The Art of War
AuthorSun Tzu (traditional)
Original title孫子兵法
LanguageClassical Chinese
SubjectMilitary art
GenreMilitary strategy
Publication date
5th century BC
Publication placeChina
LC ClassU101 .S95
Original text
孫子兵法 at Chinese Wikisource
TranslationThe Art of War at Wikisource
The Art of War
Traditional Chinese孫子兵法
Simplified Chinese孙子兵法
Literal meaning"Master Sun's Military Methods"

The Art of War (Chinese: 孫子兵法; pinyin: Sūnzǐ bīngfǎ; lit. 'Sun Tzu's Military Method') is an ancient Chinese military treatise dating from the late Spring and Autumn period (roughly 5th century BC). The work, which is attributed to the ancient Chinese military strategist Sun Tzu ("Master Sun"), is composed of 13 chapters. Each one is devoted to a different set of skills or art related to warfare and how it applies to military strategy and tactics. For almost 1,500 years, it was the lead text in an anthology that was formalized as the Seven Military Classics by Emperor Shenzong of Song in 1080. The Art of War remains the most influential strategy text in East Asian warfare,[1] has influenced both East Asian and Western military theory and thinking, and has found a variety of applications in myriad competitive non-military endeavors across the modern world including espionage,[2] culture, politics, business, and sports.[3][4][5][6]

The book contains a detailed explanation and analysis of the 5th-century BC Chinese military, from weapons, environmental conditions, and strategy to rank and discipline. Sun also stressed the importance of intelligence operatives and espionage to the war effort. Considered one of history's finest military tacticians and analysts, his teachings and strategies formed the basis of advanced military training throughout the world.

The book was translated into French and published in 1772 by the French Jesuit Jean Joseph Marie Amiot; it was re-published in 1782. A partial translation into English was attempted by British officer Everard Ferguson Calthrop in 1905 under the title The Book of War. The first annotated English translation was completed and published by Lionel Giles in 1910.[7] Military and political leaders such as the Chinese communist revolutionary Mao Zedong, Japanese daimyō Takeda Shingen, Vietnamese general Võ Nguyên Giáp, and American military generals Douglas MacArthur and Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. are all cited as having drawn inspiration from the book.[8]

Outside of military use, The Art of War has also become a source of inspiration for many people in business, politics, sports, and even e-sports[citation needed], and its usage has also extended to film and television.


Text and commentaries

The Art of War is traditionally attributed to an ancient Chinese military general known as Sun Tzu meaning "Master Sun". Sun Tzu is usually linked with existing in the 6th century BC; the earliest sections of The Art of War, however, most likely date to at least 100 years after him.[9]

Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian, the first of China's 24 dynastic histories, records an early Chinese tradition that a text on military matters was written by one "Sun Wu" (孫武) from the State of Qi, and that this text had been read and studied by King Helü of Wu (r. 514 BC – 495 BC).[10] This text was traditionally identified with the received Master Sun's Art of War. The conventional view was that Sun Wu was a military theorist from the end of the Spring and Autumn period (776–471 BC) who fled his home state of Qi to the southeastern Kingdom of Wu, where he is said to have impressed the king with his ability to quickly train even court women in military discipline and to have made Wu's armies powerful enough to challenge their western rivals in the state of Chu. This view is still widely held in China.[11]

The strategist, poet, and warlord Cao Cao in the early 3rd century AD authored the earliest known commentary to the Art of War.[10] Cao's preface makes clear that he edited the text and removed certain passages, but the extent of his changes were unclear historically.[10] The Art of War appears throughout the bibliographical catalogs of the Chinese dynastic histories, but listings of its divisions and size varied widely.[10]


Fragments of The Art of War discovered as a part of the Yinqueshan Han Slips, showing the version of The Art of War that was popular in Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD)

Beginning around the 12th century, some Chinese scholars began to doubt the historical existence of Sun Tzu, primarily on the grounds that he is not mentioned in the historical classic The Commentary of Zuo (Zuo Zhuan), which mentions most of the notable figures from the Spring and Autumn period.[10] The name "Sun Wu" (孫武) does not appear in any text prior to the Records of the Grand Historian,[12] and has been suspected to be a made-up descriptive cognomen meaning "the fugitive warrior", glossing the surname "Sun" as the related term "fugitive" (xùn ), while "Wu" ( ) is (1) the ancient Chinese virtue of "martial, valiant" and (2) a Jianghuai dialectal synonym of ; shì "knight",[13][14] which corresponds to Sunzi's role as the hero's doppelgänger in the story of Wu Zixu.[15] In the early 20th century, the Chinese writer and reformer Liang Qichao theorized that the text was actually written in the 4th century BC by Sun Tzu's purported descendant Sun Bin, as a number of historical sources mention a military treatise he wrote.[10] Unlike Sun Wu, Sun Bin appears to have been an actual person who was a genuine authority on military matters, and may have been the inspiration for the creation of the historical figure "Sun Tzu" through a form of euhemerism.[15]

