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Sultanate of Bone
ᨕᨀᨑᨘᨂᨛ ᨑᨗ ᨅᨚᨊᨛ
Akkarungeng ri Bone (Buginese)
14th century–1905[1]
Flag of Bone
StatusPart of Indonesia
Common languagesBugis
Sunni Islam
Sultan, Arung Mangkaue' ri Bone 
• 1300s
Manurunge ri Matajang
• 1358-1424
Petta Panre Bessie
• 1672-1696
Sultan Saaduddin Arung Palakka
• 1931-1946
Andi Mappanyukki
• Established
14th century
• Loss of independence to the Dutch
Succeeded by
Dutch East Indies
Today part ofIndonesia
(as Bone Regency)

Bone (also Boni, or Bone Saoraja) was a sultanate in the south-west peninsula of what is now Sulawesi (formerly Celebes), a province of modern-day Indonesia. It came under Dutch rule in 1905, and was succeeded by the Bone Regency.[1]

Covering an area of 2,600 square kilometres (1,000 sq mi), Bone's chief town Boni, lay 130 kilometres (81 mi) northeast of the city of Makassar, home to the Bugis people.

A black and white picture of a thatched roof building on stilts
Bola Soba, palace to receive guests; c. 1900-1920


Bone was an adat-based Bugis kingdom whose origins can be traced back to the early 15th century. Its chronicle (as yet unpublished) provides detailed information on its rulers, starting from La Umasa, who ruled in the early 15th century, through to La Tenrtatta, who died in 1699. Under La Umasa and his nephew La Saliu (Kerrépelua) who succeeded him, Bone expanded from a handful of settlements around the modern capital Watampone to a small kingdom roughly one-third the size of Kabupaten Bone (the present regency).

In the early 16th century the kingdom expanded northwards, fighting with Luwu for control of the mouth of the River Cenrana, a major east coast trade exit. In 1582 Bone entered an alliance with the Wajo and Soppeng kingdoms for mutual defence against the rising power of Gowa-Tallo. This alliance became known as Tellumpocco'e (lit. the Three Summits) or LaMumpatue Ri Timurung (lit. The burying of the stones at Timurung).[2]

Geopolitical map of kingdoms in South Sulawesi in 16th century

In 1611, during the reign of the tenth king of Bone We Tenrituppu MatinroE ri Sidenreng, Bone was invaded by the Sultanate of Gowa and pressured to convert to Islam.[3][4] Bone State later enjoyed a period of prosperity in the middle of the 17th century.[2]

Bone became the most powerful state of South Sulawesi under Arung (ruler of) Palakka, La Tenritatta (1634 or 1635 – 1696) who sided with the Dutch admiral Cornelis Speelman against the Makasar kingdom of Goa-Tallo, which led to the defeat and capture of Makassar in 1669. From this year until 1814 when the British temporarily gained power of the region, Bone was by treaty and in practice the overlord of South Sulawesi, with the exception of Dutch-controlled areas on the west and south coast, including the important port-city of Makassar. When the Dutch returned to Makassar in 1816 they attempted to reduce Bone's status from equal to vassal, a move strongly resisted by Bone's rulers.

Following a military defeat during the South Sulawesi expeditions of 1905, the Bone State lost its independence to the Dutch.[5]

In May 1950, the people held demonstrations in Watampone against the royalty and Bone's membership in the State of East Indonesia. This caused the sultan to join Indonesia.[4]

List of rulers

Rulers of Bone used the title Arung Mangkaue' ri Bone (the king who resides in Bone), shortened to Arumpone, MangkauE, or ArungE' ri Bone.

