This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Bluetooth stack" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (May 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article is in list format but may read better as prose. You can help by converting this article, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (August 2012) This article has an unclear citation style. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation and footnoting. (August 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

A Bluetooth stack is software that is an implementation of the Bluetooth protocol stack.

Bluetooth stacks can be roughly divided into two distinct categories:

  1. General-purpose implementations that are written with emphasis on feature-richness and flexibility, usually for desktop computers. Support for additional Bluetooth profiles can typically be added through drivers.
  2. Embedded system implementations intended for use in devices where resources are limited and demands are lower, such as Bluetooth peripheral devices.[1]

General-purpose implementations

BSD

FreeBSD

The FreeBSD bluetooth stack is implemented using the Netgraph framework.[2] A broad variety of Bluetooth USB dongles are supported by the ng_ubt driver.[3]

The implementation was committed in 2002, and first released with FreeBSD 5.0.[4]

NetBSD

NetBSD has its own Bluetooth implementation, committed in 2006, and first released with NetBSD § 4.0.[5]

OpenBSD

OpenBSD has had the implementation from NetBSD for some time, but it was removed in 2014 due lack of maintainership and code rot.[6][7]

DragonFly BSD

DragonFly BSD has had NetBSD's Bluetooth implementation since 1.11 (2008), first released with DragonFly BSD § 1.12.[8]

A netgraph-based implementation from FreeBSD has also been available in the tree since 2008, dating to an import of Netgraph from the FreeBSD 7 timeframe into DragonFly, but was possibly disabled until 2014-11-15, and may still require more work.[9][10]

Linux

BlueALSA

BlueALSA is a Bluetooth audio ALSA backend that allows the use of Bluetooth-connected audio devices without the use of PulseAudio or PipeWire.[11][12]

BlueZ

BlueZ, initially developed by Qualcomm,[13] is a Bluetooth stack, included with the official Linux kernel distributions,[14] for Linux kernel-based family of operating systems. Its goal is to program an implementation of the Bluetooth wireless standards specifications for Linux. As of 2006, the BlueZ stack supports all core Bluetooth protocols and layers.[citation needed] It was initially developed by Qualcomm, and is available for Linux kernel versions 2.4.6 and up.[15] In addition to the basic stack, the bluez-utils and bluez-firmware packages contain low level utilities such as dfutool which can interrogate the Bluetooth adapter chipset to determine whether its firmware can be upgraded. BlueZ is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL), but reported to be on its way toward switching to the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL).[16]

hidd is the Bluetooth human interface device (HID) daemon.[17]

BlueDroid/Fluoride

Android switched from BlueZ to its own BlueDroid stack, created by Broadcom, in late 2012.[16] BlueDroid has been since been renamed Fluoride.[18] Marcel Holtmann from the Intel Open Source Technology Center, claimed that Google made a poor choice in switching to BlueDroid, during a presentation for BlueZ for Android at the Android Builders Summit in 2014.[16]

Mac OS X

Since version 10.2, Apple Inc.'s Mac OS X has contained an integrated Bluetooth stack.[19] Included profiles are DUN, SPP, FAX, HID, HSP, SYNC, PAN, BPP and OBEX. Version 10.5 adds support for A2DP and AVRCP.

Windows

Microsoft Bluetooth Stack

Prior to Windows 8, the Microsoft Bluetooth Stack only supports external or integrated Bluetooth dongles attached through USB. It does not support Bluetooth radio connections over PCI, I²C, serial, PC Card or other interfaces.[20] It also only supports a single Bluetooth radio.[20] Windows 8 has an extensible transport model allowing support for Bluetooth radios on non-USB buses.[21]

Generally, only a single stack can be used at any time: switching usually requires uninstalling the current stack, although a trace of previous stacks remains in the Windows registry. However, there are some cases where two stacks can be used on the same Microsoft Windows system, each using their own separate Bluetooth radio hardware.

