Type 175 Britannia
Bristol 175 Britannia 312 G-AOVT BOAC Ringway 04.08.62 edited-3.jpg
BOAC Britannia Model 312 on a transatlantic flight at Manchester Airport in 1962.
Role Turboprop airliner
Manufacturer Bristol Aeroplane Company
Designer Dr. Archibald E. Russell[1]
First flight 16 August 1952
Introduction 1 February 1957 with BOAC
Status Retired
Primary users BOAC
Royal Air Force
Canadian Pacific Air Lines
Cubana de Aviación
Produced 1952–1960
Number built 85
Variants Canadair CP-107 Argus
Canadair CL-44/Canadair CC-106 Yukon
Conroy Skymonster

The Bristol Type 175 Britannia is a retired British medium-to-long-range airliner built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company in 1952 to fly across the Commonwealth. During development two prototypes were lost and the turboprop engines proved susceptible to inlet icing, which delayed entry into service while solutions were sought.

By the time development was completed, "pure" jet airliners from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States were about to enter service, and consequently, only 85 Britannias were built before production ended in 1960. Nevertheless, the Britannia is considered one of the landmarks in turboprop-powered airliner design and was popular with passengers. It became known as "The Whispering Giant" for its quiet exterior noise and smooth flying, although the passenger interior remained less tranquil.[2][3]

Canadair purchased a licence to build the Britannia in Canada, adding another 72 aircraft in two variants. These were the stretched Canadair CL-44/Canadair CC-106 Yukon, and the greatly modified Canadair CP-107 Argus maritime patrol aircraft.

Design and development

Origins

In 1942, during the Second World War, Allied aircraft construction saw the UK of necessity concentrating on heavy bombers, leaving the production of transport aircraft to the USA.[4] This would have left the UK with little experience in transport construction at the end of the war, so in 1943, a committee under Lord Brabazon of Tara investigated the future British civilian airliner market. The Brabazon Committee called for several aircraft to be developed to its specifications for Britain's civilian aviation needs.[5]

Bristol won the Type I and Type III contracts, delivering their Type I design, the Bristol Brabazon in 1949.[6] The requirement for the 1946 British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) Medium Range Empire (MRE) Requirements coincided with the Type III, Specification C.2/47, issued in April 1947 by the Minister of Supply.[7] The specifications called for an airliner capable of carrying 48 passengers and powered with Bristol Centaurus radial engines or Napier Nomad turbo-compound Diesel engine.[8] Turboprop options were also considered, but they were so new that Bristol could not guarantee their performance.[8][9]

Although in-company Proposals "X" for conversions of Lockheed Constellations to Centaurus 662 powerplants or "Y" for licence production of the Constellation were considered in late 1946, BOAC decided that an entirely new design was preferred.[7] After wrangling between the Ministry of Supply and BOAC over costs, the go-ahead for the project assigned the company designation Model 175 in July 1948.[10] Three prototypes were ordered with the first being Mk 1 (Centaurus 662), and the second and third prototypes designated Mk 2 (to be convertible to Bristol Proteus turboprops, then under development).[1]

In October 1947, with work already underway, Bristol had settled on a Centaurus-powered design with a gross weight of 103,000 lb (47,000 kg) and a payload of 13,300 lb (6,000 kg). The anticipated Karachi-Cairo run necessitated a 48-seat limit including sufficient fuel for the lengthy stage. On 5 July 1949, the Ministry of Supply ordered five such prototypes with the understanding that BOAC would contract for 25 production units.[8] BOAC purchased options for 25 aircraft on 28 July powered by the Bristol Centaurus, but to be re-fitted with the Bristol Proteus when available.[10]

Redefinition and prototypes

In November 1948, the Type 175 was revised again to accommodate 74 passengers and a longer wingspan in a contemplated long-range version aimed at long-haul Empire and transatlantic routes rather than the medium-haul Empire routes originally planned.[11] On reflection, BOAC decided that only the Proteus engine was viable, necessitating a further redesign eliminating the Centaurus option. Senior figures within BOAC such as the Deputy Chairman Whitney Straight, however, considered the Proteus engine to be "an obsolete contraption".[12] [N 1] Despite BOAC's desire to have a turboprop engine, the Type 175 project was contingent on the Proteus passing a 150-hour Type Test.[13]

