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The Bodhisattva vow is a vow (Sanskrit: praṇidhāna, lit. aspiration or resolution) taken by some Mahāyāna Buddhists to achieve full buddhahood for the sake of all sentient beings. One who has taken the vow is nominally known as a bodhisattva (a being working towards buddhahood). This can be done by venerating all Buddhas and by cultivating supreme moral and spiritual perfection, to be placed in the service of others. In particular, bodhisattvas promise to practice the six perfections of giving, moral discipline, patience, effort, concentration and wisdom in order to fulfill their bodhicitta aim of attaining buddhahood for the sake of all beings. Whereas the prātimokṣa vows cease at death, the bodhisattva vow extends into future lives.
Buddhist sources like the Buddhavaṃsa and the Mahāvastu, contain stories of how in a previous life, Sakyamuni (then known as Sumedha) encountered the previous Buddha, Dīpankara, and made the vow to one day become a Buddha. Dīpankara confirmed that he would become a Buddha in the future. All early Buddhist schools held that making a vow in front of a living Buddha (and receiving a prediction), just like Sakyamuni had done, was the only way to become a bodhisattva. This view remains the orthodox understanding of bodhisattva vows in the Theravada tradition.
In Mahāyāna Buddhism, one can become a bodhisattva by taking the vow and giving rise to bodhicitta in a ceremonial setting. Indian Mahāyāna Buddhists often accomplished this through a ritual called the "seven part worship" (saptāṇgapūjā or saptavidhā anuttarapūjā), which consists of: vandana (obeisance), worship, refuge, confession, rejoicing, prayers and requesting the buddhas to remain in the world.
Fourfold bodhisattva vows (that is, a set of vows with four main components), are found in numerous Mahāyāna sutras. According to Jan Nattier, there is a set of four bodhisattva vows that appears in various sutras including the Ugraparipṛcchā Sūtra, the Lotus Sūtra (in the Dharmaraksa and Kumarajiva translations), the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā (in the Chinese translation by Lokaksema and Chih Ch'ien), the Avadānaśataka and the Compassionate Lotus sutra. Nattier translates this fourfold vow as follows:
The unrescued I will rescue
The unliberated I will liberate
The uncomforted I will comfort
Those who have not yet reached paranirvana, I will cause to attain paranirvana
Nattier also notes that a similar set of four vows (with small differences in wording) appears in the Dipankara Jataka, the Mahavastu, the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā (in the Chinese translation by Kumarajiva), the Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā and in some Lotus Sutra translations. Nattier translates this other fourfold vow as follows:
Having crossed over [myself], I will rescue [others].
Liberated, I will liberate [others].
Comforted, I will comfort [others].
Having attained paranirvana, I will cause [others] to attain paranirvana.
Nattier further notes that "it is quite possible to identify clear antecedents of these vows in pre-Mahayana literature" and thus it is likely that these fourfold vows evolved from earlier passages (found in the Digha Nikaya and the Majjhima Nikaya as well as the Chinese Agamas) that describe the activity of the Buddha. One such passage states:
Awakened, the Blessed One teaches the Dhamma for the sake of awakening.
Disciplined, the Blessed One teaches the Dhamma for the sake of disciplining.
Calmed, the Blessed One teaches the Dhamma for the sake of calming.
Having crossed over, the Blessed One teaches the Dhamma for the sake of crossing over.
In East Asian Buddhism, the most common bodhisattva vows are a series of "four extensive vows" outlined by the Tiantai Patriarch Zhiyi. According to Robert F. Rhodes, Zhiyi presents two versions of the four vows. The first one is taken from the Lotus Sūtra and states:
The second set of vows is original to Zhiyi's corpus:
Zhiyi explains that these vows correspond to the Four Noble Truths and that these vows arise with the four truths as their basis.
The following table presents the fourfold bodhisattva vow in various languages:
|Chinese (hanzi)||Chinese (pinyin)||Sino-Japanese||Hangul||Korean||Vietnamese||English|
|四弘誓願||Sì hóng shì yuàn||Shi gu sei gan||사홍서원||sa hong seo won||Tứ hoằng thệ nguyện||The Four Encompassing Vows|
|眾生無邊誓願度||Zhòng shēng wúbiān shì yuàn dù||Shu jō mu hen sei gan do||중생무변서원도||Jung saeng mu byeon seo won do||Chúng sanh vô biên thệ nguyện độ||Masses [of] creatures, without-bounds,|
[I/we] vow to save [them all].
|煩惱無盡誓願斷||Fánnǎo wújìn shì yuàn duàn||Bon nō mu jin sei gan dan||번뇌무진서원단||Beon noe mu jin seo won dan||Phiền não vô tận thệ nguyện đoạn||Anxiety [and] hate, [delusive-desires] inexhaustible,|
[I/we] vow to break [them all].