Windows versions:[22]

Note : The Windows XP/Vista Windows Vista/Windows 7 Bluetooth stack supports the following Bluetooth profiles natively: PANU, SPP, DUN, OPP, OBEX, HID, HCRP.[20][21][24] Windows 8 adds support for HFP, A2DP, and AVRCP Profiles.[21]

The Windows 7/Vista/8/10 stack provides kernel-mode and user-mode APIs for its Bluetooth stack- so hardware and software vendors can implement additional profiles.[21]

Windows 10 (Version 1803) and later support Bluetooth version 5.0 and several Bluetooth profiles.[27]

Broadcom WIDCOMM (BTW)

WIDCOMM was the first Bluetooth stack for the Windows operating system. The stack was initially developed by a company named WIDCOMM Inc., which was acquired by Broadcom Corporation in April 2004.[28] Broadcom continues to license the stack for inclusion with many Bluetooth-powered end-user devices like Qualcomm Atheros, Realtek, Ralink.

An API is available for interacting with the stack from a custom application. For developers there is also a utility named BTServer Spy Lite bundled with the stack (some vendor-tied versions excluded) which monitors Bluetooth activity on the stack at a very low level — although the category and level of trace is configurable. This stack also allows use of RFCOMM without creating a virtual serial port in the operating system.

Toshiba Bluetooth Stack

In 2001, Toshiba first announced a notebook design that would integrate a Bluetooth antenna inside the lid. Toshiba then went on to release the first two notebook models to offer dual Bluetooth/Wi-Fi integration.[29]

Toshiba has created its own Bluetooth stack for use on Microsoft Windows. Toshiba licenses their stack to other original equipment manufacturers (OEM) and has shipped with some Fujitsu Siemens, ASUS, Dell and Sony laptops. A non-disclosure agreement must be signed to obtain the API. The Toshiba stack is also available with certain non-OEM Bluetooth accessories such as USB Bluetooth dongles and PCMCIA cards from various vendors.

The Toshiba stack supports one of the more comprehensive list of Bluetooth profiles including: SPP, DUN, FAX, LAP, OPP, FTP, HID, HDP, HCRP, PAN, BIP, HSP, HFP (including Skype support), A2DP, AVRCP.

The latest version of the Toshiba stack is 9.20.02(T), released on 30 September 2016.

CSR Harmony

In 2010 CSR plc (formerly Cambridge Silicon Radio) created its own Bluetooth stack.[30] It was based on CSR Synergy BT host stack. CSR was acquired by Qualcomm in August 2015.[31]

IVT BlueSoleil (1000Moons)

BlueSoleil (marketed as 1000Moons in China) is a product of IVT Corporation, which produces stacks for embedded devices and desktop systems. The stack is available in both standard and VOIP versions. It supports the profiles A2DP, DUN, FAX, HFP, HSP, LAP, OBEX, OPP, PAN, SPP, AV, BIP, FTP, HID and SYNC.

An SDK for third-party application developers is available for non-commercial use at the BlueSoleil download site, but this API will only work with the non-free version of the stack, BlueSoleil 6.4 and above.

As of April 2018, the latest version of the global BlueSoleil stack is 10.0.497.0, released on 8 January 2018. The Chinese 1000Moons stack is at version 10.2.497.0, released on 9 January 2018.

AVM BlueFRITZ!

BlueFRITZ! was the stack supplied with the USB Bluetooth dongles from the German manufacturer AVM GmbH. It supported the profiles SPP, DUN, FTP, FAX and some more. HID was not supported. This stack could be switched into a mode where it is off and the Microsoft stack is used instead. Development of this stack has been aborted.

Digianswer BTSWS

Digianswer was a subsidiary of Motorola, Inc. since 1999.[32] Digianswer Bluetooth Software Suite (BTSWS) was marketed and sold through OEM customers such as Motorola, Dell and IBM, which bundled PCMCIA and USB products together with BTSWS. The product has been available since August 2000.[33]

Embedded implementations

Apache Mynewt NimBLE

Apache Mynewt NimBLE is a full-featured, open source Bluetooth Low Energy 4.2 and 5.0 protocol stack written in C for embedded systems. NimBLE is one of the most complete protocol stacks, supporting 5.0 features including high data rate and extended advertising. The implementation supports all layers of the Bluetooth protocol. The first ports for the Controller part are to nRF51 series and nRF52 SoCs from Nordic Semiconductor. NimBLE also supports standard HCI interfaces to work with controllers, including ST, Dialog and Em Micro chipsets. It leverages the open source Apache Mynewt OS which is designed to support multiple microcontroller architectures.[34] NimBLE can also run with FreeRTOS and is portable to other real-time operating systems. The implementation allows for the Mynewt NimBLE Controller part to be used with a non-Mynewt NimBLE Host.

