Gujrat
ضلع گجرات
District
Top: Mosque in the city of Gujrat
Bottom Left: Gujrat Eidgah
Bottom Right: Rice fields in Chakrian
Map of Gujrat District in Punjab
Map of Gujrat District in Punjab
Country Pakistan
Province Punjab
DivisionGujrat
HeadquartersGujrat
Government
 • TypeDistrict Administration
 • Deputy CommissionerCh.Safdar Hussain Virk [1]
 • District Police OfficerUmar Salamat
 • District Health OfficerN/A
Area
 • Total3,192 km2 (1,232 sq mi)
Population
 (2023)[2]
 • Total3,219,375
 • Density1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+5 (PST)
Main language(s)
Number of Tehsils4
Websitehttps://gujrat.punjab.gov.pk/

Gujrat (Punjabi, Urdu: ضلع گجرات) is a district in the Pakistani province of Punjab. It is geographically located between the Chenab and Jhelum rivers and headquartered at the city of Gujrat.

It is bounded on the northeast by Bhimber district, on the north by Mirpur district, on the northwest by the River Jhelum, which separates it from Jhelum district, on the east and southeast by the Chenab river, separating it from the districts of Gujranwala and Sialkot, and on the west by Mandi Bahauddin district. Gujrat district is spread over an area of 3,192 square kilometres.

History

Ancient history

According to the British Imperial Gazetteer:

Gujrat town itself is a place of some antiquity, and the district bounds in ancient sites.The region was conquered by Chandragupta Maurya. It remained under the Mauryas for a few hundred years until shortly after the death of Ashoka in 231, and about forty years later came under the sway of Demetrius the Graeco-Bactrian. The overthrow of the Bactrians by the Parthians in the latter half of the second century brought another change of rulers, and the coins of the Indo-Parthian Maues (c. 120 B. c.), who is known to local tradition as Raja Moga, have been found at Mong. At the end of the first century A. D., i.e. the whole of the Punjab was conquered by the Yueh-chi. For several hundred years nothing is known of the history of the District, except that between 455 and 540 it must have been exposed to the ravages of the White Huns. Dr. Stein holds that the District formed part of the kingdom of Gurjara(Gurjar), which, according to the Rajatarangini, was invaded between 883 and 902 by Shankara Varman of Kashmir, who defeated its king Alakana.[3]

However the foundation of the capital, Gujrat, according to the Ancient Geography of India:

is ascribed to a king named Bachan Pal of whom nothing more is known; and its restoration is attributed to Alakhana, the Maha Raja of Gurjara, who was defeated by Sangkara Varmma between AD 883 and AD 901.[4]

Islamic Rule (Ghaznavid, Ghurid, Delhi, Suri, and Mughal Empires)

In 997 CE, Mahmud Ghaznavi, took rule over the Ghaznavid dynasty established by his father Sebuktegin. After defeating the Hindu Shahis, he conquered their kingdom entirely which included the Punjab region of modern day Pakistan.

After defeating the Ghaznavids, the Ghurids took over the region. They were in turn succeeded by the Sultanates of Delhi.

The Mughal emperor Akbar established Gujrat as a district along with many others when he began consolidating his rule over his vast empire. Jahangir, Akbar's son and successor, in his memoirs records the following information on Gujrat:

At the time when His Majesty Akbar went to Kashmir, a fort had been built on the bank of that river. Having brought to this fort a body of Gujars who had passed their time in the neighbourhood in thieving and highway robbery, he established them here. As it had become the abode of Gujars, he made it a separate pargana, and gave it the name of Gujrat. "[5]

Revenue records have been preserved in the families of the hereditary registrars (kanungos), and these exhibit Gujrat as the capital of a district containing 2,592 villages, paying a revenue of 11.6 million. In 1605, the famous Sayyid Abdul Kasim received Gujrat as a fief from Akbar.

In 1707, with Aurangzeb's death, the decline of Mughal power began in the Punjab region. Nadir Shah occupied the Punjab including Gujrat during his invasion of the Mughal Empire in 1739. The area was captured by Punjabi Gakhar tribesmen from near the Rawalpindi area after the invasion.

Gujrat and Punjab as a whole was devastated further from the invasions of the Durrani Afghans (Pashtuns) under Ahmad Shah Durrani between 1748 and 1767. Durrani took direct control over Punjab after Mir Mannu, the Mughal governor of Punjab, died in 1753. Durrani would frequently cross the area for plunder and to fight the newly emerged Sikh Misls.[3]

Sikh and British era

The Sikhs eventually took over most of northern Punjab after Ahmad Shah Durrani’s final invasion in 1767. The Sikhs under Gujjar Singh Bhangi took Gujrat after defeating the local Punjabi Ghakhars under Muqqarab Khan.

