A right-handed Hispanic baseball pitcher, wearing a grey uniform with the lettering "NEW YORK" across it, with his body facing the right as he prepares to throw a baseball.
Former Yankees closer Mariano Rivera, one of the most prominent closers in baseball history, has the most career saves of any MLB pitcher (652).

In baseball, a closing pitcher, more frequently referred to as a closer (abbreviated CL), is a relief pitcher who specializes in getting the final outs in a close game when his team is leading. The role is often assigned to a team's best reliever. Before the 1990s, pitchers in similar roles were referred to as a fireman, short reliever, and stopper. A small number of closers have won the Cy Young Award. Eight closers have been inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame: Dennis Eckersley, Rollie Fingers, Goose Gossage, Trevor Hoffman, Mariano Rivera, Lee Smith, Bruce Sutter and Hoyt Wilhelm.


A closer is generally a team's best reliever and designated to pitch the last few outs of games when his team is leading by a margin of three runs or fewer. Rarely does a closer enter with his team losing or in a tie game.[1] A closer's effectiveness has traditionally been measured by the save, an official Major League Baseball (MLB) statistic since 1969.[2][3] Over time, closers have become one-inning specialists typically brought in at the beginning of the ninth inning in save situations. The pressure of the last three outs of the game is often cited for the importance attributed to the ninth inning.[2][4]

Closers are often the highest paid relievers on their teams, making money on par with starting pitchers.[2][5] In the rare cases where a team does not have one primary pitcher dedicated to this role, mainly due to an injury or poor performance of primary closer candidates, the team is said to have a closer by committee.[6]


Bruce Sutter was the first pitcher to start the ninth inning in 20 percent of his career appearances.

New York Giants manager John McGraw in 1905 was one of the first to use a relief pitcher to save games. He pitched Claude Elliott in relief eight times in his ten appearances. Though saves were not an official statistic until 1969, Elliot was retroactively credited with six saves that season, a record at that time.[7][8] In 1977, Chicago Cubs manager Herman Franks used Bruce Sutter almost exclusively in the eighth or ninth innings in save situations.[6][9] While relievers such as Rollie Fingers and Goose Gossage were already being used mostly in save situations, Franks's use of Sutter represented an incremental change.[9] Sutter was the first pitcher to start the ninth inning in 20 percent of his career appearances. Clay Carroll in 1972 was the first pitcher to make a third of his season's appearances in the beginning of the ninth inning, which would not be repeated until Fingers in 1982. John Franco in 1987 was the first to be used over 50 percent of the time in the beginning of the ninth in a season;[10] he had a then-record 24 one-inning saves.[11] Lee Smith in 1994 was the first to be used over 75 percent of the time in that situation.[10] Using the save leader from each team in the league, the average closer made his appearances in the beginning of the ninth inning 10 percent of the time in the 1970s to almost 23 of the time by 2004.[12]

Lee Smith in 1994 was the first pitcher to start the ninth inning in over 75 percent of his appearances.

Tony La Russa while with the Oakland Athletics is frequently named as the innovator of the position, making Dennis Eckersley the first player to be used almost exclusively in ninth inning situations.[1][13][14] La Russa explained that "[the Oakland A's would] be ahead a large number of games every week ... That's a lot of work for somebody throwing more than one inning ... Also, there was the added advantage of [Eckersley] not getting overexposed. We tried to get [him] to only face three or four batters an outing."[2] Baseball teams often copy one another, following a strategy based on one team's success.[15] In 1990, Bobby Thigpen set a record with 57 saves while breaking Franco's one-inning saves record with 41. Francisco Rodríguez set the current record with 54 one-inning saves in 2008.[11]