BlueCode+

BlueCode+ is the portable higher layer Bluetooth protocol stack from Stollmann E+V GmbH. BlueCode+ 4.0 is qualified to Bluetooth version 3.0.[35] The protocol stack is chipset and operating system independent and supports any Bluetooth HCI chips available. The APIs offer control of the profiles and stack functions, as well as direct access to lower level functions. BlueCode+ 4.0 supports the protocols L2CAP, eL2CAP, RFCOMM, SDP Server and Client, MCAP, HCI-Host Side and AVDTP. Supported profiles are Generic Access (GAP), Service Discovery Application (SDAP), Serial Port Profile (SPP), Health Device Profile (HDP), Device Identification Profile (DID), Dial-up Networking (DUN), Fax, Headset (HSP), Handsfree (HFP), SIM Access (SAP), Phone Book Access (PBAP), Advanced Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP), Audio/Video Remote Control (AVRCP) and OBEX. The stack has been ported to a wide range of different microcontrollers and operating systems.

BlueCore Host Software (BCHS) a.k.a. CSR Synergy

CSR's BCHS or BlueCore Host Software (now called CSR Synergy) provides the upper layers of the Bluetooth protocol stack (above HCI, or optionally RFCOMM) - plus a large library of Profiles — providing a complete system software solution for embedded BlueCore applications. Current qualified Profiles available with BCHS: A2DP, AVRCP, PBAP, BIP, BPP, CTP, DUN, FAX, FM API, FTP GAP, GAVDP, GOEP, HCRP, Headset, HF1.5, HID, ICP, JSR82, LAP Message Access Profile, OPP, PAN, SAP, SDAP, SPP, SYNC, SYNC ML.[36]

Bluelet

Bluelet is a portable embedded Bluetooth protocol stack of Barrot Technology Limited with efficient, reliable, and small features. Bluelet is perfectly compatible with BREDR/LE profiles. Bluelet can easily be ported to different platforms, i.e., Linux, RTOS, Android. This offering includes the latest full implementation of Bluetooth 5.3 host using ANSI C, implementing all LE Audio Profiles / Services(BAP,PACS,ASCS,BASS; CSIP/CSIS; CCP/TBS; MCP/MCS; MICP/MICS; VCP/VCS/VOCS/AICS; TMAP,HAP/HAS; CAP) and the MESH stack.[37]

BlueMagic

BlueMagic 3.0 is Qualcomm's (formerly Open Interface North America's) highly portable embedded Bluetooth protocol stack which powers Apple's iPhone and Qualcomm-powered devices such as the Motorola RAZR. BlueMagic also ships in products by Logitech, Samsung, LG, Sharp, Sagem, and more. BlueMagic 3.0 was the first fully certified (all protocols and profiles) Bluetooth protocol stack at the 1.1 level.[38]

Blue SDK

OpenSynergy's Bluetooth Protocol Stack (Blue SDK) currently provides A2DP, AVRCP, VDP, BIP, BPP, CTN, FTP, GPP, HFP, HSP, HCRP, HDP, HID, MAP, OPP, PAN, PBAP, SAP, DUN, FAX, DID, GATT profiles. It is licensed by the Bluetooth™ Special Interest Group (SIG) and meets the standards of safety and security expected in automotive-grade products. Bluetooth™ Software Development Kit (Blue SDK) can easily be integrated into any operating system. It supports both BR/EDR (Classic) and Low Energy operations, classic profiles and low energy profiles use the same underlying protocol stack software.[39]

Bluetopia

Bluetopia is Stonestreet One's implementation of the upper layers of the Bluetooth protocol stack above the HCI interface and has been qualified to version 4.0 and earlier versions of the Bluetooth specification. The Application Programming Interface (API) provides access to all of the upper-layer protocols and profiles and can interface directly to the most popular Bluetooth chips from Broadcom, CSR, TI, and others. Bluetopia has been ported to multiple operating systems such as Windows Mobile/Windows CE, Linux, QNX, Nucleus, uCOS, ThreadX, NetBSD, and others. Bluetopia is currently shipping in devices from companies such as Motorola, Kodak, Honeywell, Garmin, VTech, and Harris.