The prototype Britannia 101 G-ALBO in BOAC markings at the 1953 Farnborough Air Show
The prototype Britannia 101 G-ALBO in BOAC markings at the 1953 Farnborough Air Show

During April 1950, the airliner's name, Britannia, was selected. The designation Britannia 101 was applied to first pair of prototypes, which were powered by the early Proteus 625, the successor to the 600 series engine that had already completed type trials.[14]

The first prototype, registered G-ALBO, with Bristol Chief Test Pilot A.J. "Bill" Pegg at the controls, first flew on 16 August 1952 at Filton Aerodrome.[3][15] During the maiden flight, the over-sensitive flying controls led to wild pitching before Pegg restored control. During the landing approach, smoke filled the cockpit and the main undercarriage bogie temporarily stuck, only fully deploying seconds before landing.[15] The snags were resolved and by September, the prototype was cleared to perform at the 1952 SBAC Display at Farnborough where spectators commented on the "quietness" of the giant airliner.[1] In November 1952, Popular Science reported that by 1954 BOAC would have 25 of these aircraft on routes such as London-to-Tokyo over the Arctic and North Pole.[16]

Delays

However, in 1953 and 1954, three de Havilland Comets crashed without explanation, which led the Air Ministry to demand that the Britannia undergo lengthy tests.[17] Further delays were attributed to teething problems with the engine resulting in the loss in February 1954 of the second prototype, G-ALRX, caused by a failed reduction gear that led to an engine fire and the aircraft landing on the mudflats of the Severn Estuary.[N 2] Resolving inlet icing issues (by selecting a different cruising height) that were discovered as the first aircraft were being delivered to BOAC, and which were exaggerated by BOAC, devastated future sales and delayed the Britannia's introduction by two years,[18] also took time.[19][20]

Britannia Airways Britannia Model 102 at Manchester Airport in 1965
Britannia Airways Britannia Model 102 at Manchester Airport in 1965

The first prototype G-ALBO was modified to more closely approximate a production standard, but was retained by the company to undergo engine testing and development.[21] Bristol revised the design into a larger transatlantic airliner for BOAC, resulting in the Series 200 and 300; the Britannia 300LR (Long-Range) was viewed as being "eminently suitable" for BOAC's services between London and Sydney.[22] The purchase price for each Britannia 100-series aircraft was agreed by BOAC in 1955 at £768,000.[23]

Australian airline Qantas considered the procurement of a Britannia fleet, however its protracted development eroded any competitive advantage against the Douglas DC-8 and de Havilland Comet 4.[24] Route-proving trials continued through 1955, although orders were on the books from El Al and Canadian Pacific Air Lines alongside the standing order placed by BOAC.[21]

During the first eight months of its operational trials,[N 3] a total of 16 in-flight engine failures and 49 unscheduled engine changes punctuated the ongoing engine dilemma and delayed the Britannia's in-service date until February 1957, roughly two years late.[25][26] The Britannia received a fair amount of attention in both the popular press and the British House of Commons, especially when it was revealed that BOAC had contemplated fitting Rolls-Royce Tynes to their fleet of Douglas DC-7s as an interim measure until the Britannia was cleared for service.[1]

In 1956, Bristol's managing director Peter Masefield flew the tenth production Britannia, G-ANBJ, on a world sales tour. American interest was strong, since the Britannia seemed to be a faster, longer-range, higher-capacity sister of the Vickers Viscount, which was already a marketing success on US domestic routes, and, compared to the piston-engined DC-7C, itself a new type, the Britannia offered similar transcontinental or transatlantic range with greater speed and the public appeal of more modern powerplants. Eastern Air Lines and TWA both wished to place orders, which might have forced competitors to follow suit. TWA's majority owner Howard Hughes took the controls of the Britannia for one flight and immediately requested 30 aircraft. However, the Americans wanted delivery within a couple of years, and Bristol, with its limited production facilities and the prior commitment to the BOAC order, could not meet that requirement, so, with the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 jets expected in service by 1958-9, the opportunity passed. [27]

Aviation historian Peter Pigott summarised the impact of the delays:

Had the Britannia appeared in 1950, when it was faster than every American aircraft, it would have put the British at the forefront of commercial aviation sales. Now, competing with the Boeing 707, the turboprop airliner had become passé.[28][N 4]