As late as 1989, a team's ace reliever was called a fireman,[16] coming to the rescue to "put out the fire", baseball terminology for stopping an offensive rally with runners on base.[2][17][18] They were occasionally referred to as short relievers, stoppers and closers. By the early 1990s, the top late-inning reliever was called a closer.[16] The firemen came in whenever leads were in jeopardy, usually with men on base, and regardless of the inning and often pitching two or three innings while finishing the game.[2][19][20] An example of this is that Goose Gossage had 17 games where he recorded at least 10 outs in his first season as a closer, including three games where he went seven innings. He pitched over 130 innings as a reliever in three different seasons.[19] For their careers, Sutter and Gossage had more saves of at least two innings than saves where they pitched one inning or less. Fingers was the only pitcher who pitched at least three innings in more than 10 percent of his saves.[21] The game evolved to where the best reliever was reserved for games where the team had a lead of three runs or less in the ninth inning.[12] Mariano Rivera, considered one of the greatest closers of all time,[22] earned only one save of seven-plus outs in his career, while Gossage logged 53.[23] "Don't tell me [Rivera's] the best relief pitcher of all-time until he can do the same job I did. He may be the best modern closer, but you have to compare apples to apples. Do what we did", said Gossage.[24]


By relegating Dennis Eckersley to mostly one-inning save situations, manager Tony La Russa (pictured) was instrumental in the development of the modern closer.

ESPN.com writer Jim Caple wrote that closers' saves in the ninth "merely conclude what is usually a foregone conclusion."[19] Dave Smith of Retrosheet researched the seasons 1930–2003 and found that the winning percentage for teams who enter the ninth inning with a lead has remained virtually unchanged over the decades. One-run leads after eight innings have been won roughly 85 percent of the time, two-run leads 94 percent of the time, and three-run leads about 96 percent of the time.[19] Baseball Prospectus projects that teams could gain as much as four extra wins a year by focusing on bringing their ace reliever into the game earlier in more critical situations with runners on base instead of holding them out to accumulate easier ninth inning saves.[25] In The Book: Playing the Percentages in Baseball, Tom Tango et al. wrote that there was more value to having the ace reliever enter in the eighth inning with a one- or a two-run lead instead of the ninth with a three-run lead.[26] "Managers feel the need to please their closers—and their closers' agents—by getting them cheap saves to pad their stats and their bank accounts", wrote Caple.[19] Tango et al. projected that using a great reliever over an average one to start the ninth with a three-run lead resulted in a two percent increase in wins, versus four percent for a two-run lead or six percent for a one-run lead.[27] Former Baltimore Orioles manager Johnny Oates once told Jerome Holtzman, the inventor of the save statistic, that he created the ninth-inning pitcher by inventing the save. Holtzman disagreed, saying it was baseball managers who were responsible for not bringing in their top reliever when the game was on the line, in the seventh or eighth inning, which had been the practice in the past.[28] He noted that managers' usage of closers can "abuse the pitching save ... to favor the closer."[29]

La Russa says it is important that relievers know their roles and the situations which they will be called into a game. He added, "Sure, games can get away from you in the seventh and eighth, but those last three outs in the ninth are the toughest. You want the guy who can handle that pressure. That, to me, is most important."[2] Oakland general manager Billy Beane said there would be too much media criticism if a pitcher other than the closer lost the game in the ninth."[19] Managerial moves are immediately questioned with millions of fans having access to ESPN, the MLB Network, and other cable channels.[30] Former manager Jim Fregosi said managers do not like to be second-guessed.[31] "Even if you know the odds, it's more comfortable being wrong when you go to the closer", said Beane. He noted the incremental increase gained by a closer in a three-run save situation "is worth it because losing is so painful in that situation."[19] Baseball announcer Chris Wheeler noted that there is pressure on managers to pitch closers in the ninth inning when they were paid big money to pitch in that role.[32] Former general manager Pat Gillick said closers become one-inning pitchers as managers began copying the practice of having setup pitchers enter before closers. "There are just too many specialists, guys who can only pitch one inning and only pitch certain innings and throw only 20 pitches. I think most pitchers are capable of pitching more", said Gillick.[33]