Stonestreet One was acquired by Qualcomm in 2014. Texas Instruments provides its version of the Bluetopia stack for use with TI Bluetooth chips.

BlueWiseLE

BlueWiseLE is the Bluetooth® Low Energy certified protocol stack software product from Alpwise. It includes the Link Layer[40] and also the Host stack (i.e. upper layers above the HCI).[41] The Link Layer controls the radio and the timing of the Bluetooth® communication in three possible chipset configurations: SoC, co-processor or HCI. Several proprietary BLE profiles are also available including Voice over BLE and Firmware update Over the Air (FOTA).[42]

ClarinoxBlue

Bluetooth host subsystem product of Clarinox Technologies. Support for Windows 7/8/10, WinCE, Linux/AGL Linux, Android, AutoSAR, Integrity, SafeRTOS, QNX, µITRON, FreeRTOS, µC/OS, Azure RTOS ThreadX, Nucleus, MQX, RTX, embOS, TI-RTOS, DSP/BIOS, eCos and µ-velOSity. Qualified for Bluetooth specification 5.2,5.0 and all previous specifications includes all Classic profiles/protocols and LE profiles/services including BT & LE Audio. ClarinoxBlue supports HCI transport for SDIO, UART 3-Wire, UART-BCSP, UART-H4, USB. The stack has been ported to many CPU and MCU families including NXP i.MX6/i.MX7/i.MX8/i.MX RT, Kinetis K6x/7x, LPC 18xx/43xx/54xxx STMicro; STM32F4x, STM32H7, STM32WB55, STM32MP157; Texas Instruments TI MSP432, DSP 5xxx, OMAP/Davinci, Tiva TM4C123x, Sitara 3xxx; Renesas Synergy S5/S7, RH850, R-Car M3/H3; Xilinx PowerPC, soft core SPARC LEON. ClarinoxBlue Bluetooth host system is provided with ClariFi debug tool, in-built protocol analyzer, supports faster debugging of complex wireless devices. ClariFi offers threading, memory usage, memory leak analysis and audio analysis to support the tuning of applications and aid in the communication of issues.[43]

dotstack

dotstack, a dual mode Bluetooth stack by SEARAN, is a good fit for low cost and low power embedded devices, tested with iPhone (uses SEARAN's IAP), Android and other mobile platforms. dotstack™ is qualified as V2.1 + EDR, V4.1, V4.2 and 5.0 ready, with SPP, GAP, HID, Headset, HFP, FTP, HDP, PBAP, Simple Secure Pairing, A2DP, AVRCP, PAN, MAP, BLE (GATT) with ANP/ANS, FMP, HIDS, HOGP, PASP/PASS, PXP, TIP, BAS, DIS, IAS, LLS, TPS, ANCS, BLP/BLS, GP, HTP, HRP/HRS. dotstack is ported to platforms from, ST Micro (STM32L1/4, STM32F0/1/2/3/4), Microchip (PIC24, dsPIC, PIC32), NXP (LPC), Energy Micro (EFM32), TI (MSP430, C5000 etc.), Renesas (RX, SH-2A, M2 ARM Cortex A15, R-Car), and tested with Bluetooth RF controllers, CSR8811/8311/8510, BlueCore 4 & 6, TI CC2560/2564, Intel/Infineon PMB8753, Marvell Avastar 88w8777, 88W8790, Toshiba TC35661, Microchip/ISSC IS1662. dotstack has FreeRTOS, uOS, Linux, Android, QNX, MQX, ThreadX, and no RTOS integration. Min RAM requirement for SPP 3KB with RTOS and app.[44]

EtherMind stack

EtherMind from MINDTREE Ltd is a BT-SIG qualified Bluetooth Stack and Profile IP offering.[45]

