Chairperson of the
African Union
Incumbent
Mohamed Ould Ghazouani
since 17 February 2024
StyleExcellency
AbbreviationCPAU
Appointerthe Assembly
Term lengthOne year
Constituting instrumentConstitutive Act of the AU (article 6)
PrecursorChairperson of the OAU
Formation9 July 2002
First holderThabo Mbeki
DeputyBureau
Websiteau.int/en/cpau

The Chairperson of the African Union is the ceremonial head of the African Union (AU) elected by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government for a one-year term.[1] It rotates among the continent's five regions.

A candidate must be selected by consensus or at least two-thirds majority vote by member states. The chairperson is expected to complete the term without interruption; hence countries with impending elections may be ineligible.[2]

The current Chairperson is Mauritanian President Mohamed Ould Ghazouani. Angola is seeking the post in 2025.[3]

History

Main article: Chairperson of the Organisation of African Unity

In 2002, South African President Thabo Mbeki served as the inaugural chairman of the union. The post rotates annually amongst the five geographic regions of Africa; and over the years it has assumed the following order: East, North, Southern, Central and West Africa.

In January 2007, the assembly elected Ghanaian President John Kufuor over Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir due to the ongoing conflict in Darfur.[2][4] Amnesty International said it would undermine African Union's credibility and Chad threatened to withdraw its membership. Western governments also lobbied against Sudan and suggested Tanzania as a compromise candidate from the East African region. By consensus, Ghana was elected instead as it was celebrating its 50th independence anniversary that year.[5]

Gaddafi holding the ceremonial baton after taking over as Chair from Tanzania's Jakaya Kikwete.

In January 2010, Libyan Leader Muammar Gaddafi unsuccessfully tried to extend his tenure by an additional year,[6] saying more time was needed in order to implement his vision for a United States of Africa - of which he was a strong proponent. Libya was at the time one of the largest financial supporters of the AU. Malawi was chosen instead.[7]

The election of Equatoguinean President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo in January 2011 was criticized by human rights activists as it undermined the AU's commitment to democracy.[8]

Congolese Republic President Denis Sassou Nguesso and Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe have both led the AU and its predecessor, the Organisation of African Unity during the terms 1986–88 and 2006–07, and 1997–98 and 2015–16 respectively.[9][10]

In 2023, both Kenya and Comoros were vying for the position.[11] Comorian President Azali Assoumani thanked Kenyan President William Ruto for his country's withdrawal.[12] In 2024, Both Algeria and Morocco were interested in the position in 2024.[13] Mauritania was elected instead.

Role

The incumbent chairs the biannual summit meetings of the assembly and represents the continent in various international fora such as G7, TICAD, FOCAC and G20 summits.[1]

They also assist in resolving crises on the continent as an elder statesman. It has been suggested that liaison offices be established to prevent friction between the incumbent and the Commission Chairperson at the headquarters in Addis Ababa.[14]

Elder Statesman

In 2008, following Kenya's post-election crisis, AU Chairman Jakaya Kikwete was instrumental in facilitating the opposing sides to agree to a Government of National Unity.[15] Kikwete also backed the invasion of Anjouan by sending an AU Force to assist the Comoros federal government to remove renegade leader Mohamed Bacar.

List of Chairpersons

No. Portrait Name Term of office Country Region Ref.
Took office Left office
1 Thabo Mbeki 9 July 2002 10 July 2003  South Africa Southern Africa [16]
2 Joaquim Chissano 10 July 2003 11 July 2004  Mozambique Southern Africa [17]
3 Olusegun Obasanjo 11 July 2004 24 January 2006  Nigeria West Africa [18]
4 Denis Sassou Nguesso 24 January 2006 24 January 2007  Republic of Congo Central Africa [19]
5 John Kufuor 30 January 2007 31 January 2008  Ghana West Africa [2]
6 Jakaya Kikwete 31 January 2008 2 February 2009  Tanzania East Africa [20]
7 Muammar Gaddafi 2 February 2009 31 January 2010 Libya North Africa [21]
8 Bingu wa Mutharika 31 January 2010 31 January 2011  Malawi Southern Africa [22]
9 Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo 31 January 2011 29 January 2012  Equatorial Guinea Central Africa [23]
10 Yayi Boni 29 January 2012 27 January 2013  Benin West Africa [24]
11 Hailemariam Desalegn 27 January 2013 30 January 2014  Ethiopia East Africa [25]
12 Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz 30 January 2014 30 January 2015  Mauritania North Africa [26]
13 Robert Mugabe 30 January 2015 30 January 2016  Zimbabwe Southern Africa [27]
14 Idriss Déby 30 January 2016 30 January 2017  Chad Central Africa [28]
15 Alpha Condé 30 January 2017 28 January 2018  Guinea West Africa [29]
16 Paul Kagame 28 January 2018 10 February 2019  Rwanda East Africa [30]
17 Abdel Fattah el-Sisi 10 February 2019 9 February 2020  Egypt North Africa [31]
18 Cyril Ramaphosa 9 February 2020 6 February 2021  South Africa Southern Africa [32]
19 Félix Tshisekedi 6 February 2021 5 February 2022  Democratic Republic of Congo Central Africa [33]
20 Macky Sall 5 February 2022 18 February 2023  Senegal West Africa [34]
21 Azali Assoumani 18 February 2023 17 February 2024  Comoros East Africa [35]
22 Mohamed Ould Ghazouani 17 February 2024 Incumbent  Mauritania West Africa [36]

Bureau

The Chairperson is assisted by a bureau of four vice chairpersons including a rapporteur.[37]

