Soomro
Regions with significant populations
Pakistan, India
Languages
Sindhi
Religion
Star and Crescent.svg
Islam
Related ethnic groups
other Rajputs and Sindhis

Soomro (Sindhi: سومرو, सूमरो) or Soomra or Sumrah is a tribe of Rajput origin based in Sindh, parts of Punjab bordering Sindh, in Balochistan province, and in the Kutch district of the Indian state of Gujarat and also Rajasthan.[1][2][3][4][5] The Soomro tribe established the Soomra dynasty in 1025 CE, which re-established native Sindhi rule over Sindh since the Arab conquests.[6] They ruled for 350 years, and their dynasty deeply impacted Sindhi culture for centuries.[7]

Many members of the Soomro caste were one of the first in Sindh to convert to Islam from Hinduism but initially continued to maintain several Hindu customs and traditions.[2][1]

Their origins are believed to be indigenous Sindhis of Rajput origin who migrated to Sindh from Rajasthan.[6][2] Their lineage is said to be of the Parmar subcaste of Rajputs,[1][2][6] although Ahmad Hasan Dani claims that "of this there is no definite proof" though he too affirms that they originate in the Indian subcontinent.[8] During the Umayyad Caliphate, some Soomros may have intermarried with Arabs, according to the speculation of one author.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b c "The Arab Conquest". International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, Volumes 36-37. XXXVI (1): 91. 2007. The Soomras are believed to be Parmar Rajputs found even today in Rajasthan, Saurashtra, Kutch and Sindh. The Cambridge History of India refers to the Soomras as "a Rajput dynasty the later members of which accepted Islam" (p. 54 ).
  2. ^ a b c d e Siddiqui, Habibullah. "The Soomras of Sindh: their origin, main characteristics and rule – an overview (general survey) (1025 – 1351 AD)" (PDF). Literary Conference on Soomra Period in Sindh. Historians draw conclusion from socio-cultural as well as the historical and archaeological evidence. The way in which the history of Sindh has been recorded in the past, does not admit of the historical method. However, according to the available printed material, Mir Tahir Muhammad Nisyani, in his Tarikh Tahiri (1621 AD) asserts that Soomras were originally Hindus. They converted to Islam but remained Hindu in their customs, dress and even in their names. Tarikh Waqa`i Rajisthan corroborates this viewpoint and confirms that Soomras were originally “Parmar Rajputs”... " Again, however, from Bashari Maqdisi, Al Beruni, and the Cambridge History of India (Vol. II), we note that it was during the Soomra rule (1025 – 1351 AD) that the “Rajput” migrated from India to Sindh.2 Dr. N. A. Baloch, the eminent modern scholar of Sindh has written as exhaustive book on the Soomra Period, in which the conflicting versions about the origin of the Soomra race are reconciled: a hybrid race of Sindhi-Arab blood, that emerged after the Ummayad caliph Sulaiman bin Abdul Malik (715-17 AD)’s decree asking Arab officers posted in Sindh to settle in the land permanently. Consequently they took Sindhi wives and subsequently married their daughters in Sindhi families. Hence, Dr. Baloch writes that “Soomras were descendents of these hybrid princes, whose ancestors, according to common legend, were either Arabs or their grand-sons on the mothers’ side”
  3. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 114. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  4. ^ "The Soomras of Sindh: their origin, main characteristics and rule" (PDF). www.uok.edu.pk. University of Karachi , Sindhi department. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  5. ^ (PDF) https://uok.edu.pk/faculties/sindhi/docs/soomroEng.pdf. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. ^ a b c International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics. Department of Linguistics, University of Kerala. 2007. The Soomras are believed to be Parmar Rajputs found even today in Rajasthan, Kutch and Sindh.
  7. ^ The Herald. Pakistan Herald Publications. 1992.
  8. ^ Dani, Ahmad Hasan (2007). History of Pakistan: Pakistan through ages. Sang-e Meel Publications. ISBN 978-969-35-2020-0. But as many kings of the dynasty bore Hindu names, it is almost certain that the Soomras were of local origin. Sometimes they are connected with Paramara Rajputs, but of this there is no definite proof.