Mindtree's EtherMind Stack supports all popular versions of Bluetooth specifications (2.1+EDR, v4.0, v4.1, v4.2, 5.0, 5.1 and 5.2) and includes all mandatory and optional features of the core stack and all the adopted profiles are supported as part of EtherMind. The stack supports the latest adopted version of 23 Bluetooth Classic Profiles[46] such as A2DP, AVRCP, etc.; and 54 Bluetooth Low Energy Profiles & Services[47] such as Location and Navigation Profile, Weight Scale Profile/Service, etc. The offering includes the latest Mesh[48] and IPv6 Stack[49] over Bluetooth Smart capabilities.

Jungo BTware

Jungo's Bluetooth Protocol Stack BTware allows device manufacturers to easily incorporate standard Bluetooth connectivity in their designs, including mobile handsets, automotive infotainment systems, set top boxes and medical devices. BTware supports standard HCI as well as proprietary HCI. Supported protocols: L2CAP, RFCOMM, AVDTP, AVCTP, BNEP, MCAP. Supported profiles: GAP, A2DP, AVRCP, HSP, HFP, SPP, DUN, HID, PAN, HDP, PBAP, OPP, FTP, MAP and others. Jungo has discontinued distributing BTware.

lwBT

lwBT is an open source lightweight Bluetooth protocol stack for embedded systems by blue-machines. It acts as a network interface for the lwIP protocol stack.

It supports some Bluetooth protocols and layers, such as the H4 and BCSP UART layers. Supported higher layers include: HCI, L2CAP, SDP, BNEP, RFCOMM and PPP. The supported profiles are: PAN (NAP, GN, PANU), LAP, DUN and Serial Port.

lwBT has been ported to the Renesas M16C, used on the Mulle platform, line of microcontrollers, and Linux as well as Windows. The source code was also available for use.

A fork of lwBT can be found in the GitHub repository because Googlecode is gone.[50]

Mecel/Aricent Betula

Mecel Betula is aAd x86 compatible. It also ported to a wide range of operating systems, such as Windows, Linux, Android or running without or with a custom OS. It has support for Bluetooth version 4.0, including the new Bluetooth Low Energy.[51] Supported profiles are HSP, DUN, FAX, HFP, PBAP, MAP, OPP, FTP, BIP, BPP, SYNC, GAVDP, A2DP, AVRCP, HID, SAP, PAN.

Silvair Mesh Stack

Silvair Mesh Stack is an implementation of Bluetooth MESH profile and Models, developed primarily for Smart lighting applications. Apart from core mesh node features it implements Light Lightness Server model, Light Controller model and Sensor Server model so that it may be used to build dimming luminaires and daylight harvesting sensors. It provides PWM/0-10V output for direct dimming control and UART interface for integration purposes. DALI output is marked as planned.[52]

Silvair Mesh Stack has been qualified by Bluetooth SIG on 2017-07-18 with QDID 98880, as a first Bluetooth mesh node implementation.[53]

SurfBlue

Siemens' implementation of the blue2net access point.

Symbian OS

Symbian OS was an operating system for mobile phones, which includes a Bluetooth stack. All phones based on Nokia's S60 platform and UIQ Technology's UIQ platform use this stack. The Symbian Bluetooth stack runs in user space rather than kernel space, and has public APIs for L2CAP, RFCOMM, SDP, AVRCP, etc. Profiles supported in the OS include GAP, OBEX, SPP, AVRCP, GAVDP, PAN and PBAP.[54] Additional profiles supported in the OS + S60 platform combination include A2DP, HSP, HFP1.5, FTP, OPP, BIP, DUN, SIM access and device ID.[55][56]