Related developments

Ex-Canadian Pacific Air Lines Britannia Model 314 of Transglobe Airways at Manchester Airport in June 1966
Ex-Canadian Pacific Air Lines Britannia Model 314 of Transglobe Airways at Manchester Airport in June 1966

In 1954, a licence was issued to Canadair to build the derivative Canadair CL-28/CP-107 Argus, and the Canadair CL-44/Canadair CC-106 Yukon.[29] Based on the Britannia, the Argus maritime patrol and anti-submarine military aircraft was optimised for endurance on long-range patrol, not speed, and used four Wright R-3350-32W Turbo-Compound engines[N 5] that used less fuel at low altitude.[30] Unlike its Britannia forebear, the Argus was a hybrid, using the Britannia wings, tail surfaces and landing gear matched to a "purpose-built", unpressurised fuselage. It substituted North American materials and standard parts for British parts.[31]

The interior of the Argus was well equipped to conduct anti-submarine warfare — navigation, communication and tactical electronic equipment along with weapon loads that included bombs, torpedoes, mines and depth charges.[30] A total of 33 Argus aircraft were built in two series (Mk 1 and Mk 2), serving the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) and Canadian Forces from 1957 to 1982.[32]

Canadair built 39 Canadair CL-44/Canadair CC-106 Yukon turboprop Rolls-Royce Tyne-powered aircraft, comprising 12 CC-106 Yukon for the RCAF and 27 CL-44D4 passenger/cargo variants for the civil market. Civilian operators typically operated the type as freighters. Four CL-44D4s were converted as CL-44Js with lengthened fuselages for service with the Icelandic "budget" airline Loftleiðir. The CL-44D4s were all built with swing-tails to allow straight-in cargo loading and served with a variety of carriers, most notably Flying Tiger Line.[32][33] The similar CC-106 Yukon was used by the RCAF in a solely passenger configuration.[34]

A final "one-off" development was the Conroy Skymonster, nicknamed Guppy, based on a Canadair CL-44D4 N447T. The prominent modification was an enlarged fuselage, like the Mini Guppy, which was produced by Jack Conroy's previous company, Aero Spacelines.[35] After a long operational career as a freighter, the Guppy was stored at Bournemouth Airport in 2003 and was later sold.[36]

Operational history

BOAC Britannia Model 312 landing at Manchester Airport in December 1959 after a transatlantic flight
BOAC Britannia Model 312 landing at Manchester Airport in December 1959 after a transatlantic flight

Following a long period of uneventful development flying trials and the fitting of a modified Proteus 765 series engine that greatly reduced breakdowns, a full Certificate of Airworthiness was awarded at the end of 1955.[26] The first two Model 102s were delivered to BOAC on 30 December 1955 for crew training.[37] The Model 102 began scheduled service on 1 February 1957 with a BOAC flight from London to Johannesburg,[38] flights to Sydney following in March and to Tokyo in July. By August 1957, the first 15 Model 102 aircraft had been delivered to BOAC.[39] The last 10 aircraft of the order were built as Series 300 aircraft for transatlantic flights.[39]

In April 1959, a Model 102 Britannia was leased by BOAC to Ghana Airways for flights between Accra and London, and several more Britannias were purchased by the airline in the early 1960s.[40] The Model 102 was eventually made available to other BOAC associates, including Cathay Pacific, Central Africa, East African, Nigeria and Malayan airlines.[41]

Royal Air Force Britannia C2 (Model 253) Acrux in 1964
Royal Air Force Britannia C2 (Model 253) Acrux in 1964

The next production series was based on the long-range, mixed passenger/freight Model 200 series that was intended for civil airline use, but ultimately Bristol offered the series to the Royal Air Force (RAF) instead.[41] The production series of three Model 252 and 20 Model 253 aircraft were purchased by RAF Transport Command in 1959, assigned the designation Britannia C.2 (first Model 252 series) and C.1 (Model 253 series).[42] Those in RAF service were allocated the names of stars, such as "Arcturus", "Sirius" and "Vega". On retirement from the RAF in 1975, many Model 200 series were subsequently used by independent civil operators for cargo operations, harkening back to their original intended role.[3][43]