In 1972, the Yinqueshan Han slips were discovered in two Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) tombs near the city of Linyi in Shandong Province.[16] Among the many bamboo slip writings contained in the tombs, which had been sealed between 134 and 118 BC, respectively were two separate texts, one attributed to "Sun Tzu", corresponding to the received text, and another attributed to Sun Bin, which explains and expands upon the earlier The Art of War by Sunzi.[17] The Sun Bin text's material overlaps with much of the "Sun Tzu" text, and the two may be "a single, continuously developing intellectual tradition united under the Sun name".[18] This discovery showed that much of the historical confusion was due to the fact that there were two texts that could have been referred to as "Master Sun's Art of War", not one.[17] The content of the earlier text is about one-third of the chapters of the modern The Art of War, and their text matches very closely.[16] It is now generally accepted that the earlier The Art of War was completed sometime between 500 and 430 BC.[17]

The 13 chapters

The Art of War is divided into 13 chapters (or piān); the collection is referred to as being one zhuàn ("whole" or alternatively "chronicle").

The Art of War chapter names and contents
Chapter Lionel Giles (1910)[19] R. L. Wing (1988) Ralph D. Sawyer (1996) Chow-Hou Wee (2003) Michael Nylan (2020) Contents
I Laying Plans The Calculations Initial Estimations Detail Assessment and Planning
(Chinese: 始計)
First Calculations Explores the five fundamental factors (the Way, seasons, terrain, leadership, and management) and seven elements that determine the outcomes of military engagements. By thinking, assessing and comparing these points, a commander can calculate his chances of victory. Habitual deviation from these calculations will ensure failure via improper action. The text stresses that war is a very grave matter for the state and must not be commenced without due consideration.
II Waging War The Challenge Waging War Waging War
(Chinese: 作戰)
Initiating Battle Explains how to understand the economy of warfare and how success requires winning decisive engagements quickly. This section advises that successful military campaigns require limiting the cost of competition and conflict.
III Attack by Stratagem The Plan of Attack Planning Offensives Strategic Attack
(Chinese: 謀攻)
Planning an Attack Defines the source of strength as unity, not size, and discusses the five factors that are needed to succeed in any war. In order of importance, these critical factors are: Attack, Strategy, Alliances, Army and Cities.
IV Tactical Dispositions Positioning Military Disposition Disposition of the Army
(Chinese: 軍形)
Forms to Perceive Explains the importance of defending existing positions until a commander is capable of advancing from those positions in safety. It teaches commanders the importance of recognizing strategic opportunities, and teaches not to create opportunities for the enemy.
V Use of Energy Directing Strategic Military Power Forces
(Chinese: 兵勢)
The Disposition of Power Explains the use of creativity and timing in building an army's momentum.
VI Weak Points and Strong Illusion and Reality Vacuity and Substance Weaknesses and Strengths
(Chinese: 虛實)
Weak and Strong Explains how an army's opportunities come from the openings in the environment caused by the relative weakness of the enemy and how to respond to changes in the fluid battlefield over a given area.
VII Maneuvering an Army Engaging The Force Military Combat Military Maneuvers
(Chinese: 軍爭)
Contending Armies Explains the dangers of direct conflict and how to win those confrontations when they are forced upon the commander.
VIII Variation of Tactics The Nine Variations Nine Changes Variations and Adaptability
(Chinese: 九變)
Nine Contingencies Focuses on the need for flexibility in an army's responses. It explains how to respond to shifting circumstances successfully.
IX The Army on the March Moving The Force Maneuvering the Army Movement and Development of Troops
(Chinese: 行軍)
Fielding the Army Describes the different situations in which an army finds itself as it moves through new enemy territories, and how to respond to these situations. Much of this section focuses on evaluating the intentions of others.
X Classification of Terrain Situational Positioning Configurations of Terrain Terrain
(Chinese: 地形)
Conformations of the Lands Looks at the three general areas of resistance (distance, dangers and barriers) and the six types of ground positions that arise from them. Each of these six field positions offers certain advantages and disadvantages.
XI The Nine Situations The Nine Situations Nine Terrains The Nine Battlegrounds
(Chinese: 九地)
Nine Kinds of Ground Describes the nine common situations (or stages) in a campaign, from scattering to deadly, and the specific focus that a commander will need in order to successfully navigate them.
XII Attack by Fire The Fiery Attack Incendiary Attacks Attacking with Fire
(Chinese: 火攻)
Attacks with Fire Explains the general use of weapons and the specific use of the environment as a weapon. This section examines the five targets for attack, the five types of environmental attack and the appropriate responses to such attacks.
XIII Use of Spies The Use of Intelligence Employing Spies Intelligence and Espionage
(Chinese: 用間)
Using Spies Focuses on the importance of developing good information sources, and specifies the five types of intelligence sources and how to best manage each of them.