Zephyr Project

The Zephyr Project RTOS includes a complete, open source Bluetooth Low Energy 5.0 protocol stack written in C for embedded systems. It contains both a BLE Controller and a BLE and BR/EDR capable Host running on nRF51 Series and nRF52 SoCs from Nordic Semiconductor.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Implementing Bluetooth in an Embedded Environment". Retrieved 22 April 2015.
  2. ^ "FreeBSD Handbook: Advanced Networking - Bluetooth". Retrieved 2018-04-02.
  3. ^ "FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual: NG_UBT(4)". Retrieved 2018-04-02.
  4. ^ Maksim Yevmenkin (2002). "ng_bluetooth.4 — placeholder for global Bluetooth variables". BSD Cross Reference. FreeBSD.
  5. ^ Iain Hibbert; Itronix Inc (2006). "bluetooth.4 — Bluetooth Protocol Family". BSD Cross Reference. NetBSD.
  6. ^ Ted Unangst (2014-07-11). "CVS: cvs.openbsd.org: src". source-changes@cvs (Mailing list). OpenBSD. bluetooth support doesn't work and isn't going anywhere.
  7. ^ tbert, ed. (2014-07-29). "g2k14: Ted Unangst on the Art of the Tedu". OpenBSD Journal. Of these, you may possibly miss bluetooth support. Unfortunately, the current code doesn't work and isn't structured properly to encourage much future development.
  8. ^ Hasso Tepper, ed. (2008). "bluetooth.4 — Bluetooth Protocol Family". BSD Cross Reference. DragonFly BSD.
  9. ^ "sys/netgraph7/bluetooth/common/ng_bluetooth.c". BSD Cross Reference. DragonFly BSD.
  10. ^ Sascha Wildner (2014-11-15). "kernel/netgraph7: Port the kernel part of the netgraph7 bluetooth stack". DragonFly BSD.
  11. ^ "Bluetooth/Alsa - Debian Wiki".
  12. ^ "Bluetooth - ArchWiki".
  13. ^ "BlueZ". Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  14. ^ Torvalds, Linus (2015-10-24), linux: Linux kernel source tree, retrieved 2017-08-30
  15. ^ Holtmann, Marcel. "The BlueZ: towards a wireless world of penguins" (PDF). Proceedings of the Linux Symposium 2005. Retrieved 21 July 2021. The first steps into supporting Bluetooth with Linux are done by Axis Communications and they released their OpenBT Bluetooth Stack in April 1999. Also IBM released its BlueDrekar which was only available as binary modules....On May 3, 2001, the Bluetooth protocol stack called BlueZ which was written by Qualcomm was released under GPL. This new stack followed the socket based approach. One month later it was picked up by Linus Torvalds and integrated into the Linux 2.4.6-pre2 kernel. Another Bluetooth stack for Linux was released by Nokia Research Center in Helsinki and it is called Affix. The open source community already decided to support BlueZ as official Bluetooth protocol stack Linux and it became one of the best implementations of the Bluetooth specification.
  16. ^ a b c "Returning BlueZ to Android". LWN.net. 2014-05-06. BlueZ for Android (BfA) provides a "drop-in replacement" for BlueDroid, which means that apps do not need to change...The laundry list of BlueDroid deficiencies also dropped to near zero by swapping BlueZ in...In addition, BfA has been developed as part of the open-source BlueZ project...It is also notable that BlueZ is on its way toward switching to the LGPL. Roughly 80% of the code is already licensed that way, with more coming, though it was not clear when that job would be finished.While it was never said in the presentation, the clear implication of Holtmann's talk was that Google made a poor choice in switching to BlueDroid.
  17. ^ "hidd(1): Bluetooth HID daemon - Linux man page". die.net. Retrieved 2018-04-02.
  18. ^ "Fluoride Bluetooth stack". android.googlesource.com. Archived from the original on August 31, 2019. Retrieved 2019-08-31.
  19. ^ "Loading". Developer.apple.com. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
  20. ^ a b c d e "Bluetooth Wireless Technology FAQ". Retrieved 2012-11-04.
  21. ^ a b c d "General Bluetooth Support in Windows". Microsoft.