La Russa noted that losing clubs risk their closer being under-worked, if they stick to the strategy of saving them for ninth inning situations where the team is ahead.[2] An instance of this was Philadelphia Phillies manager Charlie Manuel, who did not call upon closer Jonathan Papelbon in high leverage situations during the 2012 season, including six games where the score was tied during the late innings, which may have cost the team seven wins by midseason. Jonah Keri suggested "fear of using pitchers in anything but the most predictable circumstances, or simple inertia, closers get used far more often in easy-to-manage, up-two, bases-empty, ninth-inning situations than they do in tie games with runners on and the game actually on the line" and said of Papelbon "unless the Phillies start using him in situations where he’s actually needed, rather than almost exclusively in spots that nearly any pitcher with a pulse can handle successfully 85–90 percent of the time, Papelbon will remain the $200,000 Aston Martin that never leaves the garage".[34][35]

Some critics have noted that the 9th inning closer strategy is illogical during playoff games, especially when the club is facing elimination. During Games 4 and 6 of the 2010 NLCS, each a late-inning situation with the score tied, Phillies manager Charlie Manuel did not call upon closer Brad Lidge and both times the selected relief pitcher surrendered the game-winning run.[36] Similarly in Games 3 and 6 of the 2010 ALCS, each where the New York Yankees were trailing by two runs during a crucial inning, manager Joe Girardi did not go to Mariano Rivera, and both times the chosen relief pitcher gave up several runs which put the game out of reach for the Yankees; ESPN's Matthew Wallace lamented that "Girardi used Rivera in the ninth inning of Game 6, with the Yankees trailing 6–1, their ship long sailed to sea".[37]

Hall of Fame

Eight pitchers who were primarily relievers have been inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. Hoyt Wilhelm was the first to be elected in 1985,[38] followed by Rollie Fingers, Dennis Eckersley, Bruce Sutter, Goose Gossage, Trevor Hoffman, Lee Smith, and Mariano Rivera.[a] Eckersley was the first closer in the one-inning save era to be inducted. He believed that he was inducted because he was both a starter and a reliever.[41] "If I came up today as a closer and played 20 years, would I have made it [into the Hall of Fame]? These pitchers did the job they were supposed to do for 20 years. What else are they supposed to do?" said Eckersley.[42] Rivera was elected in 2019 and was the first player in MLB history to be elected unanimously by the Baseball Writers' Association of America, appearing on all 425 ballots.[43]

Major awards and honors won by closers

Major League Baseball

Award Closer Team Year
Hall of Fame Mariano Rivera New York Yankees 2019
Lee Smith Chicago Cubs
Trevor Hoffman San Diego Padres 2018
Goose Gossage New York Yankees 2008
Bruce Sutter St. Louis Cardinals 2006
Dennis Eckersley Oakland Athletics 2004
Rollie Fingers Oakland Athletics 1992
Hoyt Wilhelm New York Giants 1985
Cy Young Éric Gagné Los Angeles Dodgers 2003 (NL)
Dennis Eckersley * Oakland Athletics 1992 (AL)
Mark Davis San Diego Padres 1989 (NL)
Steve Bedrosian Philadelphia Phillies 1987 (NL)
Willie Hernández * Detroit Tigers 1984 (AL)
Rollie Fingers * Milwaukee Brewers 1981 (AL)
Bruce Sutter Chicago Cubs 1979 (NL)
Sparky Lyle New York Yankees 1977 (AL)
Mike Marshall Los Angeles Dodgers 1974 (NL)
Award Closer Team Year
MVP Dennis Eckersley * Oakland Athletics 1992 (AL)
Willie Hernández * Detroit Tigers 1984 (AL)
Rollie Fingers * Milwaukee Brewers 1981 (AL)
Jim Konstanty Philadelphia Phillies 1950 (NL)
WS MVP Mariano Rivera New York Yankees 1999
John Wetteland New York Yankees 1996
Rollie Fingers Oakland Athletics 1974
Larry Sherry Los Angeles Dodgers 1959
ROY Craig Kimbrel Atlanta Braves 2011 (NL)
Neftalí Feliz Texas Rangers 2010 (AL)
Andrew Bailey Oakland Athletics 2009 (AL)
Huston Street Oakland Athletics 2005 (AL)
Kazuhiro Sasaki Seattle Mariners 2000 (AL)
Scott Williamson Cincinnati Reds 1999 (NL)
Gregg Olson Baltimore Orioles 1989 (AL)
Todd Worrell St. Louis Cardinals 1986 (NL)
Steve Howe Los Angeles Dodgers 1980 (NL)
Butch Metzger San Diego Padres 1976 (NL)
Joe Black Los Angeles Dodgers 1952 (NL)
LCS MVP Koji Uehara Boston Red Sox 2013 (AL)[44]
Andrew Miller Cleveland Indians 2016 (AL)
Mariano Rivera New York Yankees 2003 (AL)
Rob Dibble, Randy Myers Cincinnati Reds 1990 (NL)
Dennis Eckersley Oakland Athletics 1988 (AL)
ASG MVP Mariano Rivera New York Yankees 2013