Cultural influence

The beginning of The Art of War in a classical bamboo book from the reign of the Qianlong Emperor

Military and intelligence applications

See also: Wen and wu

Across East Asia, The Art of War was part of the syllabus for potential candidates of military service examinations.

During the Sengoku period (c. 1467–1568), the Japanese daimyō Takeda Shingen (1521–1573) is said to have become almost invincible in all battles without relying on guns, because he studied The Art of War.[20] The book even gave him the inspiration for his famous battle standard "Fūrinkazan" (Wind, Forest, Fire and Mountain), meaning fast as the wind, silent as a forest, ferocious as fire and immovable as a mountain.

The translator Samuel B. Griffith offers a chapter on "Sun Tzu and Mao Tse-Tung" where The Art of War is cited as influencing Mao's On Guerrilla Warfare, On the Protracted War and Strategic Problems of China's Revolutionary War, and includes Mao's quote: "We must not belittle the saying in the book of Sun Wu Tzu, the great military expert of ancient China, 'Know your enemy and know yourself and you can fight a thousand battles without disaster.'"[20]

During the Vietnam War, some Viet Cong officers extensively studied The Art of War and reportedly could recite entire passages from memory. General Võ Nguyên Giáp successfully implemented tactics described in The Art of War during the Battle of Dien Bien Phu ending major French involvement in Indochina and leading to the accords which partitioned Vietnam into North and South. General Giáp, later the main PVA military commander in the Vietnam War, was an avid student and practitioner of Sun Tzu's ideas.[21]

Outside East Asia

The United States' defeat in the Vietnam War, more than any other event, brought Sun Tzu to the attention of leaders of U.S. military theory.[21][22][23] The Department of the Army in the United States, through its Command and General Staff College, lists The Art of War as one example of a book that may be kept at a military unit's library.[24] The Art of War is listed on the US Marine Corps Professional Reading Program (formerly known as the Commandant's Reading List). It is recommended reading for all United States Military Intelligence personnel.[25] The Art of War is also used as instructional material at the US Military Academy at West Point, in the course Military Strategy (470),[26] and it is also recommended reading for Officer cadets at the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst. Some notable military leaders have stated the following about Sun Tzu and The Art of War:

"I always kept a copy of The Art of War on my desk."[27] – General Douglas MacArthur, 5 Star General and Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers.

"I have read The Art of War by Sun Tzu. He continues to influence both soldiers & politicians."[28] – General Colin Powell, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, National Security Advisor, and Secretary of State.

According to some authors, the strategy of deception from The Art of War was studied and widely used by the KGB: "I will force the enemy to take our strength for weakness, and our weakness for strength, and thus will turn his strength into weakness".[29]

Application outside the military

The Art of War has been applied to many fields outside of the military. Much of the text is about how to outsmart one's opponent without actually having to engage in physical battle. As such, it has found application as a training guide for many competitive endeavors that do not involve actual combat.

The Art of War is mentioned as an influence in the earliest known Chinese collection of stories about fraud (mostly in the realm of commerce), Zhang Yingyu's The Book of Swindles (Du pian xin shu, 杜騙新書, c. 1617), which dates to the late Ming dynasty.[30]

Many business books have applied the lessons taken from the book to office politics and corporate business strategy.[31][32][33] Many Japanese companies make the book required reading for their key executives.[34] The book is also popular among Western business circles citing its utilitarian values regarding management practices. Many entrepreneurs and corporate executives have turned to it for inspiration and advice on how to succeed in competitive business situations. The book has also been applied to the field of education.[35]

The Art of War has been the subject of legal books[36] and legal articles on the trial process, including negotiation tactics and trial strategy.[37][38][39][40]

The book The 48 Laws of Power by Robert Greene employs philosophies covered in The Art of War.[41]

The Art of War has also been applied in sports. National Football League coach Bill Belichick, record holder of the most Super Bowl wins in history, has stated on multiple occasions his admiration for The Art of War.[42][43] Brazilian association football coach Luiz Felipe Scolari actively used The Art of War for Brazil's successful 2002 World Cup campaign. During the tournament Scolari put passages of The Art of War underneath his players' doors at night.[44][45]

"Play To Win" by David Sirlin analyses applications of the ideas from The Art of War in modern esports. The Art of War was released in 2014 as an e-book companion alongside the Art of War DLC for Europa Universalis IV, a PC strategy game by Paradox Development Studios, with a foreword by Thomas Johansson.