  22. ^ "General Bluetooth Support in Windows". Retrieved 2016-01-21.
  23. ^ "Bluetooth HCI Transport Layer". Msdn.microsoft.com. 2008-08-28. Retrieved 2012-11-04.
  24. ^ a b c d "Bluetooth Wireless Technology FAQ - 2010". Retrieved 2012-11-04.
  25. ^ "USB/1394 on the PC". Archived from the original on 2012-02-15. Retrieved 2012-11-04.
  26. ^ "Bluetooth Low Energy Overview". Retrieved 2013-03-19.
  27. ^ Bluetooth Version and Profile Support in Windows 10
  28. ^ "Broadcom to Acquire WIDCOMM, the Industry's Leading Provider of Critical Software for Bluetooth Wireless Devices" (Press release). Broadcom. 2004-04-19. Retrieved 2007-03-02.
  29. ^ Mainelli, Tom (2001-09-18). "Toshiba Debuts First Bluetooth/Wi-Fi Notebooks". PCWorld. Archived from the original on 2012-01-20. Retrieved 2012-11-04.
  30. ^ "harmony". Csr.com. Archived from the original on 2012-11-02. Retrieved 2012-11-04.
  31. ^ "Qualcomm completes $2.4bn take-over of Cambridge's CSR". Cambridge News. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2015.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  32. ^ "Motorola Acquires Digianswer". EDN Network. 1999-11-08. Retrieved 2018-04-02.
  33. ^ "Digianswer and Broadcom Collaborate on Complete System Level Bluetooth Solution for PC OEMs". Business Wire (Nibe, Denmark). 2001-06-05. Retrieved 2018-04-02.
  34. ^ "Apache Mynewt RTOS Addresses IoT Power, Memory, Storage Constraints". www.infoq.com. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
  35. ^ "The Official Bluetooth SIG Member Website". Bluetooth.org. 2009-10-22. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
  36. ^ "The Official Bluetooth SIG Member Website". Bluetooth.org. 2002-04-02. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
  37. ^ "Launch Studio - Listing Details". launchstudio.bluetooth.com. Retrieved 2021-10-31.
  38. ^ Greg Burns, CTO, Open Interface North America. June 4, 2007 Managing Bluetooth Profiles: A Billion Served
  39. ^ "OpenSynergy's Blue SDK".
  40. ^ "Link layer Bluetooth Low Energy 5 developed by Alpwise". alpwise.com. Retrieved 2018-11-20.
  41. ^ "QD ID 102355 | Launch Studio - Listing Details". launchstudio.bluetooth.com. Retrieved 2018-11-20.
  42. ^ "Bluetooth Protocol Stack and its development kit - Alpwise". alpwise.com. Archived from the original on 2018-02-03. Retrieved 2018-11-20.
  43. ^ "ClarinoxBlue". clarinox. Archived from the original on 2020-09-24. Retrieved 2022-04-11.
  44. ^ "dotstack". Retrieved 2011-11-16.
  45. ^ "Mindtree's Short Range Wireless IP Offerings". Mindtree.com. 2016-06-23. Retrieved 2016-06-23.
  46. ^ "Mindtree v4.0 Smart Ready stack & profile qualification BT-SIG Certification #D024827". www.bluetooth.org. Retrieved 2016-06-23.
  47. ^ "Mindtree v4.2 Bluetooth Smart stack & profile qualification BT-SIG Certification #D025118". www.bluetooth.org. Retrieved 2016-06-23.
  48. ^ "EtherMind Bluetooth v5.0 Stack & Profiles and Mesh v1.0 Stack IP are BQB qualified". mindtree.com. Retrieved 2018-07-02.
  49. ^ "IPv6 Stack - Mindtree". mindtree.com. Retrieved 2018-07-02.
  50. ^ "A fork of the lwBT stack". lwalkera. Retrieved 2016-10-08.
  51. ^ "Mecel Betula". Mecel AB. Archived from the original on 2011-10-06. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  52. ^ "Silvair Mesh Stack". Silvair, Inc. Archived from the original on 2017-08-14. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  53. ^ "QDID 98880 | The Official Bluetooth SIG Member Website". Bluetooth SIG. 2017-07-18. Retrieved 2018-05-01.
  54. ^ "The Official Bluetooth SIG Member Website". Bluetooth.org. 2008-07-01. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
  55. ^ "The Official Bluetooth SIG Member Website". Bluetooth.org. 2008-02-05. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
  56. ^ https://www.bluetooth.hrc.ac.in[permanent dead link]