* Won both the league Cy Young Award and league Most Valuable Player Award in the same year

Nippon Professional Baseball

Award Closer Team Year
Meikyukai Kazuhiro Sasaki Whales/BayStars 2000
Shingo Takatsu Swallows 2003
Hitoki Iwase Dragons 2010
MVP Kazuhiro Sasaki BayStars 1998 (Central)
Genji Kaku Dragons 1988 (Central)
Yutaka Enatsu Fighters 1981 (Pacific)
Yutaka Enatsu Carp 1979 (Central)

See also


  1. ^ Hall of Famer John Smoltz was a closer for four seasons, but is considered to have primarily been a starter.[39][40]


  1. ^ a b Zimniuch 2010, p.169
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Jenkins, Chris (September 25, 2006). "Where's the fire?". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011.
  3. ^ Jack Moore "On the Closer Position: The Save and RP Usage" Fangraphs, December 30, 2009 "On the Closer Position: The Save and RP Usage". December 30, 2009. Archived from the original on January 8, 2010. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  4. ^ Couch, Greg (August 2004). "Last three outs require mental toughness on the part of a closer". Baseball Digest. 63 (8): 54–57. ISSN 0005-609X.
  5. ^ Zimniuch, Fran (2010). Fireman: The Evolution of the Closer in Baseball. Chicago: Triumph Books. p. 143. ISBN 978-1-60078-312-8.
  6. ^ a b Dickson, Paul (2011). The Dickson Baseball Dictionary. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-393-34008-2. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
  7. ^ Morris, Peter (2006). A Game of Inches: The Game on the Field. Ivan R. Dee. p. 318. ISBN 1-56663-677-9.
  8. ^ McNeil 2006, p.53
  9. ^ a b Marchman, Tim (January 11, 2006). "Mr. Sutter Goes To Cooperstown..." The New York Sun. Archived from the original on February 15, 2015. Retrieved December 20, 2011. Pitchers like Goose Gossage and Rollie Fingers were being used largely in save situations while Sutter was still in the minors; Sutter being used almost exclusively that way was an incremental change.
  10. ^ a b Baseball Prospectus Team of Experts (2007). Baseball Between the Numbers: Why Everything You Know About the Game Is Wrong. New York: Basic Books. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-465-00547-5. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
  11. ^ a b Posnanski, Joe (September 14, 2011). "The Meaning of Mariano". SI.com. Archived from the original on January 4, 2012.
  12. ^ a b Baseball Prospectus 2007, p.60
  13. ^ "Should managers play Scrabble with relievers? - MLB - Yahoo Canada Sports". Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
  14. ^ Kornheiser, Tony (February 20, 2017). Pardon the Interruption. ESPN. Tony La Russa changed the game of baseball. Tony La Russa invented the closer with Dennis Eckersley. Handed him the ball the beginning of the ninth—didn't bring him in the eighth, didn't bring him in the seventh—Goose Gossage, 'cause I covered him, pitched a lot of two- or three-inning relief situations. If he got around the lineup once, he got hit the second time. A lot of guys get hit the second time ... They are not comparable positions.
  15. ^ Zimniuch 2010, p.143
  16. ^ a b McNeil, William (2006). The Evolution of Pitching in Major League Baseball. McFarland & Company. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-7864-2468-9. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
  17. ^ Dickson, Paul (1999). The new Dickson baseball dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-15-600580-7. Retrieved February 27, 2011.
  18. ^ Dickson 1999, p.396
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Caple, Jim (August 5, 2008). "The most overrated position in sports". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011.
  20. ^ Zimniuch 2010, pp.xx,81
