Fuyu County
富裕县
ChinaQiqiharFuyu.png
Fuyu is located in Heilongjiang
Fuyu
Fuyu
Location in Heilongjiang
Coordinates: 47°48′N 124°28′E / 47.800°N 124.467°E / 47.800; 124.467Coordinates: 47°48′N 124°28′E / 47.800°N 124.467°E / 47.800; 124.467
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHeilongjiang
Prefecture-level cityQiqihar
Area
 • Total4,335 km2 (1,674 sq mi)
Population
 (2010)
 • Total276,537
 • Density64/km2 (170/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)

Fuyu (Chinese: 富裕; pinyin: Fùyù) is a county of western Heilongjiang province, China, under the administration of Qiqihar City,[1] the downtown of which is 65 kilometres (40 mi) to the southwest.[citation needed] Various economic crops and the milk are produced in the fertile land.[citation needed] The county has an area of 4,335 square kilometres (1,674 sq mi), and a population of 300,000 inhabitants.[citation needed]

Toponymy

Fuyu County is named after the nearby Wuyur River [zh], which derives from a Jurchen word for waterlogged depression.[1] The county's name been transcribed into Chinese in a number of different ways, such as Wuyur (Chinese: 乌裕尔; pinyin: Wūyù'ěr), Huyur (Chinese: 呼裕尔; pinyin: Hūyù‘ěr), Huyur (Chinese: 瑚裕尔; pinyin: Húyù'ěr), and Wuyur (Chinese: 乌雨尔; pinyin: Wūyǔ'ěr).[1]

History

The area of present-day Fuyu County was once inhabited by the Sushen.[1]

The area also once belonged to the kingdom of Buyeo, and later Dumakru [zh; de].[1]

The area would later be inhabited by the Heishui Mohe.[1]

The Liao dynasty then conquered the area, and placed it under Dongjing Circuit [zh], which was then administered by Changchun Prefecture [zh].[1]

Under the Jin dynasty, the area was administered as Puyu Road [zh].[1]

Following the Jin dynasty, the area was ruled by the Yuan dynasty.[1]

Under the Ming dynasty, which followed the Yuan, the area was administered as part of the Nurgan Regional Military Commission.[1]

During the Qing dynasty, the area was administered as part of Qiqihar.[1] In 1685, Qing settlers established a settlement in contemporary Fuyu [zh], known as Dalaiketun (Chinese: 大来克屯; pinyin: Dàláikètún).[1] Towards the end of the Qing dynasty, the region was put under the administration of Longjiang Fu [zh] and Yikeming'an Banner [zh].[1]

On March 19, 1929, the Republic of China reorganized the area as Fuyu Administrative Bureau, an Administrative Bureau [zh].[1]

On October 1, 1933, the puppet state of Manchukuo established Fuyu County.[1] Since then, the county has changed provinces numerous times, and has changed prefecture a number of times, until December 15, 1984, when it was placed under Qiqihar, which is has remained since.[1]

Administrative divisions

Fuyu County is divided into six towns, three townships, and one ethnic township.[2]

The county's six towns are Fuyu [zh], Fulu [zh], Fuhai [zh], Erdaowan [zh], Long'anqiao [zh], and Taha [zh].[2]

The county's three townships are Fanrong Township [zh], Shaowen Township [zh], and Zhonghou Township [zh].[2]

The county's sole ethnic township is Youyi Daur, Manchu, and Kirghiz Ethnic Township [zh].[2]

Climate

Fuyu has a cold, monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), with four distinct seasons. It has long, bitterly cold, dry winters and very warm, rainy summers.

Climate data for Fuyu County, Heilongjiang (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 0.8
(33.4)
7.9
(46.2)
21.8
(71.2)
28.9
(84.0)
35.3
(95.5)
38.3
(100.9)
38.1
(100.6)
35.5
(95.9)
31.5
(88.7)
26.4
(79.5)
12.6
(54.7)
4.9
(40.8)
38.3
(100.9)
Average high °C (°F) −14.3
(6.3)
−8.3
(17.1)
1.4
(34.5)
12.3
(54.1)
20.6
(69.1)
25.8
(78.4)
27.6
(81.7)
25.8
(78.4)
19.7
(67.5)
10.2
(50.4)
−2.2
(28.0)
−11.7
(10.9)
8.9
(48.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −20.7
(−5.3)
−15.5
(4.1)
−5.2
(22.6)
5.6
(42.1)
13.9
(57.0)
19.9
(67.8)
22.4
(72.3)
20.4
(68.7)
13.5
(56.3)
4.0
(39.2)
−8.0
(17.6)
−17.5
(0.5)
2.7
(36.9)
Average low °C (°F) −26
(−15)
−21.6
(−6.9)
−11.7
(10.9)
−1.1
(30.0)
6.7
(44.1)
13.7
(56.7)
17.4
(63.3)
15.4
(59.7)
7.9
(46.2)
−1.5
(29.3)
−12.9
(8.8)
−22.3
(−8.1)
−3
(27)
Record low °C (°F) −40.3
(−40.5)
−36.5
(−33.7)
−31.2
(−24.2)
−15.8
(3.6)
−7.5
(18.5)
2.7
(36.9)
9.2
(48.6)
5.1
(41.2)
−8.2
(17.2)
−18.4
(−1.1)
−28.5
(−19.3)
−37.5
(−35.5)
−40.3
(−40.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.0
(0.08)
1.7
(0.07)
4.8
(0.19)
18.7
(0.74)
31.9
(1.26)
67.6
(2.66)
126.6
(4.98)
101.0
(3.98)
58.8
(2.31)
20.8
(0.82)
4.9
(0.19)
3.5
(0.14)
442.3
(17.42)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 4.2 3.5 3.7 5.8 7.7 12.2 13.8 11.7 9.6 5.9 4.6 5.5 88.2
Source: Weather China