Film and television

The Art of War and Sun Tzu have been referenced and quoted in many movies and television shows, including in the 1987 movie Wall Street, in which Gordon Gekko (Michael Douglas) frequently references it.[46] The 20th James Bond film, Die Another Day (2002) also references The Art of War as the spiritual guide shared by Colonel Moon and his father.[47] In The Sopranos, season 3, episode 8 ("He Is Risen"), Dr. Melfi suggests to Tony Soprano that he read the book.[48]

In the Star Trek: The Next Generation first-season episode "The Last Outpost", first officer William Riker quotes The Art of War: "Fear is the true enemy, the only enemy". Captain Picard expressed pleasure that Sun Tzu was still taught at Starfleet Academy. Later in the episode, a survivor from a long-dead nonhuman empire noted common aspects between his own people's wisdom and The Art of War with regard to knowing when and when not to fight.[49]

The Art of War is a 2000 action spy film directed by Christian Duguay and starring Wesley Snipes, Michael Biehn, Anne Archer and Donald Sutherland.[50]

Notable translations

Running Press miniature edition of the 1994 Ralph D. Sawyer translation, printed in 2003

See also





  1. ^ Smith (1999), p. 216.
  2. ^ McNeilly, Mark R. (2015). Sun Tzu and the Art of Modern Warfare (updated ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 301. ISBN 9780199957859. Archived from the original on 14 December 2022. Retrieved 14 December 2022. Sun Tzu is not talking about 'news' here but about espionage affairs, or matters or plans relating to espionage.
  3. ^ Scott, Wilson (7 March 2013), "Obama meets privately with Jewish leaders", The Washington Post, Washington, D.C., archived from the original on 24 July 2013, retrieved 22 May 2013
  4. ^ "Obama to challenge Israelis on peace", United Press International, 8 March 2013, archived from the original on 27 November 2022, retrieved 22 May 2013
  5. ^ Garner, Rochelle (16 October 2006), "Oracle's Ellison Uses 'Art of War' in Software Battle With SAP", Bloomberg, archived from the original on 20 October 2015, retrieved 18 May 2013
  6. ^ Hack, Damon (3 February 2005), "For Patriots' Coach, War Is Decided Before Game", The New York Times, archived from the original on 18 January 2024, retrieved 18 May 2013
  7. ^ Giles, Lionel The Art of War by Sun Tzu – Special Edition. Special Edition Books. 2007. p. 62.
  8. ^ Hlavatý, Jozef; Ližbetin, Ján (1 January 2021). "The Use of the Art of War Ideas in the Strategic Decision-making of the Company". Transportation Research Procedia. 14th International scientific conference on sustainable, modern and safe transport. 55: 1273–1280. doi:10.1016/j.trpro.2021.07.110. ISSN 2352-1465. S2CID 238896273.
  9. ^ Lewis (1999), p. 604.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Gawlikowski & Loewe (1993), p. 447.
  11. ^ Mair (2007), pp. 12–13.
  12. ^ Mair (2007), p. 9.
  13. ^ Liu An (original compiler), Xu Shen (annotator). Huainan Honglie (Annotated), "Survey Obscurities". Main text: 「夫死生同域,不可脅陵,勇一人,為三軍雄。」; Major et al.'s (2010) translation: "One for whom death and life are the same territory, who cannot be threatened, such a single brave warrior is the hero of the Three Armies."; Siku Quanshu version. vols. 4-7, p. 96 of 160 Archived 15 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine; Annotation: 「士也;江淮間謂士曰。」
  14. ^ Liu An (2010) The Huainanzi: A Guide to the Theory and Practice of Government in Early Han China. Translated and edited by John S. Major, Sarah A. Queen, Aandrew Seth Meyer, and Harold D. Roth. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010. p. 215
  15. ^ a b Mair (2007), p. 10.
  16. ^ a b Gawlikowski & Loewe (1993), p. 448.
  17. ^ a b c Gawlikowski & Loewe (1993), p. 449.
  18. ^ Mark Edward Lewis (2005), quoted in Mair (2007), p. 18.
  19. ^ Sunzi (2009). Shawn Conners (ed.). Sun-tzu ping fa [The art of war]. Translated by Lionel Giles (Classic ed.). El Paso, TX: El Paso Norte Press. ISBN 978-1-934255-15-5. OCLC 433665014.
  20. ^ a b Griffith, Samuel B. The Illustrated Art of War. 2005. Oxford University Press. pp. 17, 141–43.
  21. ^ a b McCready, Douglas. Learning from Sun Tzu, Military Review, May–June 2003."Learning from Sun Tzu". Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
  22. ^ Interview with Dr. William Duiker, Conversation with Sonshi Archived 18 January 2024 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ Forbes, Andrew; Henley, David (2012). The Illustrated Art of War: Sun Tzu. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN B00B91XX8U