  21. ^ Schecter, Gabriel (January 18, 2006). "The Evolution of the Closer". National Baseball Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on June 8, 2007. Gossage and Fingers weren't far behind, with Fingers the only pitcher who pitched at least three innings in more than 10% of his saves. Sutter and Gossage had more saves where they logged at least two innings than saves where they pitched an inning or less.
  22. ^ Red, Christian (March 13, 2010). "Modern Yankee Heroes: From humble beginnings, Mariano Rivera becomes the greatest closer in MLB history". Daily News. Archived from the original on March 10, 2012. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  23. ^ Rosen, Charlie (2011). Bullpen Diaries: Mariano Rivera, Bronx Dreams, Pinstripe Legends, and the Future of the New York Yankees. HarperCollins Publishers. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-06-200598-4.
  24. ^ Zimniuch 2010, p.97
  25. ^ Baseball Prospectus 2007, pp.72–73
  26. ^ Tango, Tom; Lichtman, Mitchel; Dolphin, Andrew; Palmer, Pete (2007). The Book: Playing the Percentages in Baseball. Potomac Books Inc. p. 221. ISBN 978-1-59797-129-4.
  27. ^ Tango et al. 2007, pp.215–16
  28. ^ Holtzman, Jerome (May 2002). "Where did save rule come from? Baseball historian recalls how he helped develop statistic that measures reliever's effectiveness". Baseball Digest. Archived from the original on July 8, 2012. Retrieved February 25, 2011. I told him it was the managers who did it, not me. Instead of bringing in their best reliever when the game was on the line, in the seventh or eighth inning, which had been the practice in the past, they saved him for the ninth.
  29. ^ Holtzman, Jerome (June 18, 1989). "Pitching Keeps Cubs Armed And Ready After Getting Past Challenging Stretch". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014.
  30. ^ Zimniuch 2010, pp.72,156
  31. ^ Zimniuch 2010, pp.155–6
  32. ^ Zimniuch 2010, p.161
  33. ^ Zimniuch 2010, pp.166–8
  34. ^ Keri, Jonah (February 11, 2013). "The 15 Worst Contracts in Baseball". grantland.com. Archived from the original on March 20, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
  35. ^ "Crashburn Alley – Not Again!". crashburnalley.com. Archived from the original on March 12, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
  36. ^ "Giants just good enough, which is plenty - SweetSpot- ESPN". October 24, 2010. Archived from the original on March 12, 2016. Retrieved March 11, 2016.]["2010 NLCS: San Francisco Giants vs. Philadelphia Phillies - MLB Playoffs - ESPN". Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
  37. ^ "Matthews: Girardi sank season in fifth inning". ESPN.com. October 23, 2010. Archived from the original on October 6, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
  38. ^ Lueck, Thomas J. (August 25, 2002). "Hoyt Wilhelm, First Reliever in the Hall of Fame, Dies". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 25, 2018. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  39. ^ "Hall focus next year turns to Ken Griffey Jr., Trevor Hoffman and Billy Wagner". Boston Herald. Associated Press. January 7, 2015. Archived from the original on January 10, 2015. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
  40. ^ Sarris, Eno (January 7, 2015). "John Smoltz: Two Half Hall of Famers". Fangraphs.com. Archived from the original on January 9, 2015. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
  41. ^ Zimniuch 2010, p.227
  42. ^ Zimniuch 2010, p.229
  43. ^ Schoenfield, David (January 22, 2019). "Mariano Rivera, Edgar Martinez, Roy Halladay and Mike Mussina joining Hall of Fame". ESPN.com. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
  44. ^ "Boston Red Sox closer Koji Uehara nets ALCS MVP honors". MLB.com. Archived from the original on July 3, 2014. Retrieved May 7, 2018.