List of Arumpone[2]
No Monarch Gender Reign
1 Manurunge ri Matajang, Mata Silompoe Male 1330 – 1365 (35 years)
2 La Ummasa, Petta Panre Bessie Male 1365 – 1378 (13 years)
3 La Saliyu Korampelua Male 1378 – 1450 (72 years)
4 We Banrigau, Mallajange ri Cina Female 1450 – 1510 (60 years)
5 La Tenrisukki, Mappajunge Male 1510 – 1535 (25 years)
6 La Uliyo Bote-E, Matinroe ri Itterung Male 1535 – 1560 (25 years)
7 La Tenrirawe Bongkange, Matinroe ri Guccina Male 1560 – 1564 (4 years)
8 La Inca, Matinroe ri Addenenna Male 1564 – 1565 (11 months)
9 La Pattawe, Matinroe ri Bettung Male 1565 – 1602 (37 years)
10 We Tenrituppu, Matinroe ri Bantaeng Female 1602 – 1611 (9 years)
11 La Tenriruwa, Sultan Adam Male 1611 – 1616 (5 years)
12 La Tenripale, Sultan Abdullah Male 1616 – 1631 (15 years)
13 La Maddaremmeng, Sultan Saleh Male 1631 – 1644 (13 years) 1667 – 1672 (5 years)
14 La Tenriaji, Arungpone Male 1644 – 1646 (2 years)
15 La Tenritatta Sultan Saaduddin, Arung Palakka Male 1672 – 1696 (24 years)
16 La Patau Matanna Tikka, Sultan Idris Male 1696-1714 (18 years)
17 We Bataritoja, Sultanah Zainab Zulkiyahtuddin Female 1714 – 1715 (1 year)
18 La Padassajati, Sultan Sulaeman Male 1715 – 1718 (3 years)
19 La Pareppa, Sultan Ismail Male 1718 – 1721 (3 years)
20 La Panaongi, Arung Mampu Male 1721 – 1724 (3 years)
21 We Bataritoja, Sultanah Zainab Zulkiyahtuddin Female 1724 – 1749 (25 years)
22 La Temmassonge, Sultan Abdul Razak Male 1749 – 1775 (26 years)
23 La Tenritappu, Sultan Ahmad Saleh Male 1775 – 1812 (37 years)
24 La Mappasessu, Sultan Ismail Muhtajuddin Male 1812 – 1823 (11 years)
25 We Imaniratu, Sultanah Rajituddin Female 1823 – 1835 (12 years)
26 La Mappaseling, Sultan Adam Najamuddin Male 1835 – 1845 (10 years)
27 La Parenrengi, Sultan Ahmad Muhiddin Male 1845 – 1857 (12 years)
28 We Tenriawaru, Sultanah Ummulhuda Female 1857 – 1860 (3 years)
29 La Singkeru Rukka, Sultan Ahmad Idris Male 1860 – 1871 (11 years)
30 We Fatimah Banri, Datu Citta Female 1871 – 1895 (24 years)
31 La Pawawoi, Karaeng Sigeri Male 1895 – 1905 (10 years)
32 La Mappanyukki, Sultan Ibrahim Male 1931 – 1946 (15 years)
33 La Pabbenteng, Matinroe ri Matuju Male 1946 – 1951 (5 years)

See also


  1. ^ a b "South Sulawesi". 16 December 2022.
  2. ^ a b c "Sejarah Kabupaten Bone". Website Resmi Pemerintah Kabupaten Bone (in Indonesian). 2019-12-05. Retrieved 2022-04-18.
  3. ^ Noorduyn, J. (1987). "Makasar and the Islamization of Bima". Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. 143 (2/3): 312–342. doi:10.1163/22134379-90003330. JSTOR 27863842. The Makasarese king understood the meaning of this and began what is known as the Islamic war, in Makasarese bunduq kasallannganga, by which he succeeded in the next four years in forcing the major Buginese kingdoms to accept Islam one by one, Bone as the last in 1611.
  4. ^ a b Pamelleri, Riwayat.
  5. ^ Budiarti, Hari (2007). "Taking and Returning Objects in a Colonial Context: Tracing the Collections Acquired during the Bone-Gowa Military Expeditions". In Pieter J. ter Keurs (ed.). Colonial Collections Revisited. Leiden: CNWS Publications. p. 128.


Further reading