Arthur Winnington-Ingram

Bishop of London
Winnington-Ingram circa 1910
ChurchChurch of England
Elected17 April 1901 (confirmed)[1]
Term ended1 September 1939 (retired)[2]
PredecessorMandell Creighton
SuccessorGeoffrey Fisher
Other post(s)Bishop of Stepney
OrdinationGeoffrey Fisher
Consecration30 November 1897[3]
Personal details
Born(1858-01-26)26 January 1858
Died26 May 1946(1946-05-26) (aged 88)
Upton-upon-Severn, Worcestershire, England
ParentsEdward Winnington-Ingram
Louisa Pepys
EducationMarlborough College
Alma materKeble College, Oxford
"London" – Winnington-Ingram as caricatured by Spy (Leslie Ward) in Vanity Fair, May 1901
Winnington-Ingram on a visit to the Royal Navy flagship in 1916 (Illustrated War News)

Arthur Foley Winnington-Ingram KCVO PC (26 January 1858 – 26 May 1946) was Bishop of London from 1901 to 1939.

Early life and career

He was born in the rectory at Stanford-on-Teme, Worcestershire, the fourth son of Edward Winnington-Ingram (a Church of England priest and Rector of Stanford) and of Louisa (daughter of Henry Pepys, Bishop of Worcester).[4] Winnington-Ingram was educated at Marlborough College and Keble College, Oxford; he graduated with second-class honours in Literae Humaniores ('Greats') in 1881.[5] His younger brother Edward and his nephew (Edward's son) Arthur were both priests who became Archdeacons of Hereford.[6] Another nephew of his was Reginald Pepys Winnington-Ingram, a scholar of Greek tragedy and Professor of Greek at King's College, London.[citation needed]

He was a private tutor in Europe,[7] 1881–84; curate at St Mary's, Shrewsbury, 1884–85; private chaplain to the Bishop of Lichfield, 1885–89; head of Oxford House Settlement, Bethnal Green 1889–97,[8] chaplain to the Archbishop of York, 1889; rector of St Matthew's, Bethnal Green, 1895; rural dean of Spitalfields, 1896; and canon of St Paul's Cathedral, 1897.

Episcopal career

In 1897, Winnington-Ingram was raised to the episcopate as the second suffragan Bishop of Stepney.[9] In 1901, after the death of Mandell Creighton, he was nominated to the See of London,[10] and he was in the same year appointed as a Privy Counsellor.[11] As a preacher he proved very successful. He was a leader in social work in London's East End. As an administrator he has been judged inefficient in maintaining standards among the clergy in comparison with his disciplinarian-minded successor Geoffrey Fisher, a feature aggravated by his lengthy tenure.[citation needed]

First World War

During the First World War Winnington-Ingram threw himself into supporting the war effort. He saw the war as a "great crusade to defend the weak against the strong" and accepted uncritically stories of German atrocities. For a clergyman the language he used about the German people verged on xenophobia and H. H. Asquith, Prime Minister at the outbreak of the war, described his pitch as "jingoism of the shallowest kind". He spoke in aid of recruiting drives and later in the war urged his younger clergy to consider enlisting as combatants. Chaplain from 1901 to the London Rifle Brigade and London Royal Naval Volunteers, he visited the troops on both the Western Front and at Salonika, and the Grand Fleet at Rosyth and Scapa Flow.[12] A despatch from Field Marshal French portrayed Winnington-Ingram's visit to the Western Front; "The Bishop held several services virtually under shell fire, and it was with difficulty that he could be prevented from carrying on his ministrations under rifle fire in the trenches."[13] Such apparent derring-do and appeals to patriotism strengthened his reputation as a 'people's bishop'.

