhanis and Nagad Pathans by Shekhawats.6 However, strengths and abilities of the Shekhawats cannot be denied, which brought them on top and made them single dominant power in all over Shekhawati. Through the influence of time and space, Shekhawats and their descendants established themselves in all over Shekhawati and made strong forts, organized army, officials to strength their position.  Let us to examine the nature of politics under Shekhawats, as Col. James Tod refers to Shekhawati as a confederation or union of Shekhawats which emerged from the Amber state.


  1. ^ Sunita Budhwar (1978). "The kayamkhani Shaikhzada Family of Fatehpur-Jhunjhunu". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 39: 412–425. JSTOR 44139379.
  2. ^ Dr Dasharatha Sharma, Kyam Khan Raso, Ed. Dasharath Sharma, Agarchand Nahta, Rajsthan Puratatva Mandir, 1953, page-15
  3. ^ Chandra, Satish (2005). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals. Vol. 2. Har-Anand Publications. p. 112. ISBN 978-8-12411-066-9.
  4. ^ Stern, Robert W. (1988). The Cat and the Lion: Jaipur State in the British Raj. BRILL. p. 265. ISBN 978-9-00408-283-0.
  5. ^ Kolff, Dirk H. A. (2002). Naukar, Rajput, and Sepoy: The Ethnohistory of the Military Labour Market of Hindustan, 1450-1850. Cambridge University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-52152-305-9.
  6. ^ Weinberger-Thomas, Catherine (1999). Ashes of Immortality: Widow-Burning in India. University of Chicago Press. p. 176. ISBN 0-226-88568-2.

1. Jain, M.S., Rajasthan through the ages: A comprehensive history of Rajasthan (17611949), Vol.III, Rajasthan State Archives, Bikaner, 1996, p. 3-4, 21, 123-124. 2. C.U. Wills, A Report on the Land Tenures and Special Powers of Certain Thikanedars of the Jaipur State, Jaipur, 1933, p. 10. 3. Ibid., p. 4-5 The Inquiry Committee, A Summary of the Case Relating to the inquiry into the Land Tenures and Special Power of certain Thikanedars in the Jaipur state, Jaipur, 1937, p. 28. 4. Taft, Frances H., The Origins of the Shekhawat Thikanas of Jaipur, Ed. by N.K Singh and Rajendra Joshi, Relation, Ritual and Royalty, Jaipur, 1999, p. 284. 5. R.K Gupta & S.R Bakshi, Rajasthan Through the Ages: A Comprehensive History of Rajasthan, Vol-IV, New Delhi, 2008, p. 170171. Sharma, M.L., History of the Jaipur State, Rajasthan Historical Research Institute, Jaipur, 1969, p. 162. Mishra, Ratanlal., Kayamkhani Vansh ka Itihas evm Sanskriti, Jodhpur, 2002, p. 183184. 6. C.U. Wills, A Report on Sikar, The committee of Inquiry, Jaipur, 17 Nov 1933, p.16, 21. The File, The Employment of C.U Wills, CIE, ICS (Retd.) by Jaipur Darbar, Government of India, Foreign and political department, National Archives of India, New Delhi, 30 Aug 1932, p. 1-3. Meharda, B.L., Territory, Polity and Status: A Study of Shekhawats, 2006, Jaipur, p. 6267. Tod, James., Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol-III, Delhi, 1994, p. 1423-24. 7. Tod, James., Rajasthan Ka Itihas, Vol-IV, Ed. by B.P Mishra & J.P Mishra, Jaipur, 1987, p. 137. 8. Tod, James., Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol-II, New Delhi, 1971, p. 313. Arya, Harfool Singh., Shekhawati ke Thikano ka Itihas evm Yogdan, Jaipur, 1987, p. 134136. Pemaram, Shekhawati Kishan Andolan ka Itihas, Nagaur, 1990, p. 11. 