In 1798, the Bhangi leader Sahib Singh pledged allegiance to the Sukerchakia Misl of Ranjit Singh. By 1810, Ranjit Singh's armies captured the city from Bhangi forces, thereby extending the rule of the Sikh Empire to the city.

The Sikh empire declined following Ranjit Singh’s death in 1839. The British East India Company defeated the Sikhs between 1845 and 1846 during the First Anglo-Sikh War, reducing their power significantly. Two years later, the empire collapsed after the British EIC again decisively defeated the Sikhs at the Battle of Gujrat, thus ending the Second Anglo-Sikh War. The Sikh empire was entirely annexed and incorporated into the rule of the British EIC.[3]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1951 742,892—    
1961 835,045+1.18%
1972 1,177,345+3.17%
1981 1,408,585+2.01%
1998 2,048,008+2.23%
2017 2,756,289+1.58%
2023 3,219,375+2.62%
Sources:[6]

At the time of the 2017 census, Gujrat district had 436,952 households and a population of 2,756,289. Gujrat had a sex ratio of 1065 females per 1000 males and a literacy rate of 78.68% - 83.32% for males and 74.47% for females. 827,500 (30.02%) lived in urban areas. 656,987 (23.84%) were under 10 years of age.[7] In 2023, the district had 489,589 households and a population of 3,219,375.[2]

Religion

Religion in Gujrat district (2011)[7]
Religion Percent
Islam
99.08%
Christianity
0.77%
Other or not stated
0.15%

As per the 2017 census, Islam is the dominant religion with 99.08% of the population while there is a minority of 0.77% Christians who live mainly in urban areas.

Religion in Gujrat District [a]
Religion Population (1941)[8]: 42  Percentage (1941) Population (2017)[9] Percentage (2017)
Islam 945,609 85.58% 2,730,946 99.08%
Hinduism [b] 84,643 7.66% 120
Sikhism 70,233 6.36%
Christianity 4,391 0.4% 21,117 0.77%
Ahmadi 4,007 0.15%
Others [c] 76 0.01% 99
Total Population 1,104,952 100% 2,756,289 100%

Language

Languages of Gujrat district (2017)[7]

  Punjabi (96.50%)
  Pashto (1.81%)
  Urdu (0.90%)
  Others (0.79%)

According to the 2017 Pakistani census, 96.50% of the population spoke Punjabi, 1.81% Pashto and 0.90% Urdu as their first language.

Administration

The district is administratively subdivided into four tehsils, these are:

Education

District Gujrat has a total of 1,475 government schools at primary and secondary level.[11] Out of these public schools, 60 percent (889 schools) are for girls. According to the latest available data, 323,058 students are enrolled in the public schools while 10,581 teachers are working in these schools.

Notable people

Politicians

Scholars

Military

Poets

Sport

Actors/Actresses

Musicians

Other

See also

References

  1. ^ "DCs of Gujrat, Rahim Yar Khan transferred". Dawn (newspaper). Retrieved 11 April 2023.
  2. ^ a b "TABLE 1 : HOUSEHOLDS, POPULATION, HOUSEHOLD SIZE AND ANNUAL GROWTH RATE" (PDF). www.pbscensus.gov.pk. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. 2023.
  3. ^ a b c Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 366
  4. ^ The Ancient Geography of India, page 151, Alexander Cunningham
  5. ^ The Memoirs of Jahangueir (Rogers), Volume 1, chpt. 23
  6. ^ "Population by administrative units 1951-1998" (PDF). Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.
  7. ^ a b c "District Wise Results / Tables (Census - 2017)". www.pbscensus.gov.pk. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.
  8. ^ "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1941 VOLUME VI PUNJAB PROVINCE". Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  9. ^ "District And Tehsil Level Population Summary With Region Breakup" (PDF). Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan website. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2023.
  10. ^ Ahmad, Salman. "Punjab to Get Two New Tehsils". ProPakistani.pk website. Retrieved 11 April 2023.
  11. ^ "Punjab Annual Schools Census Data 2014-15". School Education Department, Government of the Punjab website. Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2023.
  12. ^ "PML-Q's Moonis Elahi sworn in as federal minister". Dawn.com. 20 July 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
  13. ^ Crilly, Rob (3 August 2012). "The Pakistan village where Shafilea drank bleach to avoid an arranged marriage". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  1. ^ Historic district borders may not be an exact match in the present-day due to various bifurcations to district borders — which since created new districts — throughout the historic Punjab Province region during the post-independence era that have taken into account population increases. This discrepancy can be seen in the district population history table which has taken into account the various bifurcations since 1941.
  2. ^ 1941 census: Including Ad-Dharmis
  3. ^ Including Jainism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, or not stated

32°35′N 73°45′E / 32.583°N 73.750°E / 32.583; 73.750