Winnington-Ingram was renowned as a charismatic preacher and persuasive writer, and he was arguably better known and more influential than either of the archbishops. Examples of his persuasive vocabulary can be traced throughout the War in the monthly London Diocesan Magazine, often quoted in the press: "Now, Jerusalem is a beautiful place, but England is far more beautiful",[14] "We face possibly another year of war, but it is God’s War; it is War for peace; it is a War for all the things which are essential to lasting peace, freedom, respect for national aspirations, international honour and chivalry to the weak",[15] "Great Britain has risen like a tower out of the deep and stands today higher in the opinion of the world than it has since Trafalgar and Waterloo".[16]

For his war work he was Mentioned in Despatches and awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer (Greece) and the Order of St Sava, 1st Class (Serbia).[17]

Later life and legacy

On 22 May 1946, Winnington-Ingram was taken ill while playing golf and he died a few days later on 26 May 1946 in Upton-upon-Severn, Worcestershire.[18] His remains were buried at St Paul's Cathedral.[19] He never married, although while Bishop of Stepney he was briefly engaged[20] to Lady Ulrica Duncombe, a friend of Queen Alexandra and daughter of William Ernest Duncombe, 1st Earl of Feversham of Ryedale and Mabel Violet Graham.

Australian sculptor Theodora Cowan created a portrait bust of Dr Winnington-Ingram which "took pride of place" in her one-woman show at London's Grafton Galleries.[21][22]

He is commemorated in some of the street names in Hampstead Garden Suburb: The Bishops Avenue, Winnington Road and Ingram Avenue; and Bishop Winnington-Ingram Primary School, Ruislip.[23]

A wide public was familiar with Winnington-Ingram through numerous illustrations of various kinds, including cartoons; the National Portrait Gallery catalogues a collection of fifty-three portraits.[24] There is a portrait in Keble College Hall.


Unless otherwise indicated, all titles sourced from his sketch in Crockford's Clerical Directory 1938:


  1. ^ The Tablet archive — 20 April 1901, pages 24–25 (Accessed 2 July 2015)
  2. ^ "Church news". Church Times. No. 3997. 1 September 1939. p. 199. ISSN 0009-658X. Retrieved 2 July 2015 – via UK Press Online archives.
  3. ^ Oxford DNB — Ingram, Arthur Foley Winnington- (Accessed 2 July 2015)
  4. ^ Thicknesse, Cuthbert (1959). Wickham Legg, LG; Williams, ET (eds.). Dictionary of National Biography, 1941–1950. Oxford University Press. p. 964.
  5. ^ Oxford University Calendar 1895, Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1895, p.232.
  6. ^ "Winnington-Ingram, Ven. Arthur John". Who's Who & Who Was Who. Vol. 1920–2008 (December 2007 online ed.). A & C Black. Retrieved 4 June 2013. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  7. ^ Dictionary of National Biography, 1941–1950. p. 965.
  8. ^ History, Oxford House, archived from the original on 5 May 2008.
  9. ^ Who's Who, 1901
  10. ^ "No. 27295". The London Gazette. 19 March 1901. p. 1937.
  11. ^ "No. 27313". The London Gazette. 14 May 1901. p. 3273.
  12. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 29. Oxford University Press. 2004. p. 281. ISBN 0-19-861379-2.Article by Jeremy Morris.
  13. ^ London Diocesan Magazine, May, 1915
  14. ^ London Diocesan Magazine, October, 1914
  15. ^ London Diocesan Magazine, January, 1916
  16. ^ London Diocesan Magazine, January, 1918
  17. ^ Acović, Dragomir (2012). Slava i čast: Odlikovanja među Srbima, Srbi među odlikovanjima. Belgrade: Službeni Glasnik. p. 595.
  18. ^ "Dr AF Winnington-Ingram". Obituaries. The Times. No. 50462. London. 27 May 1946. col D, p. 6.
  19. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 29. p. 282.
  20. ^ "Winnington Ingram". Auckland Star. Vol. XXXII, no. 111. 11 May 1901. p. 5.
  21. ^ Prior, James (11 December 1985). "Theodora Cowan - Chipping away at a career ... and sexism". The Sun (Sydney). p. 49.
  22. ^ Sturgeon, Graeme (1978). The Development of Australian Sculpture 1788-1975. London: Thames and Hudson. p. 48.
  23. ^ Bishop Winnington-Ingram Primary School website
  24. ^ "Arthur Foley Winnington-Ingram - National Portrait Gallery".
  25. ^ Who Was Who, 1941-1950. A and C Black. 1952. p. 588.
  26. ^ a b c Who Was Who, 1941-1950. p. 589.
Church of England titles Preceded byGeorge Forrest Browne Bishop of Stepney 1897–1901 Succeeded byCosmo Lang Preceded byMandell Creighton Bishop of London 1901–1939 Succeeded byGeoffrey Fisher