Although the Bristol Model 302 was built first as part of the original BOAC order, BOAC released this series to other airlines; Aeronaves de Mexico took two Model 302s, which entered service in December 1957.[41] The 18 Bristol Britannia 312s for BOAC were delivered from September 1957 with its service introduction on the first-ever non-stop flight from London to Canada on 19 December 1957.[38] In late December 1957, BOAC began regular Britannia flights from London to New York.[44] Other airlines, such as Israel's El Al, also operated the Britannia on transatlantic routes.[45]

In 1959, BOAC started flying the Britannia across the Pacific to Tokyo and Hong Kong, thus extending their network round the world.[38] The westbound routing in 1959 for these intercontinental BOAC Britannia flights between the U.K. and Asia was London-New York-San Francisco-Honolulu-Wake Island-Tokyo-Hong Kong.[46]

Cubana de Aviacion Britannia 318 at Lima Peru in 1972
Cubana de Aviacion Britannia 318 at Lima Peru in 1972

On 1 April 1958 Canadian Pacific Air Lines took delivery of the first of six Model 314 Britannias,[29] with an additional two Model 324s (built to a 320 standard) arriving later and sold to Cathay Pacific in 1961.[47] BOAC ordered seven Model 302s, but never took delivery, instead they were taken on by airlines including Aeronaves de México and Ghana Airways.[42][48] The main long-range series were the 310s, of which BOAC took 18 and, after deliveries began in September 1957, put them into service between London and New York City; in March 1964 BOAC owned 50 aircraft, 10 being Britannia 312s.[49] BOAC's last scheduled Britannia flight was April 1965.[50]

The 310 series (the Model 318) also saw transatlantic service with Cubana de Aviación starting in 1958, in spite of the Cuban Revolution the airline had a special accord with British aircraft manufacturers to maintain this model of aircraft.[51] In 1975, multiple Cuban Britannias were used to transport hundreds of soldiers of the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces to Angola in Operation Carlota, a proxy war.[52] Cubana de Aviación continued to fly its fleet of Britannias until March 1990.[53]

BOAC Britannia Model 312 at Darwin's civil terminal, c. 1958
BOAC Britannia Model 312 at Darwin's civil terminal, c. 1958

Following the purchase of remaining spare parts from the Royal Aircraft Establishment and Cubana, Zaïrois airlines continued to operate several Britannias into the early 1990s on regular cargo flights from N'djili Airport to various destinations within the country.[54]

Most aircraft were built by Bristol at Filton, but 30 were built at Belfast by Short Brothers and Harland.[55][56] Due to the extended development instead of a projected production of 180 Britannias, only 80 were sold.[25] The negative experience with the development of the Britannia caused BOAC to be more cautious towards other British-made aircraft such as the Vickers VC10.[57] Throughout the Britannia's lifespan, the engine icing condition remained a "continual potential hazard" that flight crews ultimately learned to manage with a "high-lo" flight regime that minimized the danger,[58] Squadron Leader David Berry who had 5,000 hours on the type characterised it as flying "Beauty and the Beast."[59] Aeroplane in "100 Great British Aircraft" (2008) said the Britannia counted among the "greats".[60]

Variants

Bristol Model 175

Mk 1
Prototype powered by Bristol Centaurus 662, fuselage length of 114 ft (35m), span 120 ft (36.5 m), seating for 48 passengers, not built[1]
Mk 2
Two prototypes powered by either Bristol Centaurus 662 or Bristol Proteus 600; with the Proteus, the fuselage length of 114 ft (35m) was fitted with a longer wingspan 140 ft (43 m) and reduced seating for 36 passengers, two prototypes planned, none built.[1]
BOAC Bristol Britannia Model 102 G-ANBA, c. 1959
BOAC Bristol Britannia Model 102 G-ANBA, c. 1959

Series 100

Seventy-four passenger airliner with 114 ft (35m) fuselage and powered by four Bristol Proteus 705

101
Prototypes, two initially powered by Proteus 625 and soon after re-engined with the Proteus 755, later the first prototype G-ALBO was used for development testing of the Bristol Orion in 1956 and the Proteus 765 in 1957.[61]
102
Production aircraft for BOAC, 25 ordered with the last 10 cancelled in favour of the 300 series, 15 built.[62][63]
UK Ministry of Defence Britannia 312F XX367 visiting the maker's factory at Filton on 29 April 1983, the 25th anniversary of its first flight. As a civil airliner, it had flown for BOAC, British Eagle and Air Spain.
UK Ministry of Defence Britannia 312F XX367 visiting the maker's factory at Filton on 29 April 1983, the 25th anniversary of its first flight. As a civil airliner, it had flown for BOAC, British Eagle and Air Spain.