Demographics

Ethnic groups

The county is home to 17 different ethnic groups: Han Chinese, Manchu, Daur, Kyrgyz, Mongolian, Hui, Tibetan, Miao, Yi, Zhuang, Buyi, Korean, Xibe, Yao, Ewenki, Oroqen, and Uygur.[3] Much of the county's ethnic minorities live in villages clustered together, such as Manchus living in the village of Sanjiazi (Chinese: 三家子; Romanized Manchu: Ilan Boo), Kyrgyz living in Wujiazi (Chinese: 五家子), Daurs living in Dengke (Chinese: 登科) and other villages, and Mongols living in Daxiaoquanzi (Chinese: 大小泉子).[3]

Manchu

Fuyu County is home to approximately 7,000 Manchu people, most of whom live in the villages of Damagang (Chinese: 大马岗), Xiaomagang (Chinese: 小马岗), and Dagaoliang (Chinese: 大高粱).[3] The town of Taha [zh] hosts an annual Manchu sports festival, which includes horse racing, wrestling, archery, a competition in the traditional Manchu sport of pearl ball (Chinese: 珍珠球), and other events.[3]

Daur

Fuyu County's government estimates that there are approximately 6,000 Daur people living in the county, and that the county's Daur population migrated to the area during the 1750s.[3]

Villages in Fuyu County with large amounts of Daur people include Dengke (Chinese: 登科) Dongji (Chinese: 东极), Dahazhou (Chinese: 大哈洲), Liangchufang (Chinese: 两出房), Shiwuli (Chinese: 十五里), Dongtaha (Chinese: 东塔哈), Xiaogaoliang (Chinese: 小高粱), Xitaha (Chinese: 西塔哈), Kumu (Chinese: 库木), Jiqibao (Chinese: 吉期堡) and Fufeng (Chinese: 富丰).[3]

Mongol

Fuyu County is home to over 2,000 Mongols, who are predominately Oirats.[3] The county's Mongol population is largely concentrated in the villages of Daquanzi (Chinese: 大泉子), Xiaoquanzi (Chinese: 小泉子), Chenjiazi (Chinese: 陈家子), Bajiazi (Chinese: 八家子), and Sanjianfang (Chinese: 三间房).[3]

Fuyu Kyrgyz

The largely Kyrgyz village of Wujiazi is the largest concentration of Kyrgyz people in China, outside of Xinjiang.[3] Of the 653 people who live in the village, 219 (33.54%) are Kyrgyz.[3] Fuyu County as a whole has 1,400 Kyrgyz people.[3] The Fuyu Kyrgyz are separate from the other Kyrgyz ethnic group (see the Fuyu Kyrgyz language classification), but they are usually listed as Kyrgyz by the authorities.

Languages

Sanjiazi (三家子; Romanized Manchu: Ilan Boo) in Fuyu County is one of the few villages whose elderly inhabitants are considered to being the last native speakers of Manchu.[3][4] The village's school offers courses in Manchu.[3]

The Fuyu Kyrgyz language is spoken in Fuyu County. It is not a variety of Kyrgyz, but is closer to the Siberian modern Khakas and the ancient language of the Yenisei Kyrgyz.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p 富裕县历史沿革 [Fuyu County Organizational History]. xzqh.org (in Chinese). 2012-11-08. Archived from the original on 2021-02-14. Retrieved 2021-02-14.
  2. ^ a b c d 2020年统计用区划代码(富裕县) [2020 Statistical Division Codes (Fuyu County)] (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of China. 2020. Archived from the original on 2021-02-14. Retrieved 2021-02-14.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m 民俗宗教 [Folklore and Religion] (in Chinese). Fuyu County People's Government. Archived from the original on 2021-02-14. Retrieved 2021-02-14.
  4. ^ "A Sanjiazi trip report". Archived from the original on 2010-03-15. Retrieved 2010-04-19.