9. Hooja, Rima., A History of Rajasthan, New Delhi, 2006, p. 688 Singh, Ranbir., History of Shekhawats, Jaipur, 2001, p. 202. Mandawa, Devi Singh., Rajput Shakhao ka Itihas, Jodhpur, 2002, p.165. 10. Sharma, G.D., Rajput Polity: A Study of Politics and Administration of the State of Marwar, (1638- 1749), New Delhi, 1977, P. 5. 11. Arya, Harfool Singh., Shekhawati ke Thikano ka Itihas evm Yogdan, Jaipur, 1987, p. 133. 12. Meharda, B.L., Territory, Polity and Status: A Study of Shekhawats, 2006, p. 125. B.L Pangariya & N.C Pahariya, Political, Socio-Economic and Cultural History of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 1993, p. 174-175. 13. Singh, Ranbir., History of Shekhawats, 2001, p. 201.14. .Singh, Ranbir., History of Shekhawats, 2001, preface. 15. Hooja, Rima., A History of Rajasthan, 2006, p. 694-695. Udaivir Sharma & Nand Kumar Shastri, Shekhawati Ka Itihas, Laxmangarh, Sikar, 1985, p. 52-53. 16. Rajasthan State Gazetteer, History And Culture, Vol-II, Jaipur, 1995, p. 4-8. 17. Hooja, Rima., A History of Rajasthan, 2006, p. 696. 18. Tod, James., Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol-II, New Delhi, 1971, p. 323. Jain, K.C., Ancient Cities and Towns of Rajasthan: A Study of Culture and Civilization, Delhi, 1972 ,p. 265-266. 19. Taft, Frances H., The Origins of the Shekhawat Thikanas of Jaipur, Jaipur, 1999, p. 295. Meharda, B.L., Territory, Polity and Status: A Study of Shekhawats, 2006, p. 225. 20. Singh, Harnath., The Shekhawats and their Land, Jaipur, 1970, p. 29. Tod, James., Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol-II, New Delhi, 1971, p. 323325. Ratnawat, Shyam Singh., Rajput Nobility: With special reference to the Kachhawaha Nobility of Jaipur during 1700-1858 AD, Jaipur, 1989, p. 61. 21. Singh, Ranbir., History of Shekhawats, 2001, p. 73-74. 22. Ratnawat, Shyam Singh., Rajput Nobility: With special reference to the Kachhawaha Nobility of Jaipur during 1700-1858 AD, Jaipur, 1989, p. 60. 23. Meharda, B.L., Territory, Polity and Status: A Study of Shekhawats, 2006, p. 69. Singh, Sinhg., History of Shekhawats, 2001, p. 78, 149. 24. C.U. Wills, A Report on the Land Tenures and Special Powers of Certain Thikanedars of the Jaipur State, Jaipur, 1933, p. 10. 25. Hooja, Rima., A History of Rajasthan, 2006, p. 693. Ibid., p. 694. 26. Tod, James., Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol-III, Ed. by W. Crooke, Delhi, 1994, p. 1397. 27. Singh, Ranbir., History of Shekhawats, 2001, p. 150. Hooja, Rima., A History of Rajasthan, 2006, p. 694. 28. The Inquiry Committee, A Summary of the Case Relating to the inquiry into the Land Tenures and Special Power of Certain Thikanedars in the Jaipur State, Jaipur, 1937, p. 33. 29. Sharma, G.N., Rajasthan through the Ages: A Comprehensive History of Rajasthan (1300-1761), Vol-II, Rajasthan State Archives, Bikaner, 1990, p. 156-157. Sarkar, Jadunath., Fall of the Mughal Empire, Vol-1, 1964, New Delhi, p. 149. Sharma, M.L., History of the Jaipur state, Jaipur, 1969, p. 168-169 .Singh, Singh., The state, landlords and peasants (Rajasthan in 18th century), New Delhi, 1990, p. 8. 30. Meharda, B.L., Territory, Polity and Status: A Study of Shekhawats, 2006, p. 173. 31. Ratnawat, Shyam Singh., Rajput Nobility: With special reference to the Kachhawaha Nobility of Jaipur during 1700-1858 AD, Jaipur, 1989, p. 59.