Schematic overview of a thrust system. The hanging wall block is (when it has reasonable proportions) called a nappe. If an erosional hole is created in the nappe that is called a window. A klippe is a solitary outcrop of the nappe in the middle of autochthonous material.
Schematic overview of a thrust system. The hanging wall block is (when it has reasonable proportions) called a nappe. If an erosional hole is created in the nappe that is called a window. A klippe is a solitary outcrop of the nappe in the middle of autochthonous material.

Structural Geology

An allochthon, or an allochthonous block, is a large block of rock which has been moved from its original site of formation, usually by low angle thrust faulting.[1] An allochthon which is isolated from the rock that pushed it into position is called a klippe. If an allochthon has a "hole" in it so that one can view the autochthon beneath the allochthon, the hole is called a "window" (or Fenster). Etymology: Greek; 'allo' = other, and 'chthon' = earth. In generalized terms, the term is applied to any geologic units that originated at a distance from their present location [2] For comparison, see also Autochthon.

In the United States there are three notable allochthons; all of which were displaced nearly 50 km (31 miles) along thrust faults. The Golconda and Robert Mountains allochthons are both found in Nevada, a product of the Antler Orogeny in the Late-Devonian period. The third is the Taconic allocthons found in New York, Massachusetts and Vermont formed from the collision of the Taconic magmatic arc with the super-continent Laurentia in the Late-Cambrian period. [3]

Limnology

In Limnology, allochthonous sources of carbon or nutrients come from outside the aquatic system (such as plant and soil material). Carbon sources from within the system, such as algae and the microbial breakdown of aquatic particulate organic carbon, are autochthonous. In aquatic food webs, the portion of biomass derived from allochthonous material is then named "allochthony".[4] In streams and small lakes, allochthonous sources of carbon are dominant while in large lakes and the ocean, autochthonous sources dominate.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ DiPietro, Joseph A. (December 21, 2012). Landscape Evolution in the United States: An Introduction to the Geography, Geology, and Natural History. Newnes. p. 343. ISBN 9780123978066. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
  2. ^ Allaby, Michael. A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (Oxford Quick Reference) (p. 353). OUP Oxford. Kindle Edition.
  3. ^ DiPietro, Joseph A. (December 21, 2012). Landscape Evolution in the United States: An Introduction to the Geography, Geology, and Natural History. Newnes. p. 416. ISBN 9780123978066. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  4. ^ Grosbois, G., del Giorgio, P.A. & Rautio, M. (2017). Zooplankton allochthony is spatially heterogeneous in a boreal lake. Freshwat. Biol., 62, 474-490
  5. ^ Eby, G.N., 2004, Principles of Environmental Geochemistry: Thomson Brooks/Cole, Pacific Grove, CA., 514 pp.