HU-16 Albatross
U.S. Navy Grumman HU-16.jpg
A U.S. Navy Grumman UF-1 Albatross
Role Air-sea rescue flying boat
Manufacturer Grumman
First flight October 24, 1947[1]
Introduction 1949
Retired 1995 (Hellenic Navy)
Status Retired
Primary users United States Air Force
United States Coast Guard
United States Navy
Hellenic Navy
Produced 1949–1961
Number built 466
Developed from Grumman Mallard

The Grumman HU-16 Albatross is a large, twin–radial engined amphibious seaplane that was used by the United States Air Force (USAF), the U.S. Navy (USN), and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), primarily as a search and rescue (SAR) aircraft. Originally designated as the SA-16 for the USAF and the JR2F-1 and UF-1 for the USN and USCG, it was redesignated as the HU-16 in 1962. A new build G-111T Albatross with modern avionics and engines was proposed in 2021 with production in Australia to commence in 2025.[2]

Design and development

An improvement of the design of the Grumman Mallard, the Albatross was developed to land in open-ocean situations to accomplish rescues. Its deep-V hull cross-section and keel length enable it to land in the open sea. The Albatross was designed for optimal 4-foot (1.2 m) seas, and could land in more severe conditions, but required JATO (jet-assisted takeoff, or simply booster rockets) for takeoff in 8–10-foot (2.4–3.0 m) seas or greater.

Operational history

A USAF SA-16A during the Korean War
A USAF SA-16A during the Korean War
Grumman HU-16 Albatross at MacDill AFB Florida 1951 or early 1952
Grumman HU-16 Albatross at MacDill AFB Florida 1951 or early 1952

Most Albatrosses were used by the U.S. Air Force (USAF), primarily in the search and rescue (SAR) mission role, and initially designated as SA-16. The USAF used the SA-16 extensively in Korea for combat rescue, where it gained a reputation as a rugged and seaworthy craft. Later, the redesignated HU-16B (long-wing variant) Albatross was used by the USAF's Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Service and saw extensive combat service during the Vietnam War. In addition, a small number of Air National Guard air commando groups were equipped with HU-16s for covert infiltration and extraction of special forces from 1956 to 1971.[3] Other examples of the HU-16 made their way into Air Force Reserve rescue and recovery units prior to its retirement from USAF service.

The U.S. Navy also employed the HU-16C/D Albatross as an SAR aircraft from coastal naval air stations, both stateside and overseas. It was also employed as an operational support aircraft worldwide and for missions from the former Naval Air Station Agana, Guam, during the Vietnam War. Goodwill flights were also common to the surrounding Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in the early 1970s. Open-water landings and water takeoff training using JATO was also conducted frequently by U.S. Navy HU-16s from locations such as NAS Agana, Guam; Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; NAS Barbers Point, Hawaii; NAS North Island, California, NAS Key West, Florida; NAS Jacksonville, Florida, and NAS Pensacola, Florida, among other locations.

The HU-16 was also operated by the U.S. Coast Guard as both a coastal and long-range open-ocean SAR aircraft for many years until it was supplanted by the HU-25 Guardian and HC-130 Hercules.

The final USAF HU-16 flight was the delivery of AF Serial No. 51-5282 to the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, in July 1973 after setting an altitude record of 32,883 ft earlier in the month.[4]

The final US Navy HU-16 flight was made 13 August 1976, when an Albatross was delivered to the National Museum of Naval Aviation at NAS Pensacola, Florida.[5]

The final USCG HU-16 flight was at CGAS Cape Cod in March 1983, when the aircraft type was retired by the USCG. The Albatross continued to be used in the military service of other countries, the last being retired by the Hellenic Navy (Greece) in 1995.

The Royal Canadian Air Force operated Grumman Albatrosses with the designation "CSR-110".

Civil operations

Chalk's International Airlines Albatross arriving in Miami Harbor from Nassau, Bahamas, in 1987
Chalk's International Airlines Albatross arriving in Miami Harbor from Nassau, Bahamas, in 1987

In the mid-1960s the U.S. Department of the Interior acquired three military Grumman HU-16s from the U.S. Navy and established the Trust Territory Airlines in the Pacific to serve the islands of Micronesia. Pan American World Airways and finally Continental Airlines' Air Micronesia operated the Albatrosses serving Yap, Palau, Chuuk (Truk), and Pohnpei from Guam until 1970, when adequate island runways were built, allowing land operations.