|法門無量誓願學||Fǎ mén wúliàng shì yuàn xué||Hō mon mu ryō sei gan gaku||법문무량서원학||Beob mun mu jin seo won hag||Pháp môn vô lượng thệ nguyện học||Dharma gates beyond-measure|
[I/we] vow to learn [them all].
|佛道無上誓願成||Fó dào wúshàng shì yuàn chéng||Butsu dō mu jō sei gan jō||불도무상서원성||Bul do mu sang seo won seong||Phật đạo vô thượng thệ nguyện thành||Buddha Way, unsurpassable,|
[I/we] vow to accomplish [it]
The Avataṃsaka Sūtra, a large composite text, contains various passages discussing the practices and vows that bodhisattvas undertake. One example can be found in book 18 of the text, which contains the following ten vows:
Enlightening beings have ten pure vows: (1) they vow to develop living beings to maturity, without wearying; (2) they vow to fully practice all virtues and purify all worlds; (3) they vow to serve the Enlightened, always engendering honor and respect; (4) they vow to keep and protect the true teaching, not begrudging their lives; (5) they vow to observe with wisdom and enter the lands of the Buddhas; (6) they vow to be of the same essence as all enlightening beings; (7) they vow to enter the door of realization of thusness and comprehend all things; (8) they vow that those who see them will develop faith and all be benefited; (9) they vow to stay in the world forever by spiritual power; (10) they vow to fulfill the practice of Universal Good, and master the knowledge of all particulars and all ways of liberation. These are the ten pure vows of enlightening beings.
In the Avataṃsaka Sūtra, Samantabhadra makes ten vows which are an important source for East Asian Buddhism. Samantabhadra's vows also appear in the Samantabhadra-caryā-praṇidhānam, which is often appended to the end of the Avataṃsaka but originally circulated as an independent text. The ten vows of Samantabhadra are:
The Tibetan Buddhist Tradition widely makes use of verses from chapter three of Shantideva's Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra, which is entitled Embracing Bodhicitta. Various forms of these verses are used to generate bodhicitta and take the bodhisattva vow. The set of verses which are considered to be the actual taking of the bodhisattva vow are verses 23 and 24 of the third chapter. These verses state:
Just as all the Buddhas of the past
Have brought forth the awakened mind,
And in the precepts of the Bodhisattvas
Step-by-step abode and trained,
Likewise, for the benefit of beings,
I will bring to birth the awakened mind,
And in those precepts, step-by-step,
I will abide and train myself.
In the Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra, the actual taking of the vow is preceded by various other preparatory practices and prayers, particularly what is called the Seven Branch Practice (Tib. yan lag bdun pa), often done through the recitation of a prayer. The seven branches are:
The 14th Dalai Lama teaches the following way of taking the vow, which begins by reading "through the second and third chapters of the Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra up until the second line of verse 23." The Dalai Lama then writes:
In order to take this vow, we should imagine that in front of us are the Buddha and his eight close disciples; the six ornaments, and the two supreme teachers, including Shantideva; and all the realized masters of the Buddhist tradition, in particular the holders of the Sakya, Gelug, Kagyu, and Nyingma schools of Tibet—in fact, all the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. Consider also that we are surrounded by all the beings in the universe. With this visualization, we shall now read the Seven Branch Prayer ...
Consider that we are surrounded by all the beings in the universe and generate compassion for them. Think of the Buddha and feel great devotion to him. Now, with compassion and devotion, pray, "May I attain Buddhahood!" and recite:
"Teachers, Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, listen! Just as you, who in the past have gone to bliss, Conceived the awakened attitude of mind, Likewise, for the benefit of beings, I will generate this self-same attitude."
When we recite these lines for the third time, at the words, "I will generate this self-same attitude," think that you have generated this bodhichitta in the depth of your hearts, in the very marrow of your bones, and that you will never go back on this promise. Traditionally we now recite the last nine verses of the chapter as a conclusion to taking the vow.
In Tibetan Buddhism there are two lineages of the bodhisattva vow, which are linked to two sets of Bodhisattva precepts or moral rules. The first is associated with the Cittamatra movement of Indian Buddhism, and is said to have originated with the bodhisattva Maitreya, and to have been propagated by the Indian master Asanga. The second is associated with the Madhyamaka tradition, is said to have originated with the bodhisattva Manjusri and to have been propagated by Nagarjuna, and later by Shantideva. The main difference between these two lineages of the bodhisattva vow is that in the Cittamatra lineage the vow cannot be received by one who has not previously received the pratimokṣa vows. Both traditions share a set of 18 major precepts (or "downfalls"). There are also sets of minor precepts.