Series 200

All cargo variant with a 124 ft 3 in (38 m) fuselage, BOAC option for five was cancelled, none built.[62]

Series 250

Similar to the 200 series, but mixed passenger and freight.[62]

252
Originally ordered by the Ministry of Supply for intended lease to charter operators, but delivered to the Royal Air Force, as the Britannia C2. Fitted with a heavy-duty floor in forward area of fuselage and cargo door, three built.[64]
253
Passenger/freight variant for the Royal Air Force, designated Britannia C1. Fitted with full length heavy-duty floor and provision for rearwards-facing seats, as preferred by the RAF. Capacity for 115 troops or equivalent in cargo, 20 built.[65] Aircraft later sold on the civil market as freighters designated Series 253F.
Britannia Model 312 formerly flying for Monarch Airlines now on display at Duxford Aerodrome
Britannia Model 312 formerly flying for Monarch Airlines now on display at Duxford Aerodrome

Series 300

Passenger-only "stretched" version of the 200 series, incorporating 123 inches (3.1 m) longer fuselage, capable of carrying up to 139 (originally 99) passengers, medium-fuel capacity.[66]

301
One Filton-built company prototype, used the same wing and fuel capacity of the Model 100; first flew: 31 July 1956.[41]
302
Belfast-built production, 10 ordered by BOAC, but cancelled in favour of 305; seven were begun to this standard with two delivered to Aeronaves de Mexico.[41]
305
Five Belfast-built 302s modified for longer-range, but with limited takeoff weight due to thinner fuselage skin and lighter landing gear. Originally ordered by Capital Airlines, which were cancelled and then for Northeast Airlines, which also cancelled. All modified to other variants.[41]
306
One former Series 305 leased to El Al pending delivery of last Series 313. Later converted to Series 307.[63]
307
Two of the ex-BOAC Northeast 305 order (one formerly the El AL Series 306) to Air Charter Limited September 1958 and March 1959, with a new designation: Model 307. Later to British United Airways.[41][67]
307F
1960s conversion of 307 to freighter (both converted).[63]
308
Two former 305s ordered by Transcontinental SA of Argentina in 104-passenger configuration.[64]
308F
1960s conversion of 308 to freighter for British Eagle (both converted).[63]
309
One former 305 (leased to Ghana Airways).[63]

Series 310

As 305 series, but with strengthened fuselage skin and undercarriage. Long-range fuel capacity and was originally known as 300LR.

311
One prototype originally known as a 300LR.[68]
312
Production aircraft for BOAC, 18 built.[69]
312F
1960s conversion of 312 to freighter (five converted).
313
Production aircraft for El Al, four built.[63]
314
Production aircraft for Canadian Pacific Air Lines, six built.[63]
317
Production aircraft for Hunting-Clan Air Transport in 124 passenger trooping configuration, two built.[64]
318
Production aircraft for Cubana de Aviación, four built. Delivery taking place on 15 December 1958, later one leased to Cunard Eagle in 1960–1961 and this same airliner leased to CSA in 1962.[47]
319
1960s conversion of 312 for Ghana Airways (one aircraft).
320
Variant for North American market, order for Trans World Airlines not concluded, two built were completed as Series 324s.
324
Two Series 320s built for Canadian Pacific Air Lines, later purchased by Cunard Eagle Airways in 1961.[47]

Operators

Donaldson Airways Britannia Model 312 G-AOVF at Manchester Airport, September 1971
Donaldson Airways Britannia Model 312 G-AOVF at Manchester Airport, September 1971
British Eagle Britannia Model 312 at Manchester England, August 1964
British Eagle Britannia Model 312 at Manchester England, August 1964
Ex-RAF Britannia C2 (Model 253) Regulus as of 2007 is being restored by the Bristol Britannia Preservation Society at Cotswold Airport, England
Ex-RAF Britannia C2 (Model 253) Regulus as of 2007 is being restored by the Bristol Britannia Preservation Society at Cotswold Airport, England

