Fitzroya cupressoides, Chiloé Island
Phormium tenax, Piha, New Zealand

The Antarctic Floristic Kingdom, also the Holantarctic Kingdom, is a floristic kingdom[1] that includes most areas of the world south of 40°S latitude. It was first identified by botanist Ronald Good, and later by Armen Takhtajan.[1] The Antarctic Floristic Kingdom is a classification in phytogeography, different from the Antarctic realm classification in biogeography, and from Antarctic flora genera/species classifications in botany.


The Antarctic Floristic Kingdom includes the continent of Antarctica, Patagonia (southern Chile, southern Argentina, Tierra del Fuego), most of New Zealand, the New Zealand Subantarctic Islands, and all islands of the Southern Ocean south of 40°S latitude, including Gough Island, the Kerguelen Islands, and the Falkland Islands. Tasmania is omitted since its plant species are more closely related to those found in the Australian Floristic Kingdom.


The flora of the Antarctic Kingdom dates back to the time of Gondwana, the southern supercontinent which once included most of the landmasses of the present-day Southern Hemisphere, though it has been influenced by the flora of the Holarctic Kingdom since the Tertiary period. Ronald Good noted, as had Joseph Dalton Hooker much earlier, that many plant species of Antarctica, temperate South America and New Zealand were very closely related, despite their disjunction by the vast Southern Ocean.

According to Ronald Good, about 50 genera of vascular plants are common in the Antarctic Floristic Kingdom, including Nothofagus and Dicksonia. Takhtajan also made note of hundreds of other vascular plant genera scattered and isolated on islands of the Southern Ocean, including Calandrinia feltonii of the Falkland Islands, Pringlea antiscorbutica of the Kerguelen Islands, and the megaherb genera of the New Zealand Subantarctic Islands.

According to Takhtajan, the following families are endemic or subendemic to this kingdom: Thyrsopteridaceae, Lactoridaceae, Gomortegaceae, Hectorellaceae (Hectorella), Halophytaceae, Malesherbiaceae, Francoaceae, Aextoxicaceae, Vivianiaceae, Misodendraceae, Tribelaceae, Griseliniaceae[1] and Alseuosmiaceae.[2][3]


The Antarctic Floristic Kingdom is subdivided into four floristic regions, and subdivided even further into sixteen floristic provinces. Most of the provinces lie within, or very near the Antarctic convergence zone.

Floristic Regions

The Floristic Regions in the Antarctic Floristic Kingdom are the:

Fernandezian Region

The Fernandezian Region is often also included within the Neotropical Kingdom. It includes the Juan Fernández Islands and Desventuradas Islands archipelagoes off the west coast of Chile.

Juan Fernández Province

Argentina-Chile-Patagonian Region

Lapageria rosea, in Chile.

Within southern South America, in regions of Chile and Argentina.

Northern Chilean Province
Central Chilean Province
Argentine Pampas Province
Patagonian Province
Tierra del Fuego Province

Neozeylandic Region

Entelea arborescens, Auckland, New Zealand.

The greater New Zealand islands region, including: the Zealandia islands (e.g. North Island, South Island), the New Zealand outlying islands, and the New Zealand Subantarctic Islands.

Lord Howe Province
Norfolkian Province
Kermadecian Province
Northern Neozeylandic Province
Central Neozeylandic Province
Southern Neozeylandic Province
Chatham Province
New Zealand Subantarctic Islands Province

South Subantarctic Islands Region

The South Subantarctic Islands

TristanGough Province
Kerguelen Province

See also


  1. ^ a b c Takhtajan, A. (1986). Floristic Regions of the World. (translated by T.J. Crovello & A. Cronquist). University of California Press, Berkeley, PDF, DjVu.
  2. ^ Takhtajan, A. 1969. Flowering plants: origin and dispersal. Transl. by C. Jeffrey. Oliver &. Boyd, Edinburgh. 310 pp. [1].
  3. ^ Тахтаджян А. Л. Флористические области Земли / Академия наук СССР. Ботанический институт им. В. Л. Комарова. — Л.: Наука, Ленинградское отделение, 1978. — 247 с. — 4000 экз. DjVu Archived 2018-10-05 at the Wayback Machine, Google Books.