Many surplus Albatrosses were sold to civilian operators, mostly to private owners. These aircraft are operated under either Experimental-Exhibition or Restricted category and cannot be used for commercial operations, except under very limited conditions.

In the early 1980s, Chalk's International Airlines owned by Merv Griffin's Resorts International had 13 Albatrosses converted to Standard category as G-111s. This made them eligible to be used in scheduled airline operations. These aircraft had extensive modification from the standard military configuration, including rebuilt wings with titanium wing spar caps, additional doors and modifications to existing doors and hatches, stainless steel engine oil tanks, dual engine fire extinguishing systems on each engine, and propeller auto feather systems installed. The G-111s were operated for only a few years and then put in storage in Arizona. Most are still parked there, but some have been returned to regular flight operations with private operators.

Cockpit of Grumman Albatross N44RD which flew around the world in 1997
Cockpit of Grumman Albatross N44RD which flew around the world in 1997

Satellite technology company Row 44 bought an HU-16B Albatross (registration N44HQ)[6] in 2008 to test its in-flight satellite broadband internet service. Named Albatross One, the company selected the aircraft for its operations because it has the same curvature atop its fuselage as the Boeing 737 aircraft for which the company manufactures its equipment. The plane purchased by Row 44 was used at one time as a training aircraft for space shuttle astronauts by NASA. It features the autographs of the astronauts who trained aboard the plane on one of the cabin walls.[7][8]

In 1997, a Grumman Albatross (N44RD), piloted by Reid Dennis and Andy Macfie, became the first Albatross to circumnavigate the globe. The 26,347 nmi flight around the world lasted 73 days, included 38 stops in 21 countries, and was completed with 190 hours of flight time.[9] In 2013 Reid Dennis donated N44RD to the Hiller Aviation Museum.[10]

Since the aircraft weighs over 12,500 pounds, pilots of civilian US-registered Albatross aircraft must have a type rating. A yearly Albatross fly-in is held at Boulder City, Nevada, where Albatross pilots can become type rated.

Proposed new build

Amphibian Aerospace Industries in Darwin, Australia, acquired the type certificate and announced in December 2021 that it planned to commence manufacturing a new version the Albatross from 2025. Dubbed the G-111T, it would have modern avionics and Pratt & Whitney PT6A-67F turboprop engines, with variants for passengers, freight, search and rescue, coastal surveillance, and aeromedical evacuation.[11][12]

Variants

An XJR2F-1 prototype at NAS Patuxent River in the 1940s
An XJR2F-1 prototype at NAS Patuxent River in the 1940s

Operators

 Argentina
HU-16B of the Argentine Air Force, LADE 1st flight to Port Stanley, 1972
HU-16B of the Argentine Air Force, LADE 1st flight to Port Stanley, 1972
 Brazil
 Canada
A Grumman Albatross of the RCAF
A Grumman Albatross of the RCAF
 Chile
 Republic of China
 Germany
Preserved Hellenic AF aircraft at Dekelia AB.
Preserved Hellenic AF aircraft at Dekelia AB.
 Greece
 Indonesia
 Italy
 Japan
 Malaysia
 Mexico
A Spanish HU-16
A Spanish HU-16
 Norway
 Pakistan
 Peru
 Philippines
 Portugal
 Spain
U.S. Coast Guard HU-16E from CGAS Cape Cod in the 1970s.
U.S. Coast Guard HU-16E from CGAS Cape Cod in the 1970s.
 Thailand
 United States

Aircraft on display

HU-16A
HU-16A (Indonesian version)
UF-1 Albatross of the Indonesian Air Force at Dirgantara Mandala Museum
UF-1 Albatross of the Indonesian Air Force at Dirgantara Mandala Museum
HU-16B
BS-02, Museo Nacional de Aeronáutica de Argentina
BS-02, Museo Nacional de Aeronáutica de Argentina
HU-16C
HU-16E

Accidents and incidents

Specifications (HU-16B)

3-view line drawing of the Grumman UF-2 Albatross

Data from Albatross: Amphibious Airborne Angel,[87] United States Navy Aircraft since 1911,[88] Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1958-59[89]

General characteristics

1,275 hp (951 kW) normal rating from sea level to 3,000 ft (914 m)

Performance

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

References

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Further reading

United States tri-service utility aircraft designations post-1962
Canadian Armed Forces post-1968 unified aircraft designations