Civilian operators

 Argentina
 Australia
 Belgium
 Burundi
 Canada
 Cuba
 Czechoslovakia
 Ghana
 Indonesia
 Ireland
 Israel
 Kenya
 Kenya,  Uganda,  Tanganyika and  Zanzibar
 Liberia
 Malaysia
 Mexico
 Spain
  Switzerland
 United Arab Emirates
 United Kingdom
 Zaire

Military operators

 United Kingdom
 Cuba

Accidents and incidents

Fourteen Britannias were lost with a total of 365 fatalities between 1954 and 1980. The worst accident was the 1967 Nicosia Britannia disaster with a loss of life totalling 126.[71]

Survivors

Nose of second prototype Britannia G-ALRX at the Bristol Aero Collection.
Nose of second prototype Britannia G-ALRX at the Bristol Aero Collection.

Specifications (Series 310)

The flight deck of Britannia 312 G-AOVT
The flight deck of Britannia 312 G-AOVT

Data from Britannia... Last of the Bristol Line[83]

General characteristics

Performance

Avionics

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ The Proteus was still powering SR.N4 hovercraft across the English Channel as late as 2000, and was still powering some warships in 1982 at the time of the Falklands War.
  2. ^ The personnel on board were unhurt. The aircraft was destroyed in the recovery effort, the aircraft having belly landed and sunk into the soft mud of the estuary defying all attempts at extracting it undamaged.
  3. ^ Aviation historian Roger Carvell typified the experience as "Around the World in 80 Delays", taking his cue from a popular refrain that was coined during the Britannia's troubled proving flights.
  4. ^ The Britannia could only have been available by 1950 if it had been ordered earlier. The world's first turboprop airliner, the Vickers Viscount, did not enter service until 1953. BOAC had shown similar indecisiveness with the earlier Avro Tudor.
  5. ^ The Wright R-3350 was first used on the Boeing B-29 Superfortress.