Portrait Incumbent Country Region Title
João Lourenço  Angola Southern Africa First Vice Chairperson
Congo[clarification needed] Central Africa Second Vice Chairperson
Nana Akufo-Addo  Ghana West Africa Third Vice Chairperson
Azali Assoumani  Comoros East Africa Fourth Vice Chairperson (Rapporteur)

References

  1. ^ a b "African Union Handbook" (PDF). African Union. 2014. p. 15.
  2. ^ a b c "President Kufuor elected Chairman of AU". ghanaweb.com. Accra: Ghana News Agency. 29 January 2007. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  3. ^ Kipkemoi, Felix (21 October 2023). "Ruto: We'll support Angola in its AU chairmanship bid". The Star. Retrieved 10 February 2024.
  4. ^ "African Union Chooses Kufuor Over Bashir for Chairman". Yahoo! Voices. 29 January 2007. Archived from the original on 2014-02-23. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  5. ^ "Sudan loses AU chair over Darfur". Mail and Guardian. South Africa. 29 January 2007. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  6. ^ "Gaddafi fails in bid to remain African Union chair". Addis Ababa: Reuters. 31 January 2010. Archived from the original on 2014-02-02. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  7. ^ "African Union row over Muammar Gaddafi's role". BBC News. 28 January 2010. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  8. ^ "Equatorial Guinea President Named African Union Head; Rights Groups Object". Bloomberg News. 30 January 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  9. ^ "President voted AU deputy chair". The Herald. Zimbabwe. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  10. ^ "Mugabe Scores A Feat, Set To Head AU at 91". radiovop.com. 31 January 2014. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  11. ^ "Kenyatta and Azali vie for AU vice chairmanship". Africa Intelligence. Indigo Publications. 11 February 2022. Archived from the original on 2022-08-09. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  12. ^ "PRESS RELEASE: President Azali Assoumani of the Union of Comoros, Takes Over as the New Chairperson of the African Union (AU) for 2023". African Union. 18 February 2023. Retrieved 19 February 2023.
  13. ^ "Algiers and Rabat battle for 2024 African Union presidency". Africa Intelligence. 19 January 2023. Archived from the original on 25 January 2023. Retrieved 19 February 2023.
  14. ^ Blunt, Elizabeth (27 March 2009). "African Union's eventful year with Gaddafi". BBC. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  15. ^ MUFUAYIA ACHERO DAVID (June 2015). "The role of Jakaya Kikwete in the mediation of the Kenyan Post-election conflict, 2008".
  16. ^ Babarinde, Olufemi (April 2007). "The EU as a Model for the African Union: the Limits of Imitation" (PDF). miami.edu.
  17. ^ "High hopes for AU Maputo Assembly". ANC Today. 4–10 July 2003. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  18. ^ "Obasanjo Elected AU Chairman". Addis Ababa: Vanguard. 12 July 2004. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  19. ^ "CONGO: Profile of Denis Sassou-Nguesso, new AU head". Brazzaville: IRIN. 24 January 2006. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  20. ^ Appel, Michael (2 February 2008). "Kikwete takes over AU Chair". Pambazuka News. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  21. ^ "Gaddafi vows to push Africa unity". BBC News. 2 February 2009. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  22. ^ "Malawi president takes over as AU president". AFP. 31 January 2010. Archived from the original on 2011-12-30. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  23. ^ Hennig, Rainer Chr. (1 February 2011). "New AU leader Obiang calls criticism un-African". Afrol News. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  24. ^ "President Thomas Yayi Boni elected as Chairperson of the African Union for 2012" (PDF) (Press release). Addis Ababa: Directorate of Information and Communication, African Union Commission. 29 January 2012.
  25. ^ Stainburn, Samantha (28 January 2013). "Hailemariam Desalegn, Ethiopia's PM, is new African Union Assembly chairman". GlobalPost. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  26. ^ "President Abdel Aziz of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania elected African Union Chairperson". Addis Ababa: African Union. 30 January 2014. Archived from the original on 21 October 2018. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  27. ^ "Zimbabwe's Mugabe, 90, becomes African Union chairman". Reuters. 30 January 2015. Archived from the original on 30 January 2015. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  28. ^ African Union [@_AfricanUnion] (January 30, 2016). "Prez Idriss Itno Déby of #Chad takes over as #AU Chairperson" (Tweet). Retrieved 30 January 2016 – via Twitter.
  29. ^ "President Alpha Conde of Guinea Has Been Elected New Chairperson of the African Union (AU)". African Union. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
  30. ^ "President Paul Kagame, Elected as New Chairperson of the African Union for the year 2018". African Union. 28 January 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  31. ^ "The 32ND African Union (AU) Heads of State and Government Summit Kicks Off". African Union. 10 February 2019. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
  32. ^ Simon (February 10, 2020). "South African President Cyril Ramaphosa elected African Union Chairperson as continent vows to "silence the guns," boost trade and close gender gap". Today News Africa. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
  33. ^ "President Felix-Antoine Tshisekedi Tshilombo Elected Chair Of The AU For The Year 2021". African Union. 22 February 2021.
  34. ^ "PRESS RELEASES President Macky Sall of Senegal, Takes Over as the New Chairperson of the African Union (AU) for 2022". African Union. February 5, 2022. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
  35. ^ AFP (18 February 2023). "New African Union chair brings controversial record to top post". France 24. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  36. ^ "President of Mauritania Elected As New Chairperson of AU". ENA English. Retrieved 19 February 2024.
  37. ^ @_AfricanUnion (February 17, 2024). "Bureau of the Assembly 2024." (Tweet) – via Twitter.