  24. ^ Army, U. S. (1985). Military History and Professional Development. U. S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute. 85-CSI-21 85.
  25. ^ "Messages". Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2009.
  26. ^ "Department of Military Instruction Job Opportunities | United States Military Academy West Point". Archived from the original on 12 December 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  27. ^ United States Military Posture for FY1989 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989), 5–6, 93–94.
  28. ^ "Chinese Military Strategist Sun Tzu Reveals Secrets to Success | Leaderonomics". 2 February 2018. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
  29. ^ Yevgenia Albats and Catherine A. Fitzpatrick. The State Within a State: The KGB and Its Hold on Russia – Past, Present, and Future. 1994. ISBN 0-374-52738-5, chapter Who was behind perestroika?
  30. ^ "Search Results | book of swindles | Columbia University Press". Columbia University Press. Archived from the original on 23 March 2019. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  31. ^ Michaelson, Gerald. "Sun Tzu: The Art of War for Managers; 50 Strategic Rules." Avon, MA: Adams Media, 2001
  32. ^ McNeilly, Mark. "Sun Tzu and the Art of Business : Six Strategic Principles for Managers. New York:Oxford University Press, 1996.
  33. ^ Krause, Donald G. "The Art of War for Executives: Ancient Knowledge for Today's Business Professional." New York: Berkley Publishing Group, 1995.
  34. ^ Kammerer, Peter. "The Art of Negotiation." Archived 15 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine South China Morning Post (21 April 2006) p. 15
  35. ^ Jeffrey, D (2010). "A Teacher Diary Study to Apply Ancient Art of War Strategies to Professional Development". The International Journal of Learning. 7 (3): 21–36.
  36. ^ Barnhizer, David. The Warrior Lawyer: Powerful Strategies for Winning Legal Battles Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Bridge Street Books, 1997.
  37. ^ Balch, Christopher D., "The Art of War and the Art of Trial Advocacy: Is There Common Ground?" (1991), 42 Mercer L. Rev. 861–73
  38. ^ Beirne, Martin D. and Scott D. Marrs, The Art of War and Public Relations: Strategies for Successful Litigation Archived 11 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ Pribetic, Antonin I., "The Trial Warrior: Applying Sun Tzu's The Art of War to Trial Advocacy" Archived 18 January 2024 at the Wayback Machine 21 April 2007
  40. ^ Solomon, Samuel H., "The Art of War: Pursuing Electronic Evidence as Your Corporate Opportunity" 2002
  41. ^ "The 48 Laws of Power by Robert Greene". Penguin Random House Canada. Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  42. ^ Lauletta, Tyler (6 December 2019). "Bill Belichick explains how advice from Sun Tzu's 'The Art of War' helped build the Patriots dynasty". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 31 July 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  43. ^ "Put crafty Belichick's patriot games down to the fine art of war". The Sydney Morning Herald. The New York Times. 4 February 2005. Archived from the original on 22 January 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2020.((cite web)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  44. ^ Campos, Celso de Jr. (1 July 2011). "Luiz Felipe Scolari: One-on-One". FourFourTwo. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  45. ^ Winter, Henry (29 June 2006). "Mind games reach new high as Scolari studies art of war". Irish Independent. Archived from the original on 20 July 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
  46. ^ "Bud Fox: Sun-tzu: If your enemy is superior, evade him. If angry, irritate him. If equally matched, fight, and if not split and reevaluate". Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  47. ^ Die Another Day (2002) - IMDb, archived from the original on 24 February 2021, retrieved 5 June 2020
  48. ^ Globe, Boston (13 May 2001). "Hey, if Tony's reading it, it's got to be good". Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  49. ^ "The Next Generation Transcripts - The Last Outpost". Archived from the original on 13 November 2023. Retrieved 9 August 2023.
  50. ^ "The Art of War (2000) - IMDb". IMDb. Archived from the original on 23 July 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2020.


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