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f Carvell 2005, p. 68.
  2. ^ Littlefield 1992, pp. Cover, preface.
  3. ^ a b c d "Bristol Britannia 312." Archived 6 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine RAF Museum Cosford. Retrieved: 19 October 2010.
  4. ^ Hayward 1989, pp. 38–39.
  5. ^ Hayward 1989, p. 40.
  6. ^ Woodley 2003, p. 9.
  7. ^ a b Oughton 1973, p. 96.
  8. ^ a b c Swanborough 1962, p. 26.
  9. ^ Oughton 1973, p. 97.
  10. ^ a b Barnes 1964, p. 344.
  11. ^ Taylor 1982, pp. 33–34.
  12. ^ Gunn 1988, p. 22.
  13. ^ Carvell 2005, p. 70.
  14. ^ Carvell 2005, pp. 68, 70.
  15. ^ a b Carvell 2005, p. 67.
  16. ^ "Turboprop to Speed Pole-Hopping Tourists." Popular Science, 161(5), November 1952, p. 73.
  17. ^ "Giant Bathtub Puts the Pressure on Turbo-Prop Airliner." Popular Science, 167(4), October 1955, p. 112.
  18. ^ Gunston 2006, p. 37.
  19. ^ Gunn 1988, p. X.
  20. ^ "A Solution for the Britannia." The New Scientist,, 2(50), 31 October 1957, p. 5.
  21. ^ a b Carvell 2005, p. 71.
  22. ^ Gunn 1988, p. 43.
  23. ^ "Britannia 100." Flight, 18 November 1960.
  24. ^ Gunn 1988, pp. 39–39.
  25. ^ a b Orlebar 2002, p. 27.
  26. ^ a b Carvell 2005, p. 74.
  27. ^ Hamilton-Paterson 2010, p.268.
  28. ^ Pigott 2005, p. 138.
  29. ^ a b Piggott 2005, p. 139.
  30. ^ a b Piggot 2005, p. 168.
  31. ^ Pickler and Milberry 1995, pp. 145–155.
  32. ^ a b Pickler and Milberry 1995, pp. 148–149.
  33. ^ Woodley 2003, p. 130.
  34. ^ Piggot 2005, p. 146.
  35. ^ Savage, Daren. "Conroy Aircraft CL-44-O Skymonster (Guppy CL44)." All About Guppys, 2008. Retrieved: 20 October 2010.
  36. ^ "Cl-44 Association." swingtail44.blogspot.com. Retrieved: 20 October 2010.
  37. ^ Jackson 1974, p. 265.
  38. ^ a b c "Explore our past: 1950 – 1959." British Airways. Retrieved: 19 October 2010.
  39. ^ a b Barnes 1964, p. 347.
  40. ^ Guttery 1998, pp. 75–76.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g Swanborough 1962, p. 27.
  42. ^ a b Orlebar 2002, p. 28.
  43. ^ Berry 1996, p. 603.
  44. ^ "The New Scientist: 20 Years Ago." The New Scientist, 76(1082), 15 December 1977, p. 687.
  45. ^ Van Riper 2004, p. 90.
  46. ^ "BOAC Sept. 1, 1959 Timetable." Airline Timetable Images, 18 June 2015.
  47. ^ a b c Swanborough 1962, p. 29.
  48. ^ "Britannia Aeronaves de Mexico." Aviation Week and Space Technology (McGraw-Hill), 1959. p. 49.
  49. ^ Gunn 1988, p. 314.
  50. ^ Flight 29 April 1965
  51. ^ "Cuba update: a publication of the Center for Cuban Studies." Center for Cuban Studies, 11 (1–2), 1990, p. 12.
  52. ^ George 2005, pp. 60, 67.
  53. ^ a b "XM496 Regulus." Archived 3 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine XM496 Preservation Society, Retrieved: 19 October 2010.
  54. ^ "Profile for: Katale Aero Transport." AeroTransport Data Bank, 2013.
  55. ^ Carvell 2005, p. 78.
  56. ^ "Britannia." Flight International, 82, 1962, p. 861.
  57. ^ Orlebar 2002, p. 29.
  58. ^ Carvell 2005, p. 86.
  59. ^ Carvell 2005, p. 84.
  60. ^ Oakey 2008, p. 81.
  61. ^ Jackson 1974, p. 268.
  62. ^ a b c Barnes 1962, p. 348.
  63. ^ a b c d e f g Taylor 1982, p. 42.
  64. ^ a b c Taylor 1982, p. 44.
  65. ^ Taylor 1982, pp. 44–45.
  66. ^ Swanborough 1962, pp. 26–27.
  67. ^ Taylor 1982, pp. 43–44.
  68. ^ Barnes 1962, p. 350.
  69. ^ Barnes 1962, p. 349.
  70. ^ a b c d Eastwood 1990, pp. 70–76.
  71. ^ "Britannia crash Kills 126: Cyprus storm disaster." The Times, Issue 56921, 21 April 1967, p. 4, column D.
  72. ^ "Bristol Britannia accident: 4 February 1954." aviation-safety.net. Retrieved: 3 February 2011.
  73. ^ 15 killed in Britannia test flight crash." The Times, Issue 53992, 7 November 1957, p. 10, column E.
  74. ^ Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network
  75. ^ "Accident description: Bristol 175 Britannia 312, Operator: British Eagle International Airlines." aviation-safety.net. Retrieved: 17 July 2010.
  76. ^ "Ljubljana crash."[Usurped!] Air Accident database. Retrieved: 17 July 2010.
  77. ^ "ASN Accident report Bristol 175 Britannia 313 HB-ITB Nicosia Airport." aviation-safety.net. Retrieved: 20 October 2010.
  78. ^ "Aircraft accident Bristol 175 Britannia 253 EI-BBY Shannon Airport (SNN)" aviation-safety.net. Retrieved: 27 January 2016.
  79. ^ National Transportation Safety Board Report, NTSB-AAR-81-3.
  80. ^ "Britannia Aircraft Preservation Trust." Archived 3 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine Britannia Aircraft Preservation Trust. Retrieved: 19 October 2010.
  81. ^ a b "Oldprops Bristol Britannia photographs." Oldprops Bristol Britannia photographs. Retrieved: 29 May 2011.
  82. ^ "The Duxford Aviation Society." Archived 18 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Imperial War Museum Duxford. Retrieved: 19 October 2010.
  83. ^ Taylor 1982, p. 41.
  84. ^ a b Barnes 1964, p. 360.
  85. ^ Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  86. ^ Donald 1997, p. 207.
  87. ^ Angelucci 1984, p. 316.
  88. ^ "Weather radar". Flight. 71 (2516): 494–495. 12 April